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November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-1 Chapter 12: Design Principles Overview Principles –Least Privilege –Fail-Safe Defaults –Economy of Mechanism –Complete Mediation –Open Design –Separation of Privilege –Least Common Mechanism –Psychological Acceptability
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-2 Overview Simplicity –Less to go wrong –Fewer possible inconsistencies –Easy to understand Restriction –Minimize access –Inhibit communication
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-3 Least Privilege A subject should be given only those privileges necessary to complete its task –Function, not identity, controls –Rights added as needed, discarded after use –Minimal protection domain
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-4 Fail-Safe Defaults Default action is to deny access If action fails, system as secure as when action began
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-5 Economy of Mechanism Keep it as simple as possible –KISS Principle Simpler means less can go wrong –And when errors occur, they are easier to understand and fix Interfaces and interactions
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-6 Complete Mediation Check every access Usually done once, on first action –UNIX: access checked on open, not checked thereafter If permissions change after, may get unauthorized access
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-7 Open Design Security should not depend on secrecy of design or implementation –Popularly misunderstood to mean that source code should be public –“Security through obscurity” –Does not apply to information such as passwords or cryptographic keys
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-8 Separation of Privilege Require multiple conditions to grant privilege –Separation of duty –Defense in depth
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-9 Least Common Mechanism Mechanisms should not be shared –Information can flow along shared channels –Covert channels Isolation –Virtual machines –Sandboxes
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-10 Psychological Acceptability Security mechanisms should not add to difficulty of accessing resource –Hide complexity introduced by security mechanisms –Ease of installation, configuration, use –Human factors critical here
November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #12-11 Key Points Principles of secure design underlie all security-related mechanisms Require: –Good understanding of goal of mechanism and environment in which it is to be used –Careful analysis and design –Careful implementation
June 1, 2004Computer Security: Art and Science © Matt Bishop Slide #13-1 Chapter 13: Design Principles Overview Principles –Least Privilege –Fail-Safe.
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Secure Design Principles secure the weakest link reduce the attack surface practice defense in depth minimize privilege compartmentalize fail.
Software Security II Karl Lieberherr. What is Security Enforcing a policy that describes rules for accessing resources. Policy may be explicit or implicit.
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November 1, 2004Introduction to Computer Security ©2004 Matt Bishop Slide #17-1 Chapter 17: Introduction to Assurance Overview Why assurance? Trust and.
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