2 Functions of Simple Present : 1. To state habitual action).You go to the market everydayMy father goes to the office from Monday until Friday
3 Simple Present 2. To state general truth. A dog has four legs A dog has four legsThere are seven days in one week
4 3. To state frequency of an event Characteristic: accompanied by adverb of frequency (kata keterangan tentang seberapa sering suatu tindakan dilakukan).Tabel berikut ini menunjukkan seberapa sering suatu kejadian terjadi mulai dari tingkatan selalu dilakukan (always), biasanya (usually), sering (often), kadang-kadang (sometimes), jarang (rarely/seldom) sampai tidak pernah (never).
5 Adverbs of frequencyAlways %UsuallyOftenSometimesRarely/SeldomNever %
6 Perhatikan!Adverb of frequency harus diletakkan sebelum kata kerja. Jika ada to be, maka adverb diletakkan setelah to be.Contoh:I always take a pray five times a day (Saya selalu sholat lima kali sehari)We never eat pork ( Kami tidak pernah makan daging babi)My brother is usually kind to all people ( Kakakku biasanya baik kepada semua orang) .
7 Functions of Present Continous 1. To state an event that is happening at the moment. Usually marked by adverbial phrase : right now, at the moment, currently dll.2. To state an event that is happening in certain period .3. To state the arrangement in the future.
8 Function of Simple Past 1. To state an event that happened in the past. Contoh:My boyfriend graduated from UI four years agoMy mother went to the ITC Mangga tiga two days ago
9 2. To state two events that happened in the past 2. To state two events that happened in the past. The two events are joined by the word when .Contoh:I opened the door when I heard someone knockedShe did her homework when her father got home
10 Function of Present Perfect 1. To state an event that happened in the past but still related to the present and the exact time is not mentioned.He has sent a letter to me (Dia telah mengirimkan sepucuk surat kepadaku).
11 They’ve just (have just) finished playing basketball 2. To state recent events.They’ve just (have just) finished playing basketball3. To state experiences.I’ve ever gone to Netherland4. To state an event that has happened once or few times. It can also used to state an event that never happens.We’ve had (have had) three tests so far
12 Exercise 1 p. 103 1. suffers, tends 2. are currently investigating 3. is awarded4. is fiercely opposed, is officially executed5. causes, has, are6. was suddenly attacked, were working, were trapped7. has not yet been determined, blocks, resupply8. discovered, believed, existed, was formed, was discovered, were identified, pushed, previously thought.
13 Exercise 1 ppAndre comes from Brazil and is a native speaker of Portuguese. Currently, he is studying English at the university of Colorado. He is taking two courses: composition and American culture.One of my most important in-groups is my church group. Right now, we are providing lunches for homeless people in the city park. Also, some of us are tutoring junior high students in math and English for the summer. Others in my group are spending part of the summer doing volunteer work at senior citizen centers. We all feel that we gain a great deal ourselves by participating in these activities.
14 3. Next summer, our family is having a reunion during the July 4th holiday weekend. My uncle from Finland is trying to come, but he is starting a new business this year so it is difficult for him to get away. Another uncle is spending the whole summer with us. He is working at my mother’s travel agency from June through august. 4. For many immigrants to the United States, their ethnic associations remain important in-groups long after they have left their home countries. Even while they are learning a new language, many are looking to speakers of their native language as an in-group that understands their struggles to adapt to a new way of life.
15 Exercise 3 ppAlfredo joined the Friends of the Theatre in his community five years ago and has been an active participant in this group ever since. It remains one of his favourite spare time activities eventhough he stopped trying out for roles in the plays last year because he was too busy. As a member, he helps promote the plays. At times, he looks for costumes for the actors. For last month’s play, he worked with the props crew to get furniture and other props for the stage sets. He found an antique desk to use for one of the sets, and he also made a fireplace. Most recently, he has tried to get more business to advertise in the paybills.
