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Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 1. New intellectual and religious movements. 2. Social reforms. 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in.

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Presentation on theme: "Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 1. New intellectual and religious movements. 2. Social reforms. 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Trends in Antebellum America: New intellectual and religious movements. 2. Social reforms. 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. 4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. 5. Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions. 6. Increase in American nationalism. 7. Further westward expansion. 1. New intellectual and religious movements. 2. Social reforms. 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. 4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. 5. Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions. 6. Increase in American nationalism. 7. Further westward expansion.

3 Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

4 3 Themes of Manifest Destiny the virtue of the American people and their institutions;virtue the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; andmission the destiny under God to accomplish this work.destiny

5 Implications of Manifest Destiny And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us. John L. OSullivan

6 Advice on the Prairie" by William T. Ranney 1853

7 John Gasts American Progress

8 American Progress by John Gast, 1872

9 The Promised Land--The Grayson Family, William S. Jewett The Grayson family presents us with a scene of domestic bliss, the wide open and above all, empty space away to the West. The light calling to the family to seek out new lands.

10 Manifest Destiny by W. M. Cary

11 The Pony Express Between April, 1860 and Nov., Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA. Took 10 days. Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line. Between April, 1860 and Nov., Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA. Took 10 days. Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line.

12 Aroostook War, 1839 The only war ever declared by a state. Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the war. General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue. The only war ever declared by a state. Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the war. General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.

13 Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842

14 Movement to the Far West American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840s Settlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England

15 Borderlands of the 1830s Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary Americans begin settling in Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim) New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) California (owned by Mexico)

16 Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century

17 The Texas Revolution 1820s--Americans move into Texas "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule Mexico tries abolishing slavery armed rebellion breaks out

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19 Texas Declaration of Independence

20 Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston ( ) Stephen Austin ( )

21 Remember the Alamo!

22 Davey Crocketts Last Stand

23 The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

24 The Goliad Affair: Mexican forces executed 365 Texan prisoners who had surrendered. Several weeks after the surrender of the Alamo, General José Urrea engaged a force of Texans under the command of Colonel James W. Fannin at the small town of Goliad. Surrounded and outnumbered, Fannin surrendered in the belief that he and his men would be afforded the recognized rights of prisoners of war. Santa Anna, however, ordered Nicolás de la Portilla to execute the prisoners, which he promptly did despite some moral misgiving. All 365 prisoners were executed.

25 Antonio López de Santa Anna

26 San Jacinto: Santa Annas Surrender

27 The Republic of Texas

28 March, Texans declare independence April, Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto May, Santa Annas treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

29 Texas Revolution

30 Trails of Trade and Settlement Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexicos war with Texas Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation

31 The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830 Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxy Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois Murder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah

32 The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah State of Deseret established Desert transformed into farmland Mormons at first resist U.S. governance Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah

33 Western Trails

34 Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.

35 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

36 Trails Westward

37 The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847

38 The Doomed Donner Party James Reed & Wife Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! CANNIBALISM ! ! CANNIBALISM ! !

39 Tyler and Texas John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrisons death Tyler breaks with Whigs Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re- election campaign issue Senate refuses to ratify Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

40 The Triumph of Polk and Annexation Democrats nominate James K. Polk Polk runs on expansionist platform annexation of Texas for Southern vote U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated

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43 James Knox Polk: Young Hickory?

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45 James G. Birney and The Liberty Party: Decisive?

46 Liberty Party

47 Election of 1844

48 The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny "Manifest destiny" first used in 1845 God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger Americans make new territories free and democratic growing American population needs land Limits to American expansion undefined

49 Polk and the Oregon Question Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation England prepares for war, proposes division of the area Senate approves division of Oregon along 49 o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound North condemned Polk for division

50 Northwest Boundary Dispute

51 The Oregon Dispute: 54 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, Oregon Fever was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846.

52 The Bear Flag Republic John C. Frémont The Revolt June 14, 1845

53 Manifest Destiny and the Mexican- American War Widespread call for annexation of newly-settled lands Manifest Destiny a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada

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55 The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California at any price. Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California at any price. John Slidell

56 Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)

57 War, Expansion, and Slavery, War with Mexico, Polks Expansionist Program 2. American Military Successes

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60 The Mexican War ( )

61 War with Mexico May 13, War on Mexico declared General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern Mexico Colonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frémont in taking California by early 1847 September, General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City

62 Settlement of the Mexican- American War February, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern border New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. Mexican War politically contentious Whigs oppose Northerners see as Slave Power expansion

63 The Mexican-American War

64 General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto Old Rough and Ready

65 The Bombardment of Vera Cruz

66 General Scott Enters Mexico City Old Fuss and Feathers

67 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator

68 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000). Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000). The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!

69 Results of the Mexican War? The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics. * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny was partially realized. The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics. * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny was partially realized.

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71 The Mexican Cession

72 War, Expansion, and Slavery, California Gold and Racial Warfare 1. The Forty-Niners 2. Racial Warfare and Land Rights

73 GOLD! At Sutters Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter

74 California Gold Rush, ers

75 Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s By 1860, almost 300,000 people had traveled the Oregon & California Trails to the Pacific coast.

76 Territorial Growth to 1853

77 Internal Expansionism Young Americans link territorial growth to other material achievements technological innovatione.g. telegraph transportation improvements growth of trade mass immigration Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects Territorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues

78 Westward the Course of Empire Emmanuel Leutze, 1860

79 The Costs of Expansion Working class poses problem for ideals working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming ones own master new class of permanent wage-earners conflicts with old ideal Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable


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