Presentation on theme: "Big Era Nine Paradoxes of Global Acceleration 1945-2004."— Presentation transcript:
Big Era Nine Paradoxes of Global Acceleration 1945-2004
The World in 1945: 50 million people killed during WW II 50 million people killed during WW II Parts of Europe, Asia, and North Africa in ruins Parts of Europe, Asia, and North Africa in ruins World trade severely damaged World trade severely damaged Much of the world looked pretty bleak.
Many European economies in shambles Many European economies in shambles European Colonial empires crumbling European Colonial empires crumbling Growing nationalist movements in Africa and Asia Growing nationalist movements in Africa and Asia U.S. the major industrial and atomic power U.S. the major industrial and atomic power The world entered a new era.
Cold War policies developed: The Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe and part of Germany. The Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe and part of Germany. The U.S. moves to encircle the Soviet Union with a system of alliances and military aid. The U.S. moves to encircle the Soviet Union with a system of alliances and military aid. U.S. offers Marshal plan to rebuild Europe and gives $13 billion in aid. U.S. offers Marshal plan to rebuild Europe and gives $13 billion in aid. The U.S. adopted a policy of Containment of the Soviet Union with military bases around the world. The U.S. adopted a policy of Containment of the Soviet Union with military bases around the world. An Iron Curtain of tense relations separated the Western allies from the U.S.S.R. and its allies. An Iron Curtain of tense relations separated the Western allies from the U.S.S.R. and its allies.
The World became divided into two hostile camps: The U.S.S.R. and the U.S. Joseph Stalin Pres. Harry Truman 1946-60
During the Cold War, the U.S.S.R and the U.S. followed a policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The U.S. and U.S.S.R had enough nuclear bombs to destroy the world about 400 times. I guess it made sense at the time. Mutual Assured Destruction is a military deterrence strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of the opposing powers would result in the destruction of both.
1950-53 - A divided Korea led to war, separated family members, and cost a million lives, including 48,000 Americans. 1963-1972 - Three million people died in the Vietnam War, including 58,000 Americans. The Cold War was very costly in lives.
The forty years of the Cold War were costly in resources. A trillion dollars is enough to give each family in the U.S. $100,000. We spent 5.5 trillion dollars on nuclear arms, and we won! We spent 3.5 trillion, and for what? How much is a trillion dollars? George H.W. Bush Michail Gorbachev
During the cold war many former colonized peoples created new nations. India gained independence from Britain in 1947. India gained independence from Britain in 1947. Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch in 1949. Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch in 1949. Ghana gained independence from Great Britain in 1957. Ghana gained independence from Great Britain in 1957. By 1965 most former European colonies had become newly created independent nation-states. By 1965 most former European colonies had become newly created independent nation-states.. The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. competed for the loyalties of these new nations.
Several of the new nations pursued a non-aligned policy. In 1955 India, Indonesia, and Yugoslavia sponsored the Bandung Conference of Non- Aligned nations. It aimed to promote solidarity among newly independent states and to prevent the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. from meddling in their domestic affairs.In 1955 India, Indonesia, and Yugoslavia sponsored the Bandung Conference of Non- Aligned nations. It aimed to promote solidarity among newly independent states and to prevent the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. from meddling in their domestic affairs. Nehru and Sukarno led the meeting.Nehru and Sukarno led the meeting. SukarnoofIndonesia Nehru of India
Colonialism left new nations Underdeveloped. This table shows how shares of world Gross Domestic Product changed between 1870 and 1998. DateIndiaChinaAfricaJapan Western Europe and U.S. 187012.217.23.62.342.5 1922.214.171.124.652.6 19504.24.53.63.053.6 197126.96.36.199.747.7 19985.011.53.17.742.5 What might we learn from this table about patterns of economic development in the world?
In 1750, China and India provided 57% of world manufacturing. In 1953, they manufactured only 4% of the worlds goods. What caused such a dramatic change?
In the 1960s, as the colonized people gained independence, the world-wide split between the North –rich industrial nationsand the South – poor third world nationsgrew wider.
