Presentation on theme: "Emotion Why do we have emotion? Emotions enhance our survival"— Presentation transcript:
1 Emotion Why do we have emotion? Emotions enhance our survival Focus our attentionEnergize our behavior
2 Emotion involves: Physiological arousal (fight or flight) Cognitive interpretation (the conscious and unconscious recognition of a situationSubjective feelings (memories and the brain realizing the bodies arousal)Behavioral expression (facial expressions)
3 Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory of Emotion Emotion FOLLOWS your body’s responseCannon-Bard Theory of emotionPhysiological arousal and our emotional response happen SIMULTANEOUSLYEX. Your heart starts pounding as you experience fear; one doesn’t cause the otherSchachter Two-Factor TheoryAll emotions are similar (like Cannon-Bard);our emotional experience stems from awareness of our body’s aroused state (like James-Lange) butalso has COGNITION as a role in emotion
4 Cognitive appraisal theory MisattributionWhere we attribute emotion to an incorrect stimulusEx. Going through a dangerous situation and attributing the heightened arousal to a person instead of the eventCognitive appraisal theoryWhere after an event has occurred we make a decision on how we should feel
7 Nervous System and Emotion Sympathetic Nervous systemALERTS; directs your adrenal glands atop your kidneys to release stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrineElevating respiration, blood pressure, and heart rateParasympathetic Nervous systemCALMS; inhibits the release of stress hormones
9 Arousal and Performance We perform BEST when we are moderately arousedBut the level of arousal varies for different tasksStudents who are HYPERAROUSED usually perform more POORLY than those who are moderately aroused and confidentPREPARING and RELAXING before an exam enables students to perform betterthis is why its important NOT to cram before an examWhen you cram you force yourself into a hyperaroused state (nervousness) sabotaging your performanceWhen you’re prepared you’re able to relax because you KNOW the information
10 Cognition and EmotionOur brains react to vast amounts of information WITHOUT conscious awarenessHearing something rustling in the bushes we respond without knowing what was in the bushesSimple emotions such as likes, dislikes, and fears can involve no conscious thinkingMore complex emotions such as depression, love and jealousy involve expectations, memories and interpretations ie cognition
11 Nonverbal Communication Most humans are better at detecting nonverbal THREATS than other emotionsWe read FEAR and ANGER from the eyesHAPPINESS from the mouthIntroverts are better at reading others emotions, although extroverts are easier to readAbused children are quicker than other children to see anger
12 A Woman’s “intuition” Women are superior at spotting lies Women generally are better at reading emotional cues as wellWomen are more adept at describing emotions in greater depth and detailWomen are more likely to describe themselves as empathic or having empathy for others (identify emotionally what others feel; cry when others cry, rejoice when they rejoice)Men are more adept at identifying and conveying ANGER
13 Detecting EmotionMost of us find it difficult to detect when someone is lying 54% accuracy rateTraining people (CIA, police, psychologists) to detect liars is an equally daunting task with most trained professionals being only 67-73% correctOur brains detect subtle hints to indicate emotionTonegesturesfacial expressionsTrouble arises when postures or gestures have double meaningsEx. Fidgeting can mean nervousness OR boredom; folded arms can mean irritability OR boredomComputer based communication ( , text messages, etc)Gestures, tone, and facial expressions are all absent in computer based communication leading to miscommunicationWithout seeing a face or hearing a tone in which something is said the message can be misconstruedHow many times have YOU gotten into an argument because of a misread or text message?
14 Culture and EmotionA smile and anger are universally recognized around the worldDarwin theorized that before verbal communication we communicated through facial expressions; this shared expression is why we all share basic emotions with the same facial expressionsEmotion is best understood not only as a biological and cognitive function but also in the constraint of culture and society
15 Culture and EmotionAmericans and Western Europeans are extremely expressiveIrish and Irish Americans are far more expressive in contrast to Scandinavians (Northern Europeans: Sweden, Norway, Denmark) and Scandinavian AmericansIsrael and Italian MEN more often than women hide their feelings of sadnessWOMEN are more are more likely to hide sadness in Britain, Spain, and SwitzerlandIn Asian cultures both sexes are more likely to restrain all emotional responses
16 Emotional Intelligence HIGH emotional intelligence is where a person is in tune with their emotions and OTHERS as wellMarshmallow testDelayed gratification in young children is indicative self-reliance, more effective interpersonal relationships, better students, and better equipped to handle frustration and stress
18 Expressed Emotion To be cheerful---act cheerfully Research indicates that when we express emotion we tend to amplify them as well“he who gives in to violence will INCREASE his rage” Charles DarwinBehavior feedback phenomenonBy acting a certain way you can shift your moodEx. Walking, swinging your arms and smiling then change to looking downward, with folded arms and short steps….Feel a your mood shift?Ex. When the Mr. Solomon is in a bad mood and HE looks angry and acts aggressively towards YOU…what kind of mood does this put YOU in?
