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Manifest Destiny.

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Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manifest Destiny

2 Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860
New intellectual and religious movements. Social reforms. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions. Increase in American nationalism. Further westward expansion.

3 “Manifest Destiny” First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

4 3 Themes of Manifest Destiny
the virtue of the American people and their institutions; the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and the destiny under God to accomplish this work.

5 Implications of Manifest Destiny
“And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.” John L. O’Sullivan

6 Advice on the Prairie" by William T. Ranney 1853

7 John Gast’s “American Progress”

8 “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

9 The Promised Land--The Grayson Family, 1850. William S. Jewett
The Grayson family presents us with a scene of domestic bliss, the wide open and above all, empty space away to the West. The light calling to the family to seek out new lands.

10 Manifest Destiny by W. M. Cary

11 The Pony Express Between April, 1860 and Nov., 1861.
Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA. Took 10 days. Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line.

12 Aroostook “War,” 1839 The only war ever declared by a state.
Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.” General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.

13 Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842

14 Movement to the Far West
American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840s Settlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England

15 Borderlands of the 1830s 1842--Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary Americans begin settling in Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim) New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) California (owned by Mexico)

16 Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century

17 The Texas Revolution 1820s--Americans move into Texas
"Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule 1829--Mexico tries abolishing slavery 1835--armed rebellion breaks out

18 Texas Independence ( )

19 Texas Declaration of Independence

20 Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
Sam Houston ( ) Stephen Austin ( )

21 Remember the Alamo!

22 Davey Crockett’s Last Stand

23 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

24 The Goliad Affair: Mexican forces executed 365 Texan prisoners who had surrendered. Several weeks after the surrender of the Alamo, General José Urrea engaged a force of Texans under the command of Colonel James W. Fannin at the small town of Goliad. Surrounded and outnumbered, Fannin surrendered in the belief that he and his men would be afforded the recognized rights of prisoners of war. Santa Anna, however, ordered Nicolás de la Portilla to execute the prisoners, which he promptly did despite some moral misgiving. All 365 prisoners were executed.

25 Antonio López de Santa Anna

26 San Jacinto: Santa Anna’s Surrender

27 The Republic of Texas

28 The Republic of Texas March, 1836--Texans declare independence
April, Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto May, Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

29 Texas Revolution

30 Trails of Trade and Settlement
Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with Texas Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation

31 The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830 Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxy Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois Murder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah

32 The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah
1847--State of Deseret established Desert transformed into farmland Mormons at first resist U.S. governance 1857--Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah

33 Western Trails

34 Overland Immigration to the West
Between 1840 and , more than ,000 people made the trek westward.

35 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

36 Trails Westward

37 The Doomed Donner Party
April, 1846 – April, 1847

38 The Doomed Donner Party
CANNIBALISM ! ! Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! James Reed & Wife

39 Tyler and Texas 1841--John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death Tyler breaks with Whigs 1844--Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue Senate refuses to ratify Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

40 The Triumph of Polk and Annexation
Democrats nominate James K. Polk Polk runs on expansionist platform annexation of Texas for Southern vote U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated

41 Complete Explanation: A figurative portrayal of the 1844 presidential contest as a cock-fight, in which Whig candidate Henry Clay prevails. Clay and Democratic opponent Polk battle in a pit or ring as several prominent political figures look on. The Polk bird is obviously waning, having lost many of its feathers. Clay crows, "Cock a doodle doo doo." Outside the ring some of the spectators comment on the action. Daniel Webster (far left) says: "I'll bet one of my best Chowders on the Kentucky Rooster [i.e., Clay]." Beside him Clay's running-mate Theodore Frelinghuysen watches silently. Disappointed Democratic aspirant Martin Van Buren (center) remarks, "They rejected me, let them look to their Champion!" Beside Van Buren stand (left to right) prominent Democrats John C. Calhoun, Thomas Hart Benton, Andrew Jackson, and an unidentified fourth man. Jackson comments, "By the Eternal! I doubt the pluck of that Cock from Tenessee [Polk], if he does "go for Texas."