How did Western leaders try to restore world trade after World War II? In 1944, at the Bretton Woods Monetary Conference in New Hampshire, Western leaders: Created the World Bank. Created the World Bank. Established the International Established the International Monetary Fund. Monetary Fund. Established stable currency exchange rates. Established stable currency exchange rates. Ushered in a new Global Age of economic cooperation. Ushered in a new Global Age of economic cooperation. However, these agreements did not include the Communist bloc nations
In 1971, however, the high cost of the Vietnam War prompted President Richard Nixon to abolish the fixed currency exchange rates that had been established at Bretton Woods. The Age of Free Market Capitalism began, but still excluded the Soviet bloc nations Gold backing for currencies was eliminated. Gold backing for currencies was eliminated. World currencies floated. World currencies floated. Underlyingmost arguments against the free market is a lack of belief in freedom itself. Economist Milton Friedman Underlying most arguments against the free market is a lack of belief in freedom itself. Economist Milton Friedman
In theory, free world trade encourages greater economic specialization, more productivity, and greater wealth. Efficient use of world resources is possible. Efficient use of world resources is possible. Tariffs are eliminated. Tariffs are eliminated. Businesses can move where Businesses can move where they make more profits. More jobs are created. More jobs are created. People have more money People have more money to spend. And each country can concentrate on what it does best.
In the 1980s the U.S. moved to expand free market capitalism within the global system. Little government interference in the market Little government interference in the market Freedom of individual choice Freedom of individual choice Borderless market economy Borderless market economy Markets as masters over state policies Markets as masters over state policies People should be free to pursue economic self-interest People should be free to pursue economic self-interest Consuming goods a major value Consuming goods a major value What is free market capitalis m? However, most nations continued to pursue some forms of economic nationalism
In the 1980s China moved toward a free-market system and joined the global economy. Chinas Trade surplus balance with U.S. $666.2 billion in the 2004, Chinas economy will probably equal that of US. In twenty-five years. China now buys from 1-2 billion dollars of the U.S. debt each day.
In 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and the Cold War ended. Eastern European countries broke away from Soviet control. The Soviet Union itself broke into more than a dozen new states. The Berlin Wall was built in August 1961 The Wall was destroyed on November 9, 1989
In 1991, India abandoned its 44 year-old socialist oriented economy and embraced a the free market system and joined the global economy. With a GDP of 800 billion dollars, India is now the fourth largest world economy after the U.S., China and Japan. Indias growth rate has averaged about 5.8 per cent for the past fifteen years. Major exports include Clothing Automobiles Handicrafts
With the collapse In the 1990s, with the integration of many of the states of the former Soviet Union and the entry of China and India, Globalization now embraced the majority of the worlds economies. In the 1980s, the U.S., the major world power, became the chief advocate of free market capitalism for the global system.
Increasing global connectedness through rapid communication and transport. Increasing global connectedness through rapid communication and transport. Rapid intensification of worldwide social relations. Rapid intensification of worldwide social relations. Swift and free flow of capital, people, and ideas across national borders. Swift and free flow of capital, people, and ideas across national borders. What is Globalization?
billions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1803 - 124 yrs 1927- 33 yrs 1960 - 14 yrs 1974 - 12 yrs 1986 – 13 yrs The time it takes to add a billion people grows shorter. World population has been rapidly increasing. Wow! More than 6 billionpeople now alive.
Life expectancy is rising, but it varies world wide. Country Average Life Expectancy Sweden79.2 France78 United States 71.1 Bangladesh62.8 Botswana40.1 Zimbabwe39.2 Average life expectancy for the world is 70 years.
Speed of travel has increased dramatically. World wide communication is almost instantaneous 1981 1981 1977 1957 1982 Look at this antique computer. It doesnt even have a hard drive! 1962
The computer has been changing billions of lives. Where are the books I ordered? Im applying to college. IT Engineer seeks househusband.. Were catching up with the U.S. economy. Will you be my E-pal? I raised my campaign funds via the internet.
But what does globalizatio n have to do with me? Jeans from Malaysia Backpack from China Shirt from Mexico Cap from Bangladesh Video game from Japan Sneakers from Indonesia Soccer ball from Pakistan
Expanding technology makes possible a cornucopia of new products for us. New technologies allow humans to control nature like never before
More goods are being produced, bought, and sold worldwide than ever before. What shall I buy next?
Democratic ideas have spread to more countries than ever before. IndiaKoreaJapanTaiwanMalaysiaQatarMaliBrazil South Africa
But globalization brings high human costs. Although the worlds people are producing more than 47 trillion dollars in wealth, these riches are not distributed equally.
20% get most of the wealth. 20% get most of the wealth. The U.S. owns 11 trillion dollars of this wealth. The U.S. owns 11 trillion dollars of this wealth. 2 billion of the worlds people live on less than $2 a day. 2 billion of the worlds people live on less than $2 a day. Peasants are forced to leave the land as money and wage economies spread. Peasants are forced to leave the land as money and wage economies spread. Workers without education and skills are often left behind. Workers without education and skills are often left behind. The growing gap between the rich and the poor continues to increase.
