Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.

3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. Aryan Invasion circa 1500 BCE -Small regional kingdoms -Influenced by the Persian/Alexandrian encroachment into Gandhara -Eventually Chandragupta Maurya united the land in 321 BCE with the help of Kautilya *arthashastra! -The high point of the Empire came under his grandson, Ashoka Maurya

4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 GREAT TEXTS OF POLITICAL REALISM THE BOOK OF LORD SHANG

5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r BCE Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Positive rulership integrated Indian society Promoted Buddhism (although never made it the state religion), capital Patilaputra

6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6

7 7 So what are the benefits to Ashoka to supporting Buddhism? Morally? Politically? Socially? Economically? Culturally? Which one benefits the least?

8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. From Bactrian, Kushan, and eventually the Gupta Empires India never had a long substantiated CENTRALIZED system of rule Why the move to the Ganges? Iron, then most active trade, most importantly it is located in a good location for seaborne trade with china, and SE Asia Look at the land route to Taxila, where is it going?

9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Proto-Greek Kingdom

10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10

11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Long-Distance Trade Towns encouraged the development of trade within the subcontinent Long-distance trade – Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon – Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads – Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands due to MONSOONAL WINDS! – Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west – Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean

12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 ADD Monsoon map Why is this important???

13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Society and Social Order Gender relations: Patriarchy entrenched – Child marriage was common; Women encouraged to remain in private sphere Mahabharata and Ramayana commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures and exalted wives who devoted theirselves to their husbands. Lawbook of Manu Caste system from Aryan times – Brahmins (priests); Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats); Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants); Shudras (serfs)

14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Where in India would there be any remnants of Matriarchy?

15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Society and Social Order Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes, chief governing body of society!!! Enforced social order, but had some flexibility – Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras – Wealth challenges varna for status

16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste privilege – e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6 th -5 th BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo – What is Status Quo? Charvakas: materialistic atheism, gods were figments of our imagination Jainists and Buddhists Popular Hinduism, eventual majority religion, why?

17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, BCE – Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life – Promotes 7 th c. movement based on Upanishads (a sitting in front) Emphasis on selfless living, care for all beings – Ahimsa: Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Inspired modern movements (Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.)

18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Jainism So whats the Appeal of Jainism – Rejected caste and jati; appealed to the underprivileged – Concept of Ahimsa is very peaceful and welcome to many people, – However, the Asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement – What is Asceticism?

19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c BCE – Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life – Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk Intense meditation and extreme asceticism – 49 days of meditation under a bo tree (Bodh Gaya) to finally achieve enlightenment – Attained title Buddha: the enlightened one – Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE

20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 The Buddha and his Followers Publicly announced his doctrine nearby the Buddhist holy city Banaras (Varanasi) – Followers lived ascetic lives: simple clothing, food, and wandering – Establishment of monastic communities

21 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 The Buddha and his Followers Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma – The Four Noble Truths and the eight-fold path all life involves suffering desire is the cause of suffering elimination of desire removes suffering this may be done through the eight-fold path – (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) A life style based on dharma leads to salvation, nirvana (why use words already known to Hindus?)

22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption middle path Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit Official support – Ashokas conversion to Buddhism and material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities

23 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Changes in Buddhist thought 3 rd c. BCE – 1 st c. CE: reduction in obligations – Devotional focus: Buddha considered divine – Institution of Bodhisattvas (Buddhist saints) – Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity Mahayana (greater vehicle), newer development – India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada), earlier version – Ceylon, Burma, Thailand

24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Changes in Buddhist thought Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda – Quasi-university: Vedas, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine – Peak at end of Gupta dynasty and helped spread Indian thought, e.g. mathematical number zero

25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25

26 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26

27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Buddhist stupa at Sanchi

28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28

29 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29

30 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30

31 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31

32 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32

33 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions – Vedas and Upanishads – Mahabharata and Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations (Opposite :A 13th century Cambodian bronze statue of Vishnu)

34 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 The Bhagavad Gita Song of the Lord Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war Popularity of Hinduism – Gradually replaced Buddhism in India due to doctrinal mass appeal and, – Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support

35 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 Hindu Ethics A proper balance of dharma, artha, and kama leads to moksha (regardless of caste [samsara?]) – Dharma: Emphasis on meeting class obligations – Artha: Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty – Kama: Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure – Moksha: Salvation of the soul o So Dharma+Artha+Kama = Moksha regardless of Caste Birth? And I get to keep my regional traditions? And the Guptas support it? And the Buddhists are not proselytizing as much?

36 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Thesis Describe the religious Changes over Time in South Asia from 260 b.c.e. to 1000 c.e. (whenever you see COT, think what changed and what stayed the same) Can you do it in Ten Minutes? 36

37 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 37

38 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 38 AP Quiz India Paper, Pen Honor Code I have neither given nor received any unauthorized assistance on this assignment EOYOP!

39 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 39 Question 1 This Mauryan ruler adopted Buddhism and carved stone pillar Edicts that helped to spread the religion?

40 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 40 Question 2 This Empire rose to power in the declining years of the Han and Roman Empires and is considered the Golden Age of India?

41 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 41 Question 3 This religion espoused the theory of extreme non-violence called Ahimsa and followed a praised leader called the Mahavira.

42 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 42 Bonus Give one key reason as to why Buddhism never became the majority religion in South Asia?


Download ppt "Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google