Presentation on theme: "Emotion Why do we have emotion? Emotions enhance our survival Focus our attention Energize our behavior."— Presentation transcript:
Emotion Why do we have emotion? Emotions enhance our survival Focus our attention Energize our behavior
Emotion involves: Physiological arousal (fight or flight) Cognitive interpretation (the conscious and unconscious recognition of a situation Subjective feelings (memories and the brain realizing the bodies arousal) Behavioral expression (facial expressions)
Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory of Emotion Emotion FOLLOWS your bodys response Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion Physiological arousal and our emotional response happen SIMULTANEOUSLY EX. Your heart starts pounding as you experience fear; one doesnt cause the other Schachter Two-Factor Theory All emotions are similar (like Cannon-Bard); our emotional experience stems from awareness of our bodys aroused state (like James-Lange) but also has COGNITION as a role in emotion
Misattribution Where we attribute emotion to an incorrect stimulus Ex. Going through a dangerous situation and attributing the heightened arousal to a person instead of the event Cognitive appraisal theory Where after an event has occurred we make a decision on how we should feel
Theories of Emotion
Remember the Divisions of the Nervous System??? Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System
Nervous System and Emotion Sympathetic Nervous system ALERTS; directs your adrenal glands atop your kidneys to release stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine Elevating respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate Parasympathetic Nervous system CALMS; inhibits the release of stress hormones
Emotion and YOUR BODY
Arousal and Performance We perform BEST when we are moderately aroused But the level of arousal varies for different tasks Students who are HYPERAROUSED usually perform more POORLY than those who are moderately aroused and confident PREPARING and RELAXING before an exam enables students to perform better this is why its important NOT to cram before an exam When you cram you force yourself into a hyperaroused state (nervousness) sabotaging your performance When youre prepared youre able to relax because you KNOW the information
Cognition and Emotion Our brains react to vast amounts of information WITHOUT conscious awareness Hearing something rustling in the bushes we respond without knowing what was in the bushes Simple emotions such as likes, dislikes, and fears can involve no conscious thinking More complex emotions such as depression, love and jealousy involve expectations, memories and interpretations ie cognition
Nonverbal Communication Most humans are better at detecting nonverbal THREATS than other emotions We read FEAR and ANGER from the eyes HAPPINESS from the mouth Introverts are better at reading others emotions, although extroverts are easier to read Abused children are quicker than other children to see anger
A Womans intuition Women are superior at spotting lies Women generally are better at reading emotional cues as well Women are more adept at describing emotions in greater depth and detail Women are more likely to describe themselves as empathic or having empathy for others (identify emotionally what others feel; cry when others cry, rejoice when they rejoice) Men are more adept at identifying and conveying ANGER
Detecting Emotion Most of us find it difficult to detect when someone is lying 54% accuracy rate Training people (CIA, police, psychologists) to detect liars is an equally daunting task with most trained professionals being only 67-73% correct Our brains detect subtle hints to indicate emotion Tone gestures facial expressions Trouble arises when postures or gestures have double meanings Ex. Fidgeting can mean nervousness OR boredom; folded arms can mean irritability OR boredom Computer based communication ( , text messages, etc) Gestures, tone, and facial expressions are all absent in computer based communication leading to miscommunication Without seeing a face or hearing a tone in which something is said the message can be misconstrued How many times have YOU gotten into an argument because of a misread or text message?
Culture and Emotion A smile and anger are universally recognized around the world Darwin theorized that before verbal communication we communicated through facial expressions; this shared expression is why we all share basic emotions with the same facial expressions Emotion is best understood not only as a biological and cognitive function but also in the constraint of culture and society
Culture and Emotion Americans and Western Europeans are extremely expressive Irish and Irish Americans are far more expressive in contrast to Scandinavians (Northern Europeans: Sweden, Norway, Denmark) and Scandinavian Americans Israel and Italian MEN more often than women hide their feelings of sadness WOMEN are more are more likely to hide sadness in Britain, Spain, and Switzerland In Asian cultures both sexes are more likely to restrain all emotional responses
Emotional Intelligence HIGH emotional intelligence is where a person is in tune with their emotions and OTHERS as well Marshmallow test Delayed gratification in young children is indicative self-reliance, more effective interpersonal relationships, better students, and better equipped to handle frustration and stress
Emotion and Culture
Expressed Emotion To be cheerful---act cheerfully Research indicates that when we express emotion we tend to amplify them as well he who gives in to violence will INCREASE his rage Charles Darwin Behavior feedback phenomenon By acting a certain way you can shift your mood Ex. Walking, swinging your arms and smiling then change to looking downward, with folded arms and short steps….Feel a your mood shift? Ex. When the Mr. Solomon is in a bad mood and HE looks angry and acts aggressively towards YOU…what kind of mood does this put YOU in?
