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VEGETABLE PRIORITY SPECIES, CURRENT PRACTICES AND SPECIES MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM By Gerhard Manurung, James Roshetko, Nuri Nurlaila.

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Presentation on theme: "VEGETABLE PRIORITY SPECIES, CURRENT PRACTICES AND SPECIES MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM By Gerhard Manurung, James Roshetko, Nuri Nurlaila."— Presentation transcript:

1 VEGETABLE PRIORITY SPECIES, CURRENT PRACTICES AND SPECIES MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM By Gerhard Manurung, James Roshetko, Nuri Nurlaila and Novi Astutiningsih

2 Rank perennial and annual vegetable species on specific criteria (important characteristics and adoptions improvement) Determine management of species (how the trees compatible with the vegetables? – shade versus open ground) Value the products of selected the species to the household and market demand Objectives

3 Methods Field Observation in 3 villages (Parakan Muncang, Sukaluyu and Hambaro) in Nanggung Subdistrict Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tool (Franzel et al, 1996) Each FGD consists of 6-8 farmers (at least 30% women) with 2 replications in each village

4 Findings There are 28 vegetable priority species (annual and perennial) Priority vegetable species: - potential to improve farmers income (by their important characteristics), - having varieties with high price, - fulfill market and household demand, and - farmers possess basic cultivating knowledge-skills Four of vegetable species are spices species: ginger, curcuma, galangal, and lemongrass Parkia, gnetum, jackfruit, and jering are the tree vegetable species

5 Priority rank Vegetable species 1Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller), long-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), bawang daun (Allium fistulosum L), kucai (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel ) 2Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.), jengkol (Archidendron jiringa Nielsen), caisim (Brassica rapa L.), chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), talas (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott), corn (Zea mays L.), kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), serai (Cymbopogon sp.) 3Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), spinach (Amaranthus sp. L.), katuk (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merrill), melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.), kunyit (Curcuma domestica Valeton), lengkuas (Languas galanga Stuntz), kacang kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), labu siam (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz), kacang tanah (Arachis hypogea (L.) Merr.), pare (Momordica charabtia L.), oyong (Luffa sp. P. Miller)

6 Important characteristic of veg. species Level of genetic variability Germplasm availability Knowledge base Speed of reproduction Potential for improvement

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8 Potential adoptions improvement of vegetable species Ease of establishment Short time to maturity Pest/disease/weed resistance Adaptability across region Compatibility with crops Coppicing/pruning ability Commercial potential Production of planting material Use in different niches on farm

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10 Transplant wildlings Retain or protect wildlings Plant high quality seeds Plant high quality seedlings Farmers’ efforts on the availability of planting material

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12 Main source of planting materials Seed products (market) Neighbors’ garden (selected) Agriculture extension officer Nursery practices Owns’ garden (selected)

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14 Current management practices Two types of growing system: Two annual vegetables were planted in the same area and same time, exp: long-bean and kidney- bean. Limited accessibility and information Four annual vegetables were planted in the same area with different planting time (seasonal – regularly following cycle), exp: long-bean – cucumber – kidney-bean – maize. Market demand and soil conservation

15 Pest-disease situation Main 10 pests that attack vegetable priority species: lundi, grasshopper, red ant, black ant, catterpillar, wereng, bug flea, termites, walang sangit, and snail To control the pest that attacks root system, farmers use pesticide called “furadan” To control the pest that attacks shoot system, farmers use sprayed pesticide called “ripcord” Farmers limited access on knowledge and skills for pesticide doses and time applications

16 Problems in Vegetable Agroforestry System (VAF) High competition for water and nutrition between annual crops and trees decrease annual crops production Tree canopy shading reduce light intensity for annual crops Trees can be a host for several vegetables’ pests and diseases Rainfall that collected by tree canopy can fall and damage annual crops

17 Light intensity levels under tree canopy High light intensity level: sengon tree (Paraserienthes falcataria), petai tree (Parkia speciosa), and suren tree (Toona sureni) Medium light intensity level: african wood tree (Maesopsis eminii), suren tree, durian tree (Durio zibethinus), jengkol tree (Pithecellobium jiringa) Low light intensity level: duku tree (Lansium domesticum), durian tree, mangga tree (Mangifera indica), mangosteen tree (Garcinia mangostana), jengkol tree, bamboos, mahoni tree (Swietenia macrophylla), rambutan tree (Nephelium lappaceum), kweni tree (Mangifera odorata)

18 Grow and production performances of annual vegetable under tree canopy Long-bean, kidney-bean, chinese mustard, onion- leaf, cucumber, tomato, maize, spinach, soybeans, eggplant, and kangkong have low until to very low grow and production under the 3 tree light levels Chilli, katuk, bitter gourd, oyong, and lemongrass have medium grow and production under the 3 tree light levels The grow and production levels of alpine galangal, kucai, ginger, and turmeric will decrease in a row with decreasing of tree light levels.

19 5%-20% of products were used to fulfill the subsistance need (medium to low qualities) 80%-90% of products were sold to market (good to medium qualities) ≤5% of products were used as the germplasm source (good quality) Harvesting, selecting, washing or packing are the handling practices of products Vegetable product and handling

20 Production dan marketing situations Marketing of products are carried out in 2 ways (wholesale and retail) Retail: if the production scale is small and only sold to market in the surrounding area (nearby shop/neighbors) Wholesale: if the production scale is large; the sale is done either directly by the farmers (in traditional markets) or through a local collector (tengkulak) The sale destination depends on the distance of the villages to the market Leuwiliang, Nanggung, Jasinga, and Bogor markets are the common sale destination

21 The difference in sale destinations indirectly affects the price of vegetable products for every farmer group There are three price tendencies according to the time of season (beginning, middle, and end), which are : increasing (for farmer groups in Parakan Muncang) stable (for farmer groups in Hambaro) decreasing (for farmer groups in Sukaluyu)

22 Thank you


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