42  A woodland fantasy satirizing the prominent figures of the 1844 election campaign. The artist again favors Whig candidate Henry Clay, the "Kentucky Coon," who is shown overwhelming Democrat James K. Polk, the "Tennesse Alligator," in a wrestling contest. Clay exults, "It is no use to try to poke this nondescript "animal" (i.e., Polk) against the Peoples Coon." (Oddly, the head on the alligator here bears little resemblance to the dark horse candidate.) About the forest lurk several other animals with the heads of Democrat and Whig notables. On the right stands John C. Calhoun, as a camel, and Andrew Jackson, as a giraffe. Calhoun carries on his back a cornucopia filled with turnips and declares, "We bring peace and plenty!" Jackson: "Altho I am one of those exalted characters who can "overlook" almost everything, yet I cannot overlook this disaster to our cause!" Several rats scurry past the two Democrats, one of them being Martin Van Buren, who says "I'm off for Lindenwald, basely deserted by my friends." Lindenwald was the name of Van Buren's estate, whence he retired after losing the Democratic nomination to Polk. To the left incumbent John Tyler, as a rattlesnake, coils around a tree. Tyler, who acceded to the presidency on William Henry Harrison's death, was considered a traitor to the Whig cause. On the ground nearby is a bear, Daniel Webster, who says (referring to Polk), "I'll put my foot on him when you are done, and that will sink him out of sight." Running ahead of Webster is hard-money advocate Thomas Hart Benton, as a boar with a sack of "Mint Drops" on his back. He exclaims, "That Coon does not, evidently belong to our family, but he is a ROARER!" Perched on a branch above is an American eagle with his wings outspread, a common patriotic emblem.

43 James Knox Polk: “Young Hickory?”


45 James G. Birney and The Liberty Party: Decisive?

46 Liberty Party

47 Election of 1844

48 The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny
"Manifest destiny" first used in 1845 God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger Americans make new territories free and democratic growing American population needs land Limits to American expansion undefined

49 Polk and the Oregon Question
1846--Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation England prepares for war, proposes division of the area Senate approves division of Oregon along 49o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound North condemned Polk for division

50 Northwest Boundary Dispute

51 The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!
By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in

52 The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt  June 14, 1845 John C. Frémont

53 Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War
Widespread call for annexation of newly-settled lands “Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada

54 The Mexican War ( )

55 The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845
Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California at any price. John Slidell

56 Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)

57 War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846-1850
War with Mexico, Polk’s Expansionist Program 2. American Military Successes War, Expansion, and Slavery, War with Mexico, Polk’s Expansionist Program – Texas voted to join Union, Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with U.S.; Polk began efforts to gain other northern provinces of Mexico (CA, NM); diplomatic relations broke down; Polk sent 2,000 soldiers to occupy disputed lands; war began between Mexico and U.S.; Polk accepted a negotiated settlement with Britain at 49th parallel in Oregon territory. American Military Successes – army led by Gen. Zachary Taylor; end of 1846 U.S. controlled most of northeast Mexico; secured California early in 1847; fighting continued with U.S. attacking Mexico City, defeated Santa Anna.



60 The Mexican War ( )

61 War with Mexico May 13, 1846--War on Mexico declared
General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern Mexico Colonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frémont in taking California by early 1847 September, General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City

62 Settlement of the Mexican-American War
February, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern border New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. Mexican War politically contentious Whigs oppose Northerners see as Slave Power expansion

63 The Mexican-American War

64 General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto
“Old Rough and Ready”

65 The Bombardment of Vera Cruz

66 General Scott Enters Mexico City
“Old Fuss and Feathers”

67 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator

68 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico! Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).

69 Results of the Mexican War?
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny was partially realized.

70 Unresolved Issues & New Opportunities

71 The Mexican Cession

72 War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846-1850
California Gold and Racial Warfare 1. The Forty-Niners 2. Racial Warfare and Land Rights War, Expansion, and Slavery, California Gold and Racial Warfare The Forty-Niners – 1848 gold discovered in California; rush of men, ships, and wagons to the West began – 80,000 men by end of 1849; lived in cramped quarters, gambling, alcohol, prostitution; ruthless treatment of Indians, Mexicans, Chileans, Chinese; disease killed many; many men were disillusioned by failure to find wealth. Racial Warfare and Land Rights – Indians received no protection from what little law enforcement existed in California; disease; settlers murdered Indians to take their land; creation of a slave-like trade among whites taking Indians as labor; despite treaties with Mexico, whites wanted to push Californios off their land; many sold the land to whites simply to leave the region; whites who settled in the northern part of California had more success with crops.

73 GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter

74 California Gold Rush, 1849 49er’s

75 Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s
By 1860, almost 300, people had traveled the Oregon & California Trails to the Pacific coast.

76 Territorial Growth to 1853

77 Internal Expansionism
“Young Americans” link territorial growth to other material achievements technological innovation—e.g. telegraph transportation improvements growth of trade mass immigration Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects Territorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues

78 Westward the Course of Empire Emmanuel Leutze, 1860

79 The Costs of Expansion Working class poses problem for ideals
working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming one’s own master new class of permanent wage-earners conflicts with old ideal Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable

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