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Welcome to Forensics Mr. Rizzo What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. The transfer of scientific techniques to aid.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Forensics Mr. Rizzo What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. The transfer of scientific techniques to aid."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to Forensics Mr. Rizzo

3 What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

4 When is forensics Science used? ? To solve any problem whether criminal or historical in nature.

5 What is Evidence? Must be relevant to the case at hand. Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue. Probative evidence: tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation

6 Forensic Evidence? IT IS NOT CSI…. Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.

7 Hieronymus Bosch an eccentric Dutch painter of religious visions who dealt in particular with the torments of hell.

8 St. John on Patmos, approx Make three observations:

9 St. Christopher Carrying the Christ Child through a Sinful World, Bosch, c1520

10 Temptation of St Anthony

11 Temptation of St Anthony (Detail)

12 Hieronymus Bosch Madman or Medical Analyst So we dig deeper and find that amputated limbs were saved during Bosch's time so they might be rejoined to their owners at the last judgment. Amputation is a gangrenous prevention The odd vegetable creature is painted in the shape of a mandrake root. Mandrake was the herb used to stanch the feverish pains of St. Anthony's Fire. The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.

13 As a Forensic Scientist what are some questions you would ask? Does he have any diagnosis medical or psychological conditions? Apocalyptic personality? What was also happening at that time?

14 Historians Know: What can be going on at that time? St. Anthony's Fire was rampant. fiery pain, hallucinations, disorientation, muscle cramps, convulsions, miscarriages, *gangrene Today we know that St. Anthony's Fire was caused by a form of Rye/grain fungus called ergot.

15 St. Anthonys Fire: Ergot *Ergot of rye is produced by a lower fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that grows parasitically on rye, other grains and wild grasses.

16 Structural Analysis ergotamine Lysergic Acid

17 Serotonin Blocker? Serotonin (on the left) and Lysergic Acid ( on the right) *Serotonin is known to control mood, emotion, sleep and appetite

18 Structural Analysis Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Lysergic Acid (LSD)

19 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) LSD is one of the most powerful known hallucinogenic drugs. LSD It was invented in 1938, derived from mushrooms. SO WHO CARES?

20 Hieronymus Bosch Madman or Medical Analyst Bosch's Paintings actually documented beliefs and medical procedures used to assist with St. Anthonys Fire. Amputation is a gangrenous prevention odd vegetable creatures= mandrake root The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.

21 Ergot in history Furthermore, since ergot baked in bread dough forms LSD, the disease also led to terrifying hallucinations Indeed there is the belief that the Salem witch-hangings that went on in Salem, Massachusetts (1692) occurred during an outbreak of rye ergot.

22 Salem Witch trials ( June -September of 1692) 19 men and women were convicted of witchcraft and hung 100s of others faced accusations of witchcraft. Dozens languished in jails. 1 man was pressed to death under heavy stones

23 Salem witch trials (1692) According to historian Mary Matossian in her book Poisons of the Past, she noted symptoms of the people to be sensations of: – Prickling or ants crawling on the skin – Distortions of the face – Paralysis – Hallucinations – Convulsive violent seizures – Dementia All these symptoms were consistent with those suffering from ergotism.

24 9/4 Do Now: Please get out and be ready to submit: – Your Contract – Student Information

25 Identify at least six specific forensic units used to examine Senator Daschles letter.

26 Senator Daschle

27 What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

28 Evidence? Must be relevant to the case at hand Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue Probative evidence: tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation

29 Forensic Evidence? Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.

30 Forensics incorporates the use of many sciences: Biology Physiology, Odontology, Pathology Chemistry Spectrophotometry, Thin layer Chromatography Physics Friction, Ballistics, trajectory and motion Geology Archeology, Mineralogy

31 Forensics from L. forensis "of a forum, place of assembly," from forum. Used in sense of "pertaining to legal trials," as in forensic medicine (1845).

32 I. Introduction What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena. The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process. The use of science and technology to provide evidence.