19 Paul Ekman’s “facial language” Universal emotional expressions that speak to the common biological heritage of the human speciesSeven basic emotionsSadnessFearAngerDisgustContemptHappysurprise
20 Emotion 7 basic emotions Display rules HappinessSurpriseSadnessAngerDisgustContemptFearDisplay rulesRules that govern the intensity and context of displaying emotions in different culturesRobert Plutchik theory of emotion that all others are a mixture of the ones listed hereEx. Love is a mix of joy and acceptance
22 FearWe fear certain animals and situations through evolution and through observation of othersloud noises, large animals, snakes, etc.Children learn to fear very early on through falls and near falls. Through conditioning this list grows and growsFear can be taught and passed on from parent to childAs a child you see your mother scream and run from a mouse, upsetting you, you then begin to associate being upset with the physical sight of a mouse…therefore learning and perpetuating the fear
23 Fearthe AMYGDALA plays a role in associating what we fear with certain situationsThe AMYGDALA receives signals from the anterior cingulate cortex that signal the physical symptoms of extreme fear (shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc)Scientists have identified the gene that influences our temperament (emotional reactivity)
24 Anger Chronic anger is linked to heart disease Its common among western societies to “vent” your anger in a constructive way to achieve CATHARSIS (or emotional release from the anger)BUT studies show that catharsis does not always make you feel betterMore often expressing anger usually leads to more anger (ie retaliation) or acting angry can make us ANGRIER (behavior feedback)“Venting anger is like putting a fire out with gasoline!”The best way to deal with anger is to WAIT (bringing down the level of physical arousal, calm yourself (exercise, some other calming activity, talking with someone)Without letting offender off the hook or allowing further harm. Forgiveness releases anger and calms the body
25 ANGER!!! Cognitive therapy and Anger Management therapy include: Relaxation techniques to deal with anger (counting, meditating to relax, breathing deeply)Learning alternative ways to interpret situations that would cause anger (this person believes I have hurt them so they’re angry with me) rationally examining the persons behaviorLearning to express anger safely (punching a pillow etc)Identifying the source of one’s anger (understanding what is within your locus of control “I can control MYSELF not OTHERS nor what OTHERS DO”)Letting go of unrealistic goals that feed anger (“if I let her know I’m angry she wont make me angry again”)
26 Wealth & Happiness “Feel good, Do-good phenomenon” The tendency to be helpful when we are already in a good moodWe often overestimate the duration of our emotions (“im gonna always be miserable!”) and underestimate our capacity to adapt (everything in life changes; “you’ll get over it!”)Most people believe that they would be happier if they had more money and they would be….for a little while!
27 Wealth and HappinessWealth is like HEALTH. When you don’t have it you’re MISERABLE, but having it doesn’t make you HAPPY.Growing up poor puts one at risk for many problems but so does growing up rich ex. Substance abuse, anxiety, depressionWhat matters more than money is how YOU feel about what you have. Those who live with a sense of gratitude enjoy greater happiness
28 Wealth & HappinessSo does having a little more money = being a little more happy?Unfortunately NO. Being able to spend more and have more just enables us to have more THINGS not more happinessThe average American is exponentially wealthier than Americans 50 years ago are we happier now than we were then?Unfortunately NO. elevated rates of divorce, teen suicide, & depression indicate we are MORE MISERABLE!
29 Wealth & happinessResearch also indicates that college graduates who strive for gains in power, money and showing off are twice as likely to describe themselves as fairly or very UNHAPPYThose who value love more than money report higher satisfaction with life than those seeking financial wealth
30 Happiness Adaptation-level phenomenon When our current level of income, social prestige, etc increases we feel a surge of happiness but we quickly adapt to this gain and then require something BETTER to give us another surge of happinessEx. You got a raise last year and now you’ve adapted to your income and want more, more, more!Seeking happiness through material achievements require an ever increasing abundance of thingsThis is why material wants can be insatiableThe saying “the possessor is possessed by possessions”
31 Happiness Relative deprivation The sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves toEx. We are only less attractive, clumsy, less intelligent when we compare ourselves to others we PERCEIVE to be beautiful, agile or smartYOU WILL NEVER BE HAPPY COMPARING YOURSELF TO OTHERS!!Comparing yourself to others who are better off creates envyWe compare ourselves to our peers.Ex. Beggars envy other beggars who appear to be more successfulmiddle class envy each other; ”keeping up with the Jones’”
32 Napoleon envied Caesar, Caesar envied Alexander, Alexander envied Hercules, and Hercules NEVER EXISTED!Comparing yourself to others who are LESS well off boosts our contentment“I cried about having no shoes until I met a man who had no FEET!”