Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) AP Psychology Chapter 3: Stress and Health Psychology.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) AP Psychology Chapter 3: Stress and Health Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) AP Psychology Chapter 3: Stress and Health Psychology

2 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Understanding Stress What is Stress? – A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it; – The arousal, both physical and mental, to situations or events that we perceive as threatening or challenging.

3 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress

4 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Does This Cause Stress?

5 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Cataclysmic Events: stressors that occur suddenly and generally affect many people simultaneously

6 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

7 Significant Life Changes Happy life events such as getting engaged or married. Moving, leaving home, losing a job, getting divorced, having a loved one die. Young adults typically report higher stress levels than much older adults.

8 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

9 Sources of Stress Chronic Stressors: ongoing, long lasting, unpleasant events

10 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Life Changes: life events that require some adjustment in behavior or lifestyle

11 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Hassles:: small, everyday problems that accumulate to become source of stress

12 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Hassles

13 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

14 Fight or Flight!!!!

15 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Fight or Flight Response 1.Heart rate increases 2.Blood pressure increases 3.Respiration becomes rapid and shallow 4.Live releases stores of glycogen, thus raising the blood sugar level. 5.Digestive system shuts down and blood reroutes to muscles & pupils dilate. 6.Hair stands up on end. 7.Excitatory hormones secreted 8.Muscles tense

16 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Fight-Or-Flight!!

17 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Is This Guy Coping Well With Stress?

18 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Is This You?

19 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Occupation Burnout: state of psychological and physical exhaustion resulting from chronic exposure to high levels of stress and little personal control

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Frustration unpleasant tension resulting from a blocked goal Conflict forced choice between two or more incompatible goals or impulses

21 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress Three Types of Conflict Approach-Approach: forced choice between two or more desirable alternatives Avoidance-Avoidance: forced choice between two or more undesirable alternatives Approach-Avoidance: forced choice between two or more alternatives both having desirable and undesirable results

22 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Sources of Stress If this man is interested in one of the three women on the couch, is he experiencing an approach-approach, approach-avoidance, or avoidance- avoidance conflict?

23 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Irrational Assumptions: These Can Cause Stress ! 1.Unhappiness is inevitable. 2.I must do everything to perfection. 3.Everyone must approve of what I do. 4.The world should b fair and just. 5.I should not question authorities of social beliefs.

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Ever Felt This Way?

25 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Agree or Disagree?

26 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

27 Effects of Stress

28 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Effects of Stress Stress and the HPA Axis: Prolonged elevation of cortisol is related to: increased depression, memory problems, etc. impaired immune system, which leaves the body vulnerable to disease.

29 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) This Wouldnt Cause You Any Harm At All, Would it?

30 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Effects of Stress Stress and the Immune System Psychoneuroimmunology: interdisciplinary field that studies the effect of psychological factors on the immune system

31 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Effects of Stress Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome 1. Alarm 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion

32 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Would This Help?

33 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Stress In Your LifeRIGHT NOW Attending college (or getting ready to) Job satisfactiondo I like my work now or the work I will do in the future. Women & men= does an income gap exists between the two? Career changesimpacts those a bit older than you, but you are now competing with older adults for work due to the economy. Also many of you will change careers several times.

34 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Optimism vs. Pessimism Optimistsanticipation of positive outcomes, they are people who expect the best and believe their efforts will lead to good things. Pessimistsanticipate negative outcomes. They are people who expect the worst and doubt their goals will ever be achieved.

35 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

36

37 Realism Being realistically anxious over possible failures can actually motivate people.

38 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Which Are You?

39 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Stress and Illness Cancer: related to hereditary disposition and environmental factors Cardiovascular Disorders: contributing factors include stress hormones, certain personality types, and certain behaviors Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): anxiety disorder following exposure to extraordinary stress Gastric Ulcers: caused by bacteria or stress?

40 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Stress and Illness

41 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Mental Tension Situation #1 Brian, an ambitious high school senior, fails his final exam in American Government. He is terrified that his chances of not only graduating, but getting into college have been ruined, and a day or two later he develops a severe skin rash.

42 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Mental Tension Situation #2 Jenny, Brians friend from class, learns that her parents cannot afford to pay her tuition for her first year of college; her friends wonder why she has suddenly become so bad tempered.

43 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Mental Tension Situation #3 Annie gets her first leading role in a high school play; while running outside to call her boyfriend, she realizes that she cannot remember the phone number.

44 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Discussion Questions 1.What causes stress? 2.In your experience, are people who dislike change better equipped to cope with stress than people who claim to welcome change in their lives? 3.Why are life changes sources of stress? 4.How is stress necessary for survival? 5.What happens during the resistance stage of stress?

