Which of the following represent a decline in state sovereignty? u The U.S. outsourcing of force protection in Iraq? u Lobbyists u Madrassas in Pakistan u The European Union u The International Court of Justice
Who are the movers and shakers? Increasing democratization has changed the way people make changes. Globalization has changed the way states project power. The Information age has changed the way people get information for decision-makering. Which brings us to …
Converging trends “ I felt that on the first night, the power should have gone off, and major bridges around Belgrade should have gone into the Danube, and the water should be cut off so that the next morning the leading citizens of Belgrade would have got up and asked, ‘ Why are we doing this? ’ and asked Milosevic the same question. ” Lt. General Michael C. Short, commander of the United States air war in Kosovo
Four Generations of Warfare 1 – Line and column: an orderly military for an orderly battlefield; the State monopolizes warfare. (~1648 – ~1860) 2 – Massed firepower: “ The artillery conquers, the infantry occupies. ” (France, WWI) Attrition is the basic strategy. 3 – Maneuver: “ Instead of close with and destroy, bypass and collapse. ” (Germany, WWI) 4 – Asymmetric warfare: The monopoly ends. “ State militaries are fighting non-state entities worldwide — and almost everywhere, the state is losing. ”
The messages of 4GW combat The primary audience addressed by a 4GW force is its home front; its goal is to preserve and increase its power, influence, and public support. Its messages … u Define roles: The enemy is evil; we are your loyal, steadfast, virtuous, brave, and true defenders. Lower expectations: But we are physically weak, so don ’ t blame us if you get bombed. u Boost morale: We are spiritually and morally strong, so we will go on fighting and the enemy will ultimately be defeated.
Warfare is just getting there, Terrorism was there all along … Terrorism as means of achieving — or at least calling attention to — political aims is yet another example of how the focus of war has shifted toward civilian populations. The aim of terrorism is not to destroy the enemy ’ s armed might, but to undermine his will to fight. The terrorist seeks to disrupt the daily life of his target population by striking at the most vulnerable points in that society. Such vulnerable areas included transportation networks and public events, which insure good media coverage. By hitting the citizen just where he thinks he is safest, the terrorist causes the greatest confusion and loss of morale.