Presentation on theme: "Chap. 10 Launching the New Ship of State"— Presentation transcript:
1Chap. 10 Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800 ObjectivesAssess the successes and failures of the fledgling government.Chart the platform of our first two political parties: The Federalists and the (Democratic) Republicans.
2Themes:Led by Washington and Hamilton, the first administration under the Constitution overcame various difficulties and firmly established the political and economic foundations of the new federal government. A Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution, and precedents were established.
3The Cabinet debate over Hamilton’s financial measure with the creation of the Bank of the United States expanded into a wider political conflict partially centered around interpretation of the “elastic clause” between Hamiltonian Federalists and Jeffersonian Democratic -Republicans—the first political parties in America.
4The French Revolution created a severe ideological and political division over foreign policy between pro-British Federalists and the pro-French Republicans. The foreign-policy crisis coincided with domestic political divisions that culminated in the bitter election of 1800, but in the end, power passed peacefully from Federalists to Republicans (the so-called “Revolution of 1800.”)
5I. A New Ship on an Uncertain Sea 1790 = 4 million people, 90% rural, 95% east of AppalachiansVermont, Ken, Tenn, Ohio in as statesDistrust of governmentWestern settlers restiveFinances precarious
6II. Washington’s Pro-Federalist Regime Washington unanimously elected by Electoral CollegeTemporary 1st capital = New York CityEstablishes precedent of CabinetSec. Of State = Thomas JeffersonSec. Of Treasury = Alexander HamiltonSec. Of War = Henry KnoxAnd Postmaster General
7III. The Bill of RightsAnti-federalists opposed Consti. because lacked oneProposed by 2/3 of Congress w/ Madison’s helpRatified by 9 states by 17911 Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, petition2 Right to bear arms3 Quartering of soldiers4 Unreasonable searches and seizures5 Trial rights, right to life, liberty, and property6 Criminal trial rights7 Civil trial rights8 Bail and punishments9 All rights are not listed10 All rights not listed reserved to states + peopleJudiciary Act of 1789 to set up federal courtsJohn Jay = 1st Chief Justice + 5
8IV.Hamilton Revives Corpse of Public Credit Sec. Of Treasury = Alexander HamiltonA bit of an elitist, but a financial wizardFavor wealthy who’d be grateful to gov’tMust improve our credit!Funding at par – gov’t will pay face value on debtsSpeculators grabbed up bonds when dirt-cheapAssume complete debtTie all states as well as rich to federal gov’t this wayStates w/ smaller debt (mainly the South) not happy, so…Assumption BillPay the entire debt at par and putnation’s new capital in the South
10Designed by Frenchman Pierre L’Enfant Notice anysimilaritiesto Paris?
11V. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Debt is now $75 millionHamilton – debt is a blessing—more money you are owed, more stake you have in stable gov’tSources of paying debt?1. External customs duties/tariff = 8%Both revenue and protective purposes2. Internal excise taxOn some domestic items, esp. whiskeyThis will hurt western farmers
13VI. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Hamilton’s idea: Private bank w/ government the major stockholder and w/ government deposits but with limited government involvement; print currency = loose constructionJefferson’s reaction: No! Not allowed for in enumerated powers in Constitution (Art. I, Sec. 8, clauses 1-17); so therefore right is reserved to states = strict constructionHamilton’s reaction to that? “elastic” necessary and proper clause of 18th clause implies it since gov’t can coin money, collect taxes, regulate trade, etc.Bank chartered for 20 years; mostsupport came from North
14VII.Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Whiskey RebellionUnhappy westerners against excise tax because they’ve been distilling grain since it’s cheaper to transportTar and feather tax collectorsWashington calls militia; 13,000 arrive“Whiskey Boys” had dispersedSignificance? New government commands a new respect! (Not like with Shays’ Rebellion!)