45 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Discussion Questions 6. What is post-traumatic stress disorder and whom does it effect? 7. What effect does the fight-or flight response have on your immune system? 8. Have you ever witnessed road rage? Describe the incident. 9. Would you feel more stressed about a scheduled exam or a pop quiz? Why? 10. How does social support reduce stress?

46 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Road Rage 1.Involves a desire to retaliate and punish another driver. 2.It can result in criminal behavior, such as violence or threatened violence. 3. Psychologists believe road rage reflects a drivers anger and lack of self-control.

47 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Tips to Avoid Road Rage 1.Do not retaliate against another driver 2.Before you react to another driver, consider if this is incident really worth risking your life. 3.Be polite and courteous, even when others are not. 4.If you are harassed by another driver and are being followed, proceed to the nearest police station. 5.Slow down and relax!! 6.Allow enough travel time to your destination. 7.Although you cant control the behavior of other drivers, you can control your own behavior.

48 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Gender Differences & Stress 1.Who has the higher stress levelsmen or women? 2.Women more likely than men in the USA to live in poverty, experience discrimination and to be abused. 3.Psychologists argue the traditional roles of women as primary caretakers and wives place them in positions in which anxiety and depression are more likely. 4.Examplemothers are often made to feel responsible for events that they have little control over, such as the illness of a child or accidents in the home.

49 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Stress at Work 1.Jobs requiring employees to hide their true feelings and emotions are considered to be the most stressful. Would include: medicine, teaching, social services, customer service, fire/rescue, law enforcement. 2.Occupations that typically deal with customer complaints on a daily basis are also very high in stress. These include occupations in: information technology, engineering, sales, finance, operations, production & clerical work.

50 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Most Stressful Jobs 1.Inner city high school teacher 2.Police officer 3.Miner 4.Air traffic controller 5.ER Doctor 6.Stockbroker 7.Journalist 8.Customer service worker 9.Secretary 10.Waiter/waitress

51 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Least Stressful Jobs 1.Forester 2.Bookbinder 3.Telephone line worker 4.Toolmaker 5.Mill worker 6.Repairperson 7.Civil engineer 8.Therapist 9.Natural scientist 10.Sale representative

52 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Most Stressful Cities/Metro Areas 1. Seattle/Tacoma, WA 2. Miami, FL 3. New Orleans, LA 4. Las Vegas, NV 5. New York, NY 6. Portland,OR/Vancouver, WA 7. Mobile, AL 8. Stockton-Lodi, CA 9. Detroit, MI 10. Dallas, TX

53 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Least Stressful Cities/Metro Areas 1. Albany-Schenectady, NY 2. Harrisburg-Lebanon, PA 3. Orange County, CA 4. Nassau-Suffolk Counties, NY 5. Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 6. Ann Arbor, MI 7. Omaha, NE 8. Norfolk/Virginia Beach, VA- 9. Honolulu, HI 10. Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC

54 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Life Changing Most Stressful Events 1.Death of spouse of child 2.Death of a parent 3.Getting fired 4.Death of a brother/sister 5.Getting a divorce 6.Pregnancy 7.Decreased income 8.Loan or mortgage foreclosure 9.Job demotion 10.Marital separation

55 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Life Changing Least Stressful Events 1.Child leaving for college 2.Major change in eating habits 3.Going on Vacation 4.Job promotion 5.Major change in sleeping habits 6.New romantic relationship 7.Breaking up 8.Troubles with co-workers 9.Changing jobs 10.Major change in living conditions

56 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Health Psychology in Action Health Psychology: studies how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness Major Health Risks: 1. Tobacco 2. Alcohol and Binge Drinking 3. Chronic Pain (lasting over 6 months)

57 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Health Psychology in Action Does this graph surprise you? Smokers often overestimate their risk of dying from homicide and traffic accidents, and greatly underestimate the risk from smoking.

58 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Health and Stress Management Two major approaches to coping with stress: 1. Emotion-focused (changing one's perception of stressful situations) 2. Problem-focused (using problem- solving strategies to decrease or eliminate the source of stress)

59 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Health and Stress Management Our emotional reaction to stress largely depends on how we interpret it.

60 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Health and Stress Management Resources for Healthy Living 1. Health and Exercise 2. Positive Beliefs 3. Social Skills 4. Social Support 5. Material Resources 6. Control (Internal locus of control) 7. Relaxation

61 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Factors Influencing Reactions to Stress An individuals personality may make him or her more vulnerable to stress. Emotional expressiveness can also affect the strength of a stress reaction. People who deny their emotions tend to express feelings less frequently.

62 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Finals Week or SAT Perhaps?

63 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Concluding Questions 1.How can stress effect us physically, mentally and emotionally? 2.What (in your view) causes stress? 3.Is there such a thing as positive stress? 4.Why are life changes sources of stress? 5.How is stress necessary for survival? 6.What causes you anxiety?


Download ppt "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) AP Psychology Chapter 3: Stress and Health Psychology."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google