33 II. History and Development Major Scientists: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ( ) influences? Sherlock Holmes 1887: *Used fingerprinting, firearms identification, serology, *Used a scientific method of detection

34 Timeframe: 10 minutes Affiliations from Court TV s.html s.html

35 II. History and Development II. History and Development Major Scientists: Mathieu Orfila: 1814 father of forensic toxicology. Alphonse Bertillon: 1879 father of Criminal Identification -developed Anthropometry: a series of body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another. -Used for two decades and was later replaced by fingerprinting. Forensic Timeline

36 II. History and Development Francis Galton: 1892 the first finger printer – Undertook the study, classification and filing of fingerprints. DR Karl Landsteiner: 1901 (4) blood types Leone Lattes: 1915 developed a method of determining a blood type form a dried sample.

37 II. History Calvin Goddard: analyzed Firearms and refined bullet Identification by using a Comparison microscope.

38 II. History and Development Albert Osborn: 1910 developed the reference text for document examiners. Walter C. McCrone: applied analytical problem solving techniques in solving forensic science cases by using microscopy. – Highly sought after and leading instructor that educated thousands in application microscopy.

39 II. History and Development 1893 Hans Gross: wrote one of the first comprehensive forensics texts applying the uses of many scientific disciplines.

40 II. History Edmond Locard: Edmond Locard: – 1910: one of the first site based forensic labs. – Founder of Institue of Crimminalistsics at the universiy of Lyons Developed Locards Exchange Principle Developed Locards Exchange Principle

41 What is Locardss Exchange Principle?

42 II. History Locards Exchange Principle: Locards Exchange Principle: The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another.

43 II. History Locards Exchange Principle: Locards Exchange Principle: The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another. First major case: Counterfeit coins Analyzed metallic particles found in clothing, same as the counterfeit coins

44 FBI lab 1932, the FBI under J. Edger Hoover 1932, the FBI under J. Edger Hoover organized a national laboratory that aimed to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the country. *at no expense*

45 FBI lab One of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world. Formed the FBIs Forensics Science research and Training Center in 1981

46 FBI lab Laboratory examiners provide expert witness testimony: In cases regarding the results of forensic examination Special Agent and support personnel assist domestic and international law enforcement agencies in large-scale investigations and disasters

47 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory Why Why are their so many new lab? Increase in Drug analysis and DNA profiling: Bloodstains, semen stains, hair and saliva residue, bite marks,

48 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory Rapid growth yet lack of national and regional planning? Rapid growth yet lack of national and regional planning? 320 Public crime labs 320 Public crime labs Federal, state, county, municipal Federal, state, county, municipal Most placed under police dep. Most placed under police dep. Prosecutors/district attorney Prosecutors/district attorney Medical examiner or coroner Medical examiner or coroner

49 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory NO single law enforcement or investigative agency with unlimited jurisdiction so four major labs were set up: NO single law enforcement or investigative agency with unlimited jurisdiction so four major labs were set up: FBI FBI Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives US Postal Inspection Service US Postal Inspection Service

50 Senator Daschle

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52 New York Post

53 Identify at least six specific forensic units used to examine Senator Daschles letter.

54 III. Organization Some states have developed a comprehensive STATEWIDE system of regional/satellites laboratories. Some states have developed a comprehensive STATEWIDE system of regional/satellites laboratories. Alabama, California Illinois Michigan New Jersey Texas Washington Oregon Virginia Florida Many of the larger cities also have their own crime labs. New York

55 IV. Services of the Crime Lab Basic services

56 Basic Full service – 1 Physical Science Unit – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Optional Services – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Please identify the the various Services provided by Crime Labs

57 Basic Full service 1. Physical Science Unit 2. Biology Unit 3. Firearms Unit 4. Document Examination Unit 5. Photography Unit Optional Services 1. Toxicology Unit 2. Latent Fingerprint Unit 3. Polygraph Unit 4. Voiceprint Analysis Unit 5. Evidence-Collection Unit IV. Services of the Crime Lab

