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AP Chap. 7 Theme 1763 – 1775 The Road to Revolution

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1 AP Chap. 7 Theme 1763 – 1775 The Road to Revolution
The American Revolution occurred because the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts under mercantilism to impose tighter imperial controls and high taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in The sustained conflict over political authority and taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights within the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country. Each side had both advantages and disadvantages.

2 Something to think about…
How revolutionary was the American Revolution??

3 I. The Deep Roots of Revolution
First a revolution of thought England’s colonies settled largely by emigrants Emigration to America Food shortages Disease Cannibalism Authorities unfit to tell people what to do; 13 independent parliaments of the colonies Emigrants began to think of themselves as Americans

4 II. The Mercantile Theory
Colonies founded informally by trading companies, religious groups, and land speculators Exception of Georgia Mercantilism Theory that wealth = power Colonies economic advantage to Britain Britain exported more than imported Colonies regarded as existing to help the mother country, esp. its navy, and supply what England couldn’t

5 III. Mercantilist Trammels on Trade
Navigation Laws Restricted commerce to and from colonies Other European goods to colonies be taxed first To keep $$ within empire Enumerated goods like tobacco only for Eng. Forbidden to manufacture certain products for export so no competition with Eng. Woolen cloth and beaver hats No banks = no currency so printed own; forbidden London regulated legislation passed in colonies

6 IV. The Merits of Mercantilism
“Salutary neglect” Smuggling increased (Hancock) Benefits of mercantilism: Liberal bounties/price supports Monopoly of British market - tobacco Rights of Englishman Self-gov’t opportunities British army protected against French, Dutch, Spaniards Average American better off than average Englishman

7 V. The Menace of Mercantilism
Colonies burdened with annoying liabilities and now the Navigation Acts will be enforced N. felt S. colonies favored over them, but S. felt they were at mercy of British merchants tobacco, sugar, and rice Colonies felt England was milking them like cows (see background pic!) “We revolted because England failed to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one.” Teddy Roosevelt

8 VI. The Stamp Tax Uproar Victory of French & Indian War = huge debt for Britain Colonies asked to pay 1/3 of the cost of maintaining garrison for protection but not for costs of war Grenville is Prime Minister Enforced Navigation Laws more strictly in 1763 Sugar Act of 1764 – 1st law ever to raise tax revenue in colonies Quartering Act of 1765 – house troops Stamp Act of 1765 – paper goods, documents Trials in admirality courts (no jury) “No taxation without representation!” but British legislation ok But British said “Virtual Representation” (but colonists didn’t really want representation because would be minority in House of Commons!)                

9 Political Cartoons

10 VII. Parliament Forced to Repeal Stamp Act
Stamp Act Congress of 1765 9 colonies Largely ignored by Eng. Step towards intercolonial unity Non-importation agreements Homespun goods* Sons and Daughters of Liberty – a bit violent Tarring and feathering British people affected Stamp Act repealed 1776 But… Declaratory Act to save face Tarring and feathering

11 To the Ladies Young ladies in town, and those that live round
wear none but your own country linen. Of economy boast, let your pride be the most to show clothes of your own make and spinning. What if homespun, they say, be not quite so gay as brocades, be not in a passion. For once it is known, ‘tis much worn in town, one and all will cry out, ‘tis the fashion!

12 VIII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre”
PM Townshend enacts Townshend Acts in 1767 Indirect light tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, tea Revenue used to pay royal governors and judges Smuggling and non-importation Bri. also suspended NY legislature Bri. sends redcoats to Boston Boston Massacre March 5, 1770; 10 redcoats v. 60 Americans Troops fired, 5 citizens killed, Including Crispus Attucks John Adams = attorney for soldiers; 2 found guilty Boston Massacre


14 IX. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence
Townshend Acts repealed except for Tea Tax on principle Samuel Adams Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts, then other colonies, then, with Virginia leading the way, inter-colonial committees ( the first American congresses) Nicknamed the “Penman of the Revolution” Samuel Adams

15 X. Tea Parties at Boston and Elsewhere
1773 – revolution still not inevitable British East India Co. 17 million pounds of unsold tea – ( signing Facing bankruptcy boycott) Gave co. monopoly of American business Lower price for colonists, but… Boston Tea Party 342 chests of teas dumped into Boston Harbor “To tax and to please, no more than to love and be wise, is not given to men.” –Edmund Burke                                                                                                              

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