2Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 New intellectual and religious movements.Social reforms.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization.Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions.Increase in American nationalism.Further westward expansion.
3“Manifest Destiny”First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
43 Themes of Manifest Destiny the virtue of the American people and their institutions;the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; andthe destiny under God to accomplish this work.
5Implications of Manifest Destiny “And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.”John L. O’Sullivan
9The Promised Land--The Grayson Family, 1850. William S. Jewett The Grayson family presents us with a scene of domestic bliss, the wide open and above all, empty space away to the West. The light calling to the family to seek out new lands.
11The Pony Express Between April, 1860 and Nov., 1861. Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA.Took 10 days.Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line.
12Aroostook “War,” 1839 The only war ever declared by a state. Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine.Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials.Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.”General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
14Movement to the Far West American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840sSettlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England
15Borderlands of the 1830s1842--Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundaryAmericans begin settling inOregon territory (joint U.S., English claim)New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico)California (owned by Mexico)
16Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century
17The Texas Revolution 1820s--Americans move into Texas "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule1829--Mexico tries abolishing slavery1835--armed rebellion breaks out
23General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo The Battle of the AlamoGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
24The Goliad Affair:Mexican forces executed 365 Texan prisoners who had surrendered.Several weeks after the surrender of the Alamo, General José Urrea engaged a force of Texans under the command of Colonel James W. Fannin at the small town of Goliad.Surrounded and outnumbered, Fannin surrendered in the belief that he and his men would be afforded the recognized rights of prisoners of war.Santa Anna, however, ordered Nicolás de la Portilla to execute the prisoners, which he promptly did despite some moral misgiving. All 365 prisoners were executed.
28The Republic of Texas March, 1836--Texans declare independence April, Santa Anna defeated at San JacintoMay, Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates)Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlersAnnexation to U.S. refused by Jackson
30Trails of Trade and Settlement Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with TexasOregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon countryOregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation
31The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American ChristianityMormons persecuted for unorthodoxyFlee New York for Nauvoo, IllinoisMurder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah
32The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah 1847--State of Deseret establishedDesert transformed into farmlandMormons at first resist U.S. governance1857--Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah
37The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847
38The Doomed Donner Party CANNIBALISM ! !Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen BreenOf the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California!James Reed & Wife
39Tyler and Texas1841--John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s deathTyler breaks with Whigs1844--Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issueSenate refuses to ratifyTyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay
40The Triumph of Polk and Annexation Democrats nominate James K. PolkPolk runs on expansionist platformannexation of Texas for Southern voteU.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern votePolk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansionTexas annexed before Polk inaugurated
41Complete Explanation: A figurative portrayal of the 1844 presidential contest as a cock-fight, in which Whig candidate Henry Clay prevails. Clay and Democratic opponent Polk battle in a pit or ring as several prominent political figures look on. The Polk bird is obviously waning, having lost many of its feathers. Clay crows, "Cock a doodle doo doo." Outside the ring some of the spectators comment on the action. Daniel Webster (far left) says: "I'll bet one of my best Chowders on the Kentucky Rooster [i.e., Clay]." Beside him Clay's running-mate Theodore Frelinghuysen watches silently.Disappointed Democratic aspirant Martin Van Buren (center) remarks, "They rejected me, let them look to their Champion!" Beside Van Buren stand (left to right) prominent Democrats John C. Calhoun, Thomas Hart Benton, Andrew Jackson, and an unidentified fourth man. Jackson comments, "By the Eternal! I doubt the pluck of that Cock from Tenessee [Polk], if he does "go for Texas."