15VIII. The Emergence of Political Parties Many of Hamilton’s successes at the cost of states’ rights (funding, assumption, excise tax, bank)Leads to rise of first 2 partiesFounding Fathers hadn’t prepared for thatIronically, most agree parties improve democracy
16The Impact of the French Revolution French Revolution has a huge impact on new U.S. and worldJefferson’s Democratic-Republicans – support war, even with terrorHamilton’s Federalists – oppose war, especially with Reign of TerrorThen French Revolution spread to Britain which will now affect us
17X. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation 1778 Franco-American alliance still in effect; U.S. supposed to help them defend West IndiesJeffersonians want to honor allianceWashington felt we were too new to risk it; must delay involvementNeutrality Proclamation of 1793 (announcedw/out consulting Congress)Gov’t is neutral and so should citizens beJefferson resigns from the CabinetReplaced by Edmund RandolphCitizen Genet tries to secure our involvementWe were incensed; he was sent home and replacedOur neutrality actually favored France – they needed us to feed Fr. West Indies; Bri. could blockade us
18XI. Embroilments with Britain British retained posts on US soil to insureits fur trade and use Indians to bufferGen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne – defeatedIndians in Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794Leads to Treaty of Greenvilleof 1795 – ceded OhioBri. assumed we’d defend France’s West Indies, so they seized 300 of our ships, impressed our sailor, and threw others into dungeonsThough the Jeffersonians were especially angry, again, we cannot risk war with anyone so early
19XII. Jay’s Treaty, Washington’s Farewell Jay’s Treaty of 1794Britain will evacuate posts, paydamages for anything pastNo promises for future seizures, impressments, IndiansWe will pay our debts on pre-war accountsJeffersonians feel this is humiliating and are galvanized to form their partyPinckney’s Treaty of 1795Spain doesn’t want us to get too close to Bri.free use of Mississippi and disputed Fla. landWashington’s Farewell AddressEstablishes precedent of 2 term limitWarns us of permanent alliances and parties
20XIII. “Bonny Johnny” Becomes President Hamilton was unpopular, so Fed.chose John AdamsDem.-Rep. chose Thomas JeffersonSome rather ugly campaigningAdams won, but Jefferson came in second because Founding Fathers hadn’t anticipated distinct parties; corrected by 12th AmendmentAdams not as formidable as WashingtonStuffy, stubborn, tactless, aristocratic, trying to fill Washington’s shoes, hated by Hamilton who has split off into “high Federalists,” and we’re still quarrelling w/ Fr.
21XIV. Unofficial Fighting with France France angry about Jay’s TreatyStart seizing our ships, impressing our sailorsWon’t receive our envoy in ParisAdams sent 3 men to FranceJohn Marshall + 2 hope to meet TalleyrandApproached by X, Y, Z wanting a bribeReturn home“Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute!”Federalists happy, Jeffersonians ashamedWar preparation at homeNavy and Marine Corps establishedSome bloodshed in West IndiesWill there be war with France?!
22XV. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party Talleyrand makes up to us, because he doesn’t want war or to drive us closer to BritainAdams at high point of popularity, but wisely wants to also avoid war, so appoints new minister to France (Hamiltonians angry)3 new envoys meet w/ NapoleonConvention of 1800Fr. will annul alliance w/ usUS, not Fr., will pay claims of Amer. shippersOur only peacetime mil. alliance 150 yearsAdams did good to preserve peace; laysgroundwork for La. Purchase
23XVI. The Federalist Witch Hunt Federalists had gotten anti-Jeffersonian lawspassed due to anti-French frenzyAlien ActsLengthened residency time fornaturalization from 5 to 14 yrs.Pres. can deport dangerous foreigners inpeacetime and imprison them in wartimeSedition Acts (to expire in 1801 before next election)Anyone who impeded or defamed gov’t or officials could be fined and imprisonedWhat about freedoms of press and speech?!Ten tried and convictedYet popular support for laws
24XVI. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Jefferson penned Kentucky ResolutionsMadison penned Virginia Resolutions(remember, Madison had been a Federalist!)Both called on “Compact theory” of gov’t –contract between states and federal gov’tStates have the right to “nullify”laws of excessive gov’tOthers said people had madecontract, so it was up to SupremeCourt to rule laws unconstitutionalDefeated, but will be used by Southbefore secession
25XVII Federalists v Democratic-Republicans See chart for differences (next)
26Issue Fed. Dem.-Rep. Leader Hamilton Jefferson Level of power National StatesBritishProAntiFranceWho rulesThe bestInformed massesElastic clauseloosestrictBankLivelihoodCommercialAgrarianSupportCoast, NorthernS, SWTariffAlien & Sed. ActsNavy