Presentation on theme: "AP Chap. 7 Theme 1763 – 1775 The Road to Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1AP Chap. 7 Theme 1763 – 1775 The Road to Revolution The American Revolution occurred because the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts under mercantilism to impose tighter imperial controls and high taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in The sustained conflict over political authority and taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights within the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country. Each side had both advantages and disadvantages.
2Something to think about… How revolutionary was the American Revolution??
3I. The Deep Roots of Revolution First a revolution of thoughtEngland’s colonies settled largely by emigrantsEmigration to AmericaFood shortagesDiseaseCannibalismAuthorities unfit to tell people what to do; 13 independent parliaments of the coloniesEmigrants began to think of themselves as Americans
4II. The Mercantile Theory Colonies founded informally by trading companies, religious groups, and land speculatorsException of GeorgiaMercantilismTheory that wealth = powerColonies economic advantage to BritainBritain exported more than importedColonies regarded as existing to help the mother country, esp. its navy, and supply what England couldn’t
5III. Mercantilist Trammels on Trade Navigation LawsRestricted commerce to and from coloniesOther European goods to colonies be taxed firstTo keep $$ within empireEnumerated goods like tobacco only for Eng.Forbidden to manufacture certain productsfor export so no competition with Eng.Woolen cloth and beaver hatsNo banks = no currency so printed own; forbiddenLondon regulated legislation passed in colonies
6IV. The Merits of Mercantilism “Salutary neglect”Smuggling increased (Hancock)Benefits of mercantilism:Liberal bounties/price supportsMonopoly of British market - tobaccoRights of EnglishmanSelf-gov’t opportunitiesBritish army protected against French, Dutch, SpaniardsAverage American better off than average Englishman
7V. The Menace of Mercantilism Colonies burdened with annoying liabilities and now the Navigation Acts will be enforcedN. felt S. colonies favored over them, but S. felt they were at mercy of British merchantstobacco, sugar, and riceColonies felt England was milking them like cows (see background pic!)“We revolted because England failed to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one.”Teddy Roosevelt
8VI. The Stamp Tax UproarVictory of French & Indian War = huge debt for BritainColonies asked to pay 1/3 of the cost of maintaining garrison for protection but not for costs of warGrenville is Prime MinisterEnforced Navigation Laws more strictly in 1763Sugar Act of 1764 – 1st law ever to raise tax revenue in coloniesQuartering Act of 1765 – house troopsStamp Act of 1765 – paper goods, documentsTrials in admirality courts (no jury)“No taxation without representation!” but British legislation okBut British said “Virtual Representation” (but colonists didn’t really want representation because would be minority in House of Commons!)
10VII. Parliament Forced to Repeal Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress of 17659 coloniesLargely ignored by Eng.Step towards intercolonial unityNon-importation agreementsHomespun goods*Sons and Daughters of Liberty –a bit violentTarring and featheringBritish people affectedStamp Act repealed 1776But… Declaratory Act to save faceTarring and feathering
11To the Ladies Young ladies in town, and those that live round wear none but your own country linen.Of economy boast, let your pride be the mostto show clothes of your own make and spinning.What if homespun, they say, be not quite so gay as brocades, be not in a passion.For once it is known, ‘tis much worn in town, one and all will cry out, ‘tis the fashion!
12VIII. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre” PM Townshend enacts Townshend Acts in 1767Indirect light tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, teaRevenue used to pay royal governors and judgesSmuggling and non-importationBri. also suspended NY legislatureBri. sends redcoats to BostonBoston MassacreMarch 5, 1770; 10 redcoatsv. 60 AmericansTroops fired, 5 citizens killed,Including Crispus AttucksJohn Adams = attorney for soldiers;2 found guiltyBoston Massacre
14IX. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence Townshend Acts repealed except for Tea Tax on principleSamuel AdamsCommittees of Correspondence in Massachusetts, then other colonies, then, with Virginia leading the way, inter-colonial committees( the first American congresses)Nicknamed the “Penman of the Revolution”Samuel Adams
15X. Tea Parties at Boston and Elsewhere 1773 – revolution still not inevitableBritish East India Co.17 million pounds of unsold tea – ( signingFacing bankruptcy boycott)Gave co. monopoly of American businessLower price for colonists, but…Boston Tea Party342 chests of teas dumpedinto Boston Harbor“To tax and to please, no morethan to love and be wise, is notgiven to men.” –Edmund Burke