42 A woodland fantasy satirizing the prominent figures of the 1844 election campaign. The artist again favors Whig candidate Henry Clay, the "Kentucky Coon," who is shown overwhelming Democrat James K. Polk, the "Tennesse Alligator," in a wrestling contest. Clay exults, "It is no use to try to poke this nondescript "animal" (i.e., Polk) against the Peoples Coon." (Oddly, the head on the alligator here bears little resemblance to the dark horse candidate.) About the forest lurk several other animals with the heads of Democrat and Whig notables. On the right stands John C. Calhoun, as a camel, and Andrew Jackson, as a giraffe. Calhoun carries on his back a cornucopia filled with turnips and declares, "We bring peace and plenty!" Jackson: "Altho I am one of those exalted characters who can "overlook" almost everything, yet I cannot overlook this disaster to our cause!" Several rats scurry past the two Democrats, one of them being Martin Van Buren, who says "I'm off for Lindenwald, basely deserted by my friends." Lindenwald was the name of Van Buren's estate, whence he retired after losing the Democratic nomination to Polk. To the left incumbent John Tyler, as a rattlesnake, coils around a tree. Tyler, who acceded to the presidency on William Henry Harrison's death, was considered a traitor to the Whig cause. On the ground nearby is a bear, Daniel Webster, who says (referring to Polk), "I'll put my foot on him when you are done, and that will sink him out of sight." Running ahead of Webster is hard-money advocate Thomas Hart Benton, as a boar with a sack of "Mint Drops" on his back. He exclaims, "That Coon does not, evidently belong to our family, but he is a ROARER!" Perched on a branch above is an American eagle with his wings outspread, a common patriotic emblem.
48The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny "Manifest destiny" first used in 1845God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become strongerAmericans make new territories free and democraticgrowing American population needs landLimits to American expansion undefined
49Polk and the Oregon Question 1846--Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupationEngland prepares for war, proposes division of the areaSenate approves division of Oregon along 49o north latitude, Treaty of 1846U.S. gains ownership of Puget SoundNorth condemned Polk for division
51The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in
52The Bear Flag RepublicThe Revolt June 14, 1845John C. Frémont
53Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War Widespread call for annexation of newly-settled lands“Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada
55The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt.US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.US would buy California at any price.John Slidell
56Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
57War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846-1850 War with Mexico, Polk’s Expansionist Program 2. American Military SuccessesWar, Expansion, and Slavery,War with Mexico,Polk’s Expansionist Program – Texas voted to join Union, Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with U.S.; Polk began efforts to gain other northern provinces of Mexico (CA, NM); diplomatic relations broke down; Polk sent 2,000 soldiers to occupy disputed lands; war began between Mexico and U.S.; Polk accepted a negotiated settlement with Britain at 49th parallel in Oregon territory.American Military Successes – army led by Gen. Zachary Taylor; end of 1846 U.S. controlled most of northeast Mexico; secured California early in 1847; fighting continued with U.S. attacking Mexico City, defeated Santa Anna.
61War with Mexico May 13, 1846--War on Mexico declared General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern MexicoColonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frémont in taking California by early 1847September, General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City
62Settlement of the Mexican-American War February, Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoRio Grande becomes southern borderNew Mexico, California ceded to U.S.Mexican War politically contentiousWhigs opposeNortherners see as Slave Power expansion
66General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
67Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
68Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).
69Results of the Mexican War? The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease).New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South.Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.Manifest Destiny was partially realized.
72War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846-1850 California Gold and Racial Warfare 1. The Forty-Niners 2. Racial Warfare and Land RightsWar, Expansion, and Slavery,California Gold and Racial WarfareThe Forty-Niners – 1848 gold discovered in California; rush of men, ships, and wagons to the West began – 80,000 men by end of 1849; lived in cramped quarters, gambling, alcohol, prostitution; ruthless treatment of Indians, Mexicans, Chileans, Chinese; disease killed many; many men were disillusioned by failure to find wealth.Racial Warfare and Land Rights – Indians received no protection from what little law enforcement existed in California; disease; settlers murdered Indians to take their land; creation of a slave-like trade among whites taking Indians as labor; despite treaties with Mexico, whites wanted to push Californios off their land; many sold the land to whites simply to leave the region; whites who settled in the northern part of California had more success with crops.
77Internal Expansionism “Young Americans” link territorial growth to other material achievementstechnological innovation—e.g. telegraphtransportation improvementsgrowth of trademass immigrationDiscovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projectsTerritorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues
78Westward the Course of Empire Emmanuel Leutze, 1860
79The Costs of Expansion Working class poses problem for ideals working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming one’s own masternew class of permanent wage-earners conflicts with old idealEconomic expansion creates conflicts between classesTerritorial expansion creates conflicts between sectionsBoth sets of conflicts uncontrollable