16 Exercise 4 pp. 106Ines considers her neighbourhood in East Los Angeles to be one of her most important in-groups. She has lived in this neighbourhood since birth, and she knows almost everyone in it. Most of the people in the neighbourhood are from Mexico , but some are from Central American countries. Mr. Hernandez who lives nextdoor to Ines, always insists that he has lived the longest time in the neighbourhood. However, Mrs. Chavez, whom everyone calls “Tia” usually tells him to stop spreading tales. Mrs. Chavez claims that she has been around longer than anyone. Ines watches many of the children younger than herself grow up, and she often thinks, that is. Just as her older neighbours have done for her, she now is helping her younger neighbours keep out of trouble and giving them advice.
17 PASSIVE S + BE + V3 + by + Agent Simple Present Tense: S + is / am/ are + V3Step to change active tense to passive:1. Object becomes subject2. After Subject, put to be3. After to be, put V3.4. Add by + agent
18 I ignore him1. I becomes He2. He + is3. He + is + ignored4. So, the passive sentence:He is ignored by me.
19 TensesActivePassiveSimpleContinous/ProgressivePerfectPerfect continousS + V + OI see herS + to be + Ving + OI’m seeing herS + aux + V3 + OI have seen herS + aux + been +Ving + OI have been seeing herS + to be + V3She is seen (by me)S + to be + being + V3She is being seen (by me)S + aux + been + V3She has been seen (by me)S + aux + been+ being + V3She has been being seen (by me)
20 Exercise 1 p. 108 Trees are used by beavers to build dams. The employees’ request for a raise in salary was ignored by the supervisor.Two quizzes have been taken by the students since the beginning of this term.An announcement about sick leave will be made by the manager next week.The medical insurance forms must be sent by the patient to the insurance company.
21 6. The machinery is checked five times by the people before it is put in a box for shipping. 7. The scholarships were given by the school to many students from low-income families. 8. Hey! Your car is being towed by the police! 9. The old book was given by the museum to the university. 10. The weeds on the hill are going to be cut down down by someone tomorrow.
22 Exercise 2 p. 109 Alumunium is produced from bauxite. The first locomotive were powered by steam.Hundreds of people have been killed because of storms this winter.A lot of coffee is grown in South America.The solar system was formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago.The brain chemical that regulates growth has been recently synthesized.
23 7. The next space module will be sent to Venus. 8 7. The next space module will be sent to Venus. 8. The pores in a leaf are called stomata. 9. Microcomputers will be used more and more in the future. 10. A pound of potatoes is needed for the experiment.
24 Exercise 1 p.110The age of pyramid building in Egypt began about 2900 B.C. The Great pyramids are intended to serve as burial places for the Pharaohs, as the kings of Egypt are called. Construction on the largest pyramid was started around 2800 B.C for Khufu, the King of the Fourth Dynasty, or Cheops, as he is referred to by Greek historians. It is 482 feet high and 755 feet long. The Pyramids as a group comprises one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The other Six Wonders no longer stand, and modern archaelogists know of them only through the descriptions that were written at the time they still existed.
25 Exercise 2 pp1. Easy loans are provided by the World Bank to developing countries in need of funds for economic development 2. The quality of goods for exports has to be improved by the producers in order to penetrate increasingly competitive world markets. 3. A larger parking site has to be provided by Bank Prima for the growing number of customers. 4. The value of textile exports dropped significantly last year because quota systems had been implemented by certain buying countries.
26 5. The project proposals are being examined by the government officials before a particular contractor is selected. 6. Companies need to be managed professionally as big problems may be created by poor management. 7. A new, advanced reservation system has been developed by the Indonesian Hotel Association to accommodate the increasing number of tourists, and it will be implemented by the hotel early next year.
27 8. The quality control is being intensified by our company to meet increasingly tough competition in the global market. 9. Some rivers are badly polluted because strict measures has not been takenn by the government against factories dumping unprocessed wastes into rivers. 10. Last year, a memorandum of cooperation was signed by Australia and Indonesia after 59 cases related to violations of air traffic regulation were recorded by them.
28 11. A slight adjustment to the data has to be made by the senior researcher before they can be processed by the computer. 12. All of the data are being analyzed by the managers before a proposal can be submitted by them for business expansion.