58 Basic Services: Physical Science Unit Uses chemistry, physics and geology for: – Drug identification – Soil and mineral Identification – Examination of physical evidence

59 Basic Services: Biology Unit Biologists and Biochemists are used for: Biologists and Biochemists are used for: – DNA identification and profiling of dried blood and other body fluids – The comparison of hairs and fibers – The comparison of Botanicals

60 Basic Services: Firearms Unit Examination of: – Firearms and their discharged bullets – cartridge cases and shotgun shells Garments and objects examined to determine type of gun and position of shooter. And the comparison of marks made by tools

61 Firearms Unit Close Contact Gunshot Wound ACP close range wound with powder burns. Close Contact Gunshot Wound - muzzle flash injury from a M14 fitted with a flash suppressor

62 Firearms Unit position of the shooter!! Historical case

63 Basic Services: Document Examination Unit Ascertain documents authenticity Analysis of: handwriting and typewriting – ink and paper – Visible depressions – Obliterations – Erasures – Burned and charred documents

64 Basic Services: Photography Unit A complete photographic laboratory is maintained to examine and record physical evidence. – May use: digital imaging, infrared, Ultraviolet and x-ray photography techniques Aids in court case photographic exhibits for court presentations

65 Optional Services: Toxicology Unit Studies bodily fluids and organs to determine presence or absence of drugs and poisons. – Blood -alcohol

66 In your notes, Briefly discuss how and why a Psychic Detective – Could be justified, – Should be excluded as an expert witness in a court of law COURT TV

67 Optional Services:Latent Fingerprint Unit Processing and examining evidence for *latent fingerprints. – Prints made by the deposit of oils and/perspiration/ It is invisible to the naked eye.

68 Optional Services: Polygraph Unit AKA lie detector :an instrument that simultaneously records changes in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and respiration. The underlying theory of the polygraph is that when people lie they also get measurably nervous about lying. The heartbeat increases, blood pressure goes up, breathing rhythms change, perspiration increases, etc.

69 Optional Services: Voice Print Analysis Unit Use sound *spectrograph to identify voices – Telephoned threats – Taped recorded messages – Even basic identity *transforms speech into a visual graphic display, called a voiceprint.

70 Voice SCREAM Analysis Unit????

71 Optional Services: Evidence-collection Unit Collects and preserves physical evidence that will later be processed at the crime lab. Many officers also being train in the proper collection of evidence.

72 Other Forensic Services: Forensic Pathology Investigation of sudden, violent or unexplained deaths Usually preformed by a coroner Questions sought to answer: – Who is the victim – What injuries are present – When did the injuries occur – Why and how were the injuries produced

73 Forensic Pathology *A trajectory analysis of JFK's inshoot/outshoot head wounds, *Shows an inconsistency with the HSCA trajectory conclusions.

74 Forensic Pathology Autopsy performed to establish cause of death. Classifications of Death *Natural *Homicide *Suicide *Accident *Undetermined

75 HW: Research and Identify How investigators estimate time of death..

76 Forensic Pathology 9 Ways of Estimating Actual Time of Death: 1.Rigor mortis 2. Livor mortis: (Lividity) 3. Algor mortis: Body Core Temperature 4. Potassium levels in vitreous humor + Clouding of the cornea 5. Stomach Contents 6. Evidence of Decompositional Process 7. Presence/absence of purge fluids 8. Drying of the tissue 9. Larval Instars

77 Forensic Pathology Estimating Time of Death Estimating Time of Death Rigor mortis 1. Rigor mortis: (L: rig- stiff; mortisdeath) * Muscles become rigid ** W/I 24 hours but gone after 36 hours The biochemical cause of rigor mortis is hydrolysis of ATP in the muscle tissue, the chemical energy source required for movement. Myosin molecules devoid of ATP become permanently adherent to actin filaments and muscles become rigid.