Paul Ekmans facial language Universal emotional expressions that speak to the common biological heritage of the human species Seven basic emotions Sadness Fear Anger Disgust Contempt Happy surprise
Emotion 7 basic emotions Happiness Surprise Sadness Anger Disgust Contempt Fear Display rules Rules that govern the intensity and context of displaying emotions in different cultures Robert Plutchik theory of emotion that all others are a mixture of the ones listed here Ex. Love is a mix of joy and acceptance
Fear We fear certain animals and situations through evolution and through observation of others loud noises, large animals, snakes, etc. Children learn to fear very early on through falls and near falls. Through conditioning this list grows and grows Fear can be taught and passed on from parent to child As a child you see your mother scream and run from a mouse, upsetting you, you then begin to associate being upset with the physical sight of a mouse…therefore learning and perpetuating the fear
the AMYGDALA plays a role in associating what we fear with certain situations The AMYGDALA receives signals from the anterior cingulate cortex that signal the physical symptoms of extreme fear (shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc) Scientists have identified the gene that influences our temperament (emotional reactivity)
Anger Chronic anger is linked to heart disease Its common among western societies to vent your anger in a constructive way to achieve CATHARSIS (or emotional release from the anger) BUT studies show that catharsis does not always make you feel better More often expressing anger usually leads to more anger (ie retaliation) or acting angry can make us ANGRIER (behavior feedback) Venting anger is like putting a fire out with gasoline! The best way to deal with anger is to WAIT (bringing down the level of physical arousal, calm yourself (exercise, some other calming activity, talking with someone) Without letting offender off the hook or allowing further harm. Forgiveness releases anger and calms the body
Cognitive therapy and Anger Management therapy include: Relaxation techniques to deal with anger (counting, meditating to relax, breathing deeply) Learning alternative ways to interpret situations that would cause anger (this person believes I have hurt them so theyre angry with me) rationally examining the persons behavior Learning to express anger safely (punching a pillow etc) Identifying the source of ones anger (understanding what is within your locus of control I can control MYSELF not OTHERS nor what OTHERS DO) Letting go of unrealistic goals that feed anger (if I let her know Im angry she wont make me angry again)
Wealth & Happiness Feel good, Do-good phenomenon The tendency to be helpful when we are already in a good mood We often overestimate the duration of our emotions (im gonna always be miserable!) and underestimate our capacity to adapt (everything in life changes; youll get over it!) Most people believe that they would be happier if they had more money and they would be….for a little while!
Wealth and Happiness Wealth is like HEALTH. When you dont have it youre MISERABLE, but having it doesnt make you HAPPY. Growing up poor puts one at risk for many problems but so does growing up rich ex. Substance abuse, anxiety, depression What matters more than money is how YOU feel about what you have. Those who live with a sense of gratitude enjoy greater happiness
Wealth & Happiness So does having a little more money = being a little more happy? Unfortunately NO. Being able to spend more and have more just enables us to have more THINGS not more happiness The average American is exponentially wealthier than Americans 50 years ago are we happier now than we were then? Unfortunately NO. elevated rates of divorce, teen suicide, & depression indicate we are MORE MISERABLE!
Wealth & happiness Research also indicates that college graduates who strive for gains in power, money and showing off are twice as likely to describe themselves as fairly or very UNHAPPY Those who value love more than money report higher satisfaction with life than those seeking financial wealth
Happiness Adaptation-level phenomenon When our current level of income, social prestige, etc increases we feel a surge of happiness but we quickly adapt to this gain and then require something BETTER to give us another surge of happiness Ex. You got a raise last year and now youve adapted to your income and want more, more, more! Seeking happiness through material achievements require an ever increasing abundance of things This is why material wants can be insatiable The saying the possessor is possessed by possessions
Happiness Relative deprivation The sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves to Ex. We are only less attractive, clumsy, less intelligent when we compare ourselves to others we PERCEIVE to be beautiful, agile or smart YOU WILL NEVER BE HAPPY COMPARING YOURSELF TO OTHERS!! Comparing yourself to others who are better off creates envy We compare ourselves to our peers. Ex. Beggars envy other beggars who appear to be more successful middle class envy each other; keeping up with the Jones
Napoleon envied Caesar, Caesar envied Alexander, Alexander envied Hercules, and Hercules NEVER EXISTED! Comparing yourself to others who are LESS well off boosts our contentment I cried about having no shoes until I met a man who had no FEET!