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Hellenism and Alexander the Great. The Hellenistic World.

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Presentation on theme: "Hellenism and Alexander the Great. The Hellenistic World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hellenism and Alexander the Great

2 The Hellenistic World

3 Alexander Creativity in Leadership Created and followed plans in the days when no one else seemed to even make plans The plans succeeded because: –Personal desires for greatness –Inspired confidence –Dedication to execution of the plan

4 Alexander the Great Personal Desire for Greatness As a boy, Alexander said: My father will get ahead of me in everything, and will leave nothing great for me to do.

5 The "perfect Greek" –Handsome –Well educated (by Aristotle) –Respectful of Greek past (memorized and carried with him a copy of the Illiad) –Adept in rhetoric and diplomacy (ambassador) –Athletic (competing throughout his life) –Scientist (strong interest in plants, animals, geography, and even took scientists on his campaigns) Alexander Inspired Confidence

6 The Perfect General –Never lost a battle –Personally fought in battles (wounded several times) –After a battle mingled with the survivors –Honored the dead Strongly religious burials Exempted their families from further military duty and from taxes –Broke up regional regiments to have loyalty directly to him Alexander Inspired Confidence

7 The Perfect Conqueror –Spared families of conquered kings This won the cooperation of the families –Treated conquered soldiers with respect This convinced some conquered soldiers to switch sides and support him –Respected local religions and customs Desert soothsayer Rebuilt Karnak and Luxor temples Alexander Inspired Confidence

8 Alexander Ruthless execution of his plans Execution of rivals in the Macedonian court (sensed because his father had been assassinated by a personal guard) Suppression of the Thebian revolt 30,000 Thebians sold into slavery Tyre destroyed (except the temples and the house of Pindar the poet, which perpetuated Alexanders image as the Perfect Greek")

9 Alexander Ruthless execution of his plan Destroy the Persian ports Battle of Granicus River –Crossing of the river during morning Persian sacrifices to the sun and sudden cavalry attack Gordian knot Battle of Issus –Greeks outnumbered 3 to 1 (some say 10 to 1) –Persian emperor, Darius III, personally commanding the Persian army –Alexander personally led attack directly at Darius III –Darius fled, the Persians broke, and the Greeks won the battle –Spared lives of queen and court (admiration from Persians)

10 Alexander Ruthless execution of his plan Battle of Phoenicia and Judea Egypt –Welcomed Alexander –Recognized as Pharaoh –He founded Alexandria Became the center of learning

11 Alexander Ruthless execution of his plan Battle of Gaugamela –Alexander crossed the Tigris River and waited –Several celestial events over next three nights –Alexander attacked directly at Darius and Darius fled –Darius was killed by his own troops

12 Alexander Ruthless execution of his plan Conquest of Eastern Persia Conquest of Bactria (Afghanistan and Pakistan) Turning aside at India and return to Persia

13 Post-Alexander Empire Empire divided by the generals –EgyptPtolemy –Persian area and IndiaSeleucus –PergamumAttalids –Greece, Asia Minor, Macedonia4 generals 1 year old son did not receive the throne PtolemySeleucusAttalids4 Generals

14 Hellenization Hellenistic kingdoms (dynasties) –Border wars between each other –Imported Greeks as bureaucrats, soldiers, artisans (Greek-like cities) Greeks offered land for immigration –Occupied kingdoms adopted Greek ways in addition to their own culture Egyptians, Persians Some Jews resisted (Pharisees versus Saducees)

15 Hellenization Greek became language of art and commerce –Language of the Eastern Mediterranean through Roman and Byzantine Empires (until 1453 AD) Greek Trade –Cities throughout empire –Money standardized (Athenian) –Greeks were natural traders (ancient heritage)

16 Hellenistic Art Often showed movement Victory at Samothrace

17 Hellenistic Art Usually very dramatic Laocoön and His Sons –Story of a man who tried to convince the Trojans not to accept the Trojan horse (killed by Athena with a snake)

18 Architecture Temple of the Muses built at Alexandria –First state-supported university –Teachers from all over the world –Library with a copy of nearly every book Commerce and learning support each other Ships required to allow scribes to copy their books

19 Architecture Lighthouse at Alexandria –Pharos Island –Over 400 feet high –Light intensified with reflectors –One of 7 wonders of ancient world

20 Architecture Temple of Zeus at Pergamum Rivalry with Alexandria –Scholars in Alexandria prohibited shipment of papyrus to Pergamum –Pergamum developed parchment –Parchment works best in sheets bound together (first books)

21 Hellenistic Science Euclid ( BC) –Lived in Alexandria –Compiled Elements of Geometry Used as a text book until 1900 Basis for Newtonian physics

22 Hellenistic Science Archimedes ( BC) –Lived in Syracuse –Greatest scientist until Newton –Trained at Alexandria –Major discoveries in hydraulics, mathematics, mechanics, warfare, and astronomy

23 Archimedes – Hydraulics Invented a planetarium Buoyancy – Kings crown The wreath and the gold have equal weight The wreath displaces more water Macedonian Crown 4 th c. BC

24 Archimedes – Mathematics Geometric calculations –Area/volume of circle, sphere, cone Developed system similar to calculus –Polygons inside circle with ever higher numbers of sides –Calculated value for pi () to accuracy of Devised Scientific notation (5 x 10 7 )

25 Archimedes – Mechanics Levers –Defined theory Pulleys –Challenge to drag a ship Ship building –Giant ship –Cargo of 60 ships

26 Archimedes – Warfare War with the Romans –Claw cranes

27 Archimedes – Warfare Catapults Mirrors

28 Modern attempt to duplicate mirror warfare (at MIT)

29 Archimedes Creativity (Environment and Motivation) Favor to the King –civic duty Scientific curiosity War His opinion of his greatest accomplishment: –"Perfect" geometric shape which he asked to be inscribed on his tomb –Sphere inscribed in cylinder Volume ratios = 3:2 Surface ratios = 3:2 –Ratio of volumes and areas of cone, sphere and cylinder = 9:6:4

30 Hellenistic Science Aristarchus of Samos (250 BC) –Purposed heliocentric universe Eratosthenes –Calculated the circumference of the earth –Claimed a ship could sail around Africa to India –Claimed a ship could sail west to India

31 Hellenistic Creativity Discussion: How can a leader affect creativity? Discussion: Is theory more creative than application?

32 Thank You Be bold in your personal creativity.

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