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Chapter 11 Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Intelligence

2 Defining Intelligence
Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Operational Definition: Operations used to measure a concept Aptitude: Capacity for learning certain abilities Multiple Aptitude Test: Test that measures two or more abilities General Intelligence Test: Test that measures a wide variety of mental abilities

3 Fig Special aptitude tests measure a person’s potential for achievement in a limited area of ability, such as manual dexterity. Multiple aptitude tests measure potentials in broader areas, such as college work, law or medicine. Intelligence tests measure a very wide array of aptitudes and mental abilities

4 Fig.11.2 Sample questions like those found on tests of mechanical aptitude. (The answers are A and the Driver.)

5 Reliability Reliability: A measure should give the same score each time the same person takes it Test-Retest: Give test to a large group, then give exactly the same test to same group later Split-Half: Making sure scores on one-half of a test match the scores on the other half

6 Validity Validity: Ability of a test to measure what it is purported to measure Criterion Validity: Comparing test scores to actual performance Comparing SAT to college grades

7 Testing Intelligence Norm: Average score for a designated group of people Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; for ages 2-90! Chronological Age: Person’s age in years Mental Age: Average intellectual performance Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100 Average IQ in the USA is 100

8 Fig.11.4 The stability or reliability of IQ scores increases rapidly in early childhood. Scores are very consistent from early adulthood to later middle age. (Source: Schuerger & Witt, 1989.)

9 More IQ Terms Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scores IQ scores are not very dependable until a child reaches age 6 Terminal Decline: Abrupt decline in measured IQ about 5 years before death

10 Wechsler Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Third Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilities Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months, 30 days SB5 is better suited for children and adolescents WISC-IV to be published in 2003

11 Wechsler Scales Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence; measured by solving puzzles, completing pictures, and assembling objects Verbal Intelligence: Language intelligence; measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, information, arithmetic, and other language-oriented tasks

12 Group Tests These tests can be given to a large group of people with little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice items Army Alpha was the first group intelligence test; developed for those entering World War I in the USA Normal (Bell-Shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to the average, and very few are found at the extremes

13 IQ Research Men and women do not appear to differ in overall intelligence A strong correlation (about .50) exists between IQ and school grades

14 Giftedness Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5)

15 Mental Retardation (or Developmental Disabilities): Some Definitions
Presence of a developmental disability and an IQ score below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior also figures into the definition Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing, eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-care Familial Retardation: Mild mental retardation that occurs in homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual stimulation, medical care, and emotional support

16 Organic Causes of Mental Retardation
Related to physical disorders Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen during delivery Fetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the mother Metabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects energy use and production in the body Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes

17 Types of Organic Causes
Phenylketonuria (PKU): Genetic disease in which the child lacks an important enzyme. Allows phenylpyruvic acid to accumulate in the body If untreated, severe retardation may occur by age 3 Routine medical tests at birth can detect PKU Treat with phenylalanine-free diet (found, for example, in Aspartame, known as Nutrasweet)

18 More Organic Causes of Mental Retardation
Microcephaly: Head and brain are abnormally small; brain is forced to develop in a limited space Hydrocephaly: Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles (brain cavities); pressure can enlarge the head and damage the brain Cretinism: Stunted growth and retardation caused by insufficient supply of thyroid hormone May also be caused by lack of iodine Easily detected in infancy

19 Down Syndrome Down Syndrome: Genetic disorder caused by presence of extra chromosome (usually on the 21st pair; trisomy 21); results in mental retardation and shorter life span Does not run in the family Older a woman is, greater the risk to produce a Down’s child Older fathers also contribute (about 25% of the time) No cure, but is detectable before birth

20 Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome: Genetic form of retardation caused by defect in X chromosome Runs in families Sex-linked; mainly affects boys Most suffer from hyperactivity and attention disorders Become more severely retarded as adults

21 Heredity and Environment
Eugenics: Selective Breeding for desirable characteristics Fraternal Twins: Twins conceived from two separate eggs Identical twins: Twins who develop from a single egg and have identical genes Many researchers believe that intelligence is a combination of heredity (genes) and environment (upbringing); contributing percentage of each is not known yet

22 New Ways of Viewing Intelligence
Speed of Processing: Brain’s speed and efficiency; how fast you and your brain can process information Inspection Time: Amount of time a person must look at a stimulus to make a correct judgment about it Neural Intelligence: Speed and efficiency of the nervous system; innate Experiential Intelligence: Specialized knowledge and skills acquired over time

23 Fig.11.8 Attempts to measure the speed of mental processing have taken several forms. In this example, the person must make a rapid choice based on the position of a colored stimulus flashed on the computer screen. A faster reaction time is assumed to reflect faster processing of information. In some experiments, brain responses are measured directly, through electrodes attached to the scalp.

24 Fig.11.9 Stimuli like those used in inspection time tasks.

25 New Ways of Viewing Intelligence (cont.)
Reflective Intelligence: Ability to become aware of one’s own thinking habits Metacognitive Skills: Ability to manage one’s own thinking and problem solving efforts

26 Gardner’s Theory of Intelligence: Some Concepts
Multiple Intelligences: Theory posed by Howard Gardner that states we have several specialized types of intellectual ability G-Factor: General ability factor; assumed to explain the high correlations among various intellectual measures

27 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences
Language: Used for thinking by lawyers, writers, comedians Logic and Math: Used by scientists, accountants, programmers Visual and Spatial Thinking: Used by engineers, inventors, aviators Music: Used by composers, musicians, music critics

28 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences (cont.)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Used by dancers, athletes, surgeons Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Used by poets, actors, ministers Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Used by psychologists, teachers, politicians Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): Used by biologists, organic farmers

29 A Different Type of Intelligence Test
Culture-Fair Test: Test designed to minimize importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others

30 Fig. 11. 10 No intelligence test can be entirely free of cultural bias
Fig No intelligence test can be entirely free of cultural bias. However, culture-fair intelligences test try to minimize the effects of growing up in various cultures. The following sample items are from a culture-fair test. 1. Which pattern is different from the remaining four? (Number 3.) 2. Which of the five figures on the right would properly continue the three on the left_that is, fill in the blank? (Number 5.) 3. Which of the figures on the right should go in the square on the left to make it look right? (Number 2.) 4. At left, the dot is outside the square and inside the circle. In which of the figures on the right could you put a dot outside the square and inside the circle? (Number 3) (Courtesy of R.B. Cattell).

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