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79 With the aid of an electron microscope it can be seen that each muscle fiber is made up of many smaller units, the myofibrils. Each myofibril consists of small protein filaments, known as actin and myosin filaments. The myosin filaments are slightly thicker and make up the dark band (or A-band). The actin filaments make up the light bands (I-bands) which are situated on either side of the dark band. The actin filaments are attached to the Z- line. This arrangement of actin and myosin filaments is known as a sacromere.

80 With the aid of an electron microscope it can be seen that each muscle fibre is made up of many smaller units, the myofibrils. Each myofibril consists of small protein filaments, known as actin and myosin filaments. The myosin filaments are slightly thicker and make up the dark band (or A-band). The actin filaments make up the light bands (I-bands) which are situated on either side of the dark band. The actin filaments are attached to the Z-line. This arrangement of actin and myosin filaments is known as a sacromere.

81 or ) or (postmortem lividity) : (L: liv-bluish) * Is a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body ** Causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin. *** Discoloration does not occur in the areas of the body that are in contact with the ground or another object, 2. Livor mortis

82 * the reduction in body temperature following death. ** a steady decline until matching ambient temperature *** A measured rectal temperature can give some indication of the time of death. The Glaister equation: 1-1 1/2 degree F per hour Algor mortis is usually the first sign of death, beyond the obvious, and is then followed by rigor mortis. As decomposition occurs the internal body temperature tends to rise again. Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of cooling of a body is determined by the difference between the temperature of the body and that of its environment.Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of cooling of a body is determined by the difference between the temperature of the body and that of its environment. Algor mortis 3. Algor mortis (L: algorcoolness; ath)

83 4. Potassium levels in vitreous humor (ocular fluid) – after death, cells lining the inner surface of the eye release potassium into the ocular fluid, by testing at regular intervals, the forensic pathologist can determine the rate of potassium release and use that to approximate the time of death. 5. Amount of food found in the victim's stomach can be used to determine when the last meal was consumed and rates of digestion are known and are used to help estimate time of death.

84 What is an Expert witness? An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson

85 What MAKES an Expert witness? Competency may be established: – Educational degrees – Formal training/ specific course work – Memberships – publications

86 Court Cases involving use of forensics in Judicial proceedings. Frey v. United States Rule 702 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, inc Kumho Tire Co v. Carmichael.

87 Frey v. United States, (D.C. Cir. 1923) Depends on general acceptance by ameaningful segment of the scientific community Decision of admission of PROCEDURES, TECHNIQUES AND PRINCIPLES. In practice, this approach required the proponent of a scientific test to present to the court a collection of experts who can testify that the procedure IS accepted by the relevant members of the community.

88 Frey v. United States IS He accepted by the relevant members of the community. So the standard is only as useful as the validity of the community.

89 Rule 702, ( 1937) Rule 702 provides: The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert bases an opinion or inference may be those perceived by or made known to the expert at or before the hearing. If of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field in forming opinion or inferences upon the subject, the facts or data need not be admissible in evidence in order for the opinion or inference to be admitted.

90 Rule 702 A more flexible standard that did not rely on General Acceptance Technical and specialized knowledge will assist the fact to understand evidence. Witness qualified by knowledge, skill, experience, training/education is – 1. testimony is based on fact – 2.testimony is the product of reliable principles+ methods – 3.the witness applied the principles + methods reliably to the facts of the case.

91 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, inc Frye standard not absolute!! Trial judges assume the must assume the ultimate responsibility as the: Gatekeeper!!!! Has it attracted widespread acceptance Principles must be 1.Tested 2.Peer reviewed 3.Low Percent error 4.Have a set techniques, maintenance and standard controls 5.Be Accepted within a relevant scientific community.

92 Kumko Tire v. Carmichael Good for scientific testimony and to all expert testimony. Supported Daubert decision of admission of Procedures, techniques and principles, BUT also extended gatekeeper responsibilities as to the admissibility of EXPERT TESTOMONY. Technical and other specialized knowledge

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94 Finis!


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