Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 4 Chemistry of Carbon Building Blocks of Life.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Chemistry of Carbon Building Blocks of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 4 Chemistry of Carbon Building Blocks of Life

3 Why study Carbon? All of life is built on carbon All of life is built on carbon Cells Cells ~72% H 2 O ~72% H 2 O ~25% carbon compounds ~25% carbon compounds carbohydrates carbohydrates lipids lipids proteins proteins nucleic acids nucleic acids ~3% salts ~3% salts Na, Cl, K… Na, Cl, K…

4 Concept 4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms Vitalism, the idea that organic compounds arise only in organisms, was disproved when chemists synthesized the compounds Vitalism, the idea that organic compounds arise only in organisms, was disproved when chemists synthesized the compounds Mechanism is the view that all natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws Mechanism is the view that all natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws

5 Chemistry of Life Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds C atoms are versatile building blocks C atoms are versatile building blocks bonding properties bonding properties 4 stable covalent bonds 4 stable covalent bonds HH C H H

6 Concept 4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Electron configuration is the key to an atoms characteristics Electron configuration is the key to an atoms characteristics Electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms Electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms

7 The Formation of Bonds with Carbon With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms This tetravalence makes large, complex molecules possible This tetravalence makes large, complex molecules possible In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a tetrahedral shape In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a tetrahedral shape However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a flat shape However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a flat shape The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are the building code that governs the architecture of living molecules The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are the building code that governs the architecture of living molecules

8

9 Complex molecules assembled like Tinker Toys

10 Hydrocarbons Combinations of C & H Combinations of C & H non-polar non-polar not soluble in H 2 O not soluble in H 2 O hydrophobic hydrophobic stable stable very little attraction between molecules very little attraction between molecules a gas at room temperature a gas at room temperature methane (simplest HC)

11 Hydrocarbons can grow

12 Isomers Molecules with same molecular formula but different structures (shapes) Molecules with same molecular formula but different structures (shapes) different chemical properties different chemical properties different biological functions different biological functions 6 carbons

13

14 Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry Two enantiomers of a drug may have different effects Two enantiomers of a drug may have different effects Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules L-Dopa (effective against Parkinsons disease) D-Dopa (biologically Inactive)

15 Concept 4.3: Functional groups are the parts of molecules involved in chemical reactions Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend not only on the carbon skeleton but also on the molecular components attached to it Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend not only on the carbon skeleton but also on the molecular components attached to it Certain groups of atoms are often attached to skeletons of organic molecules Certain groups of atoms are often attached to skeletons of organic molecules

16 Form affects function Structural differences create important functional significance Structural differences create important functional significance amino acid alanine amino acid alanine L-alanine used in proteins L-alanine used in proteins but not D-alanine but not D-alanine medicines medicines L-version active L-version active but not D-version but not D-version sometimes with tragic results… sometimes with tragic results… stereoisomers

17 Form affects function Thalidomide Thalidomide prescribed to pregnant women in 50s & 60s prescribed to pregnant women in 50s & 60s reduced morning sickness, but… reduced morning sickness, but… stereoisomer caused severe birth defects stereoisomer caused severe birth defects

18 Diversity of molecules Substitute other atoms or groups around the carbon Substitute other atoms or groups around the carbon ethane vs. ethanol ethane vs. ethanol H replaced by an hydroxyl group (–OH) H replaced by an hydroxyl group (–OH) nonpolar vs. polar nonpolar vs. polar gas vs. liquid gas vs. liquid biological effects! biological effects! ethane (C 2 H 6 ) ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)

19 Functional groups Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions give organic molecules distinctive properties give organic molecules distinctive properties hydroxyl amino hydroxyl amino carbonyl sulfhydryl carbonyl sulfhydryl carboxyl phosphate carboxyl phosphate Affect reactivity Affect reactivity makes hydrocarbons hydrophilic makes hydrocarbons hydrophilic increase solubility in water increase solubility in water

20 Viva la difference! Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical identical carbon skeleton identical carbon skeleton attachment of different functional groups attachment of different functional groups interact with different targets in the body interact with different targets in the body different effects different effects

21 Hydroxyl –OH –OH organic compounds with OH = alcohols organic compounds with OH = alcohols names typically end in -ol names typically end in -ol ethanol ethanol

22 Carbonyl C=O C=O O double bonded to C O double bonded to C if C=O at end molecule = aldehyde if C=O at end molecule = aldehyde if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone

23 Carboxyl –COOH –COOH C double bonded to O & single bonded to OH group C double bonded to O & single bonded to OH group compounds with COOH = acids compounds with COOH = acids fatty acids fatty acids amino acids amino acids

24 Amino -NH 2 -NH 2 N attached to 2 H N attached to 2 H compounds with NH 2 = amines compounds with NH 2 = amines amino acids amino acids NH 2 acts as base NH 2 acts as base ammonia picks up H + from solution ammonia picks up H + from solution

25 Sulfhydryl –SH –SH S bonded to H S bonded to H compounds with SH = thiols compounds with SH = thiols SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins

26 Phosphate –PO 4 –PO 4 P bound to 4 O P bound to 4 O connects to C through an O connects to C through an O lots of O = lots of negative charge lots of O = lots of negative charge highly reactive highly reactive transfers energy between organic molecules transfers energy between organic molecules ATP, GTP, etc. ATP, GTP, etc.

27 ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes One phosphate molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell One phosphate molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell ATP consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups ATP consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups


Download ppt "Chapter 4 Chemistry of Carbon Building Blocks of Life."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google