Some big multinational corporations have more wealth than many nations. Ranking GDP/value added$trillion 1United States9.9 2Japan4.7 $billion 40Malaysia89.7 41Colombia81.3 42Philippines74.7 43Chile70.5 44 Wal-Mart Stores67.7 45Pakistan61.6 46Peru53.5 47Algeria53.3 48Exxon57.6 49Czech Republic50.8 50New Zealand50 51Bangladesh47.1 52 United Arab Emirates46.5 53General Motors46.2 54Hungary45.6 55Ford Motor45.1 56Mitsubishi44.3 57Mitsui41.3 58Nigeria41.1 59Citigroup39.1 60Itachu38.4 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Selected Countries and Corporations2002 Corporations in bold face
In poor countries child labor is widespread. Some 212 million children of ages 5-14 are working instead of going to school. These young girls work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week, earning $2-3 per week. Most child labor involves high energy work.
Outsourcing is increasing. In 2003, the U.S. lost 234,000 information technology jobs. An estimated 14 million more jobs may move overseas. But the U.S. loss is a gain for India, China, Ireland, Korea and other nations Narayana Murthy (right) and his Infosys Information Technology complex in Bangalore, India.
Strong labor unions Strong labor unions High wages High wages Environment protection laws and Environment protection laws and Unstable governments Unstable governments Manufacturing and capital flows to the areas of the world where they can make the most profits. all tend to keep businesses and investment away.
The speed of globalization results in more pollution and global warming caused by over-cutting forests. over-cutting forests. burning fossil fuels. burning fossil fuels. producing more industrial and consumer waste. producing more industrial and consumer waste.
Growing threats to the environment affect all people Global warming lead to major floods.
Lots of people question globalization.. Hollywood is ruining ourchildren. Globalization is forcing my child to work. Free trade is destroying us farmers. Free trade is destroying us farmers. Industrial countries are leaving us out of Globalization. Development is destroying our rain forest. We have 50 million people living in poverty.
Some people believe that globalization is cultural imperialism. Can you interpret how this cartoon depicts the idea of cultural imperialism?
Globalization involves paradoxes. Profitable industry but widening gap between rich and poor? Profitable industry but widening gap between rich and poor? Lots of cultural pluralism but people becoming homogenized? Lots of cultural pluralism but people becoming homogenized? Increasing interdependence but small communities banding more tightly together? Increasing interdependence but small communities banding more tightly together? Huge wealth in industrialized nations but great poverty in other countries? Huge wealth in industrialized nations but great poverty in other countries? You mean its not good for everyone?
Some wholeheartedly embrace it. Some wholeheartedly embrace it. Some seek to maintain their traditions in the face of perceived threats. Some seek to maintain their traditions in the face of perceived threats. Some fight for more economic fairness. Some fight for more economic fairness. Some turn to religion. Some turn to religion. Some violently oppose it. Some violently oppose it. Some try to manage it for the greater human good. Some try to manage it for the greater human good. People respond to globalization differently. A house in Figuig, an oasis in Morocco on the edge of the Sahara Desert. This family reaches out to the world through its satellite dish.
Terrorism has ushered in a new global threat. Modern military strategies and weapons are often ineffective against suicide attacks. Modern military strategies and weapons are often ineffective against suicide attacks. Terrorists communicate and spread their ideologies using cell phones and the Internet. Terrorists communicate and spread their ideologies using cell phones and the Internet. Terrorist groups may have cells in many nations. Terrorist groups may have cells in many nations.
In 2002, the United States government adopted policies of massive military intervention as part of a war on terror. 2002 – U.S. forces invaded Afghanistan to topple the government of the Taliban, which was cooperating with international terrorists. 2003 – U.S. forces invaded Iraq to overthrow the government of Saddam Hussein. The U.S. accused him of supporting terrorism. Are we entering a new era of international relations?
In this new era will the U.S. act as democratic leader, the supreme world power, as an empire? owns about one fourth of the worlds wealth. owns about one fourth of the worlds wealth. working to create democratic institutions in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries. working to create democratic institutions in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries. has military force equal to the next 20 countries combined. has military force equal to the next 20 countries combined. striving to be a model of democracy for the world. striving to be a model of democracy for the world. maintains 725 military bases, valued at $118 billion, with 254,000 military personnel in 153 nations. maintains 725 military bases, valued at $118 billion, with 254,000 military personnel in 153 nations. Do these factors help us answer the question?
Your decisions and actions will help shape the future. Will we cooperate to fight terrorism and work to ensure that all people live in dignity? How these issues turn out is really up to us. One person can make a difference.