Presentation on theme: "Chap. 10 Launching the New Ship of State 1789- 1800 Objectives Assess the successes and failures of the fledgling government. Chart the platform of our."— Presentation transcript:
Chap. 10 Launching the New Ship of State Objectives Assess the successes and failures of the fledgling government. Chart the platform of our first two political parties: The Federalists and the (Democratic) Republicans.
Themes: Led by Washington and Hamilton, the first administration under the Constitution overcame various difficulties and firmly established the political and economic foundations of the new federal government. A Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution, and precedents were established.
The Cabinet debate over Hamiltons financial measure with the creation of the Bank of the United States expanded into a wider political conflict partially centered around interpretation of the elastic clause between Hamiltonian Federalists and Jeffersonian Democratic -Republicansthe first political parties in America.
The French Revolution created a severe ideological and political division over foreign policy between pro-British Federalists and the pro-French Republicans. The foreign-policy crisis coincided with domestic political divisions that culminated in the bitter election of 1800, but in the end, power passed peacefully from Federalists to Republicans (the so-called Revolution of 1800.)
I. A New Ship on an Uncertain Sea 1790 = 4 million people, 90% rural, 95% east of Appalachians Vermont, Ken, Tenn, Ohio in as states Distrust of government Western settlers restive Finances precarious
II. Washingtons Pro-Federalist Regime Washington unanimously elected by Electoral College Temporary 1 st capital = New York City Establishes precedent of Cabinet –Sec. Of State = Thomas Jefferson –Sec. Of Treasury = Alexander Hamilton –Sec. Of War = Henry Knox –And Postmaster General
III. The Bill of Rights Anti-federalists opposed Consti. because lacked one Proposed by 2/3 of Congress w/ Madisons help Ratified by 9 states by Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, petition 2 Right to bear arms 3 Quartering of soldiers 4 Unreasonable searches and seizures 5 Trial rights, right to life, liberty, and property 6 Criminal trial rights 7 Civil trial rights 8 Bail and punishments 9 All rights are not listed 10 All rights not listed reserved to states + people Judiciary Act of 1789 to set up federal courts John Jay = 1 st Chief Justice + 5
IV.Hamilton Revives Corpse of Public Credit Sec. Of Treasury = Alexander Hamilton –A bit of an elitist, but a financial wizard –Favor wealthy whod be grateful to govt Must improve our credit! –Funding at par – govt will pay face value on debts Speculators grabbed up bonds when dirt-cheap –Assume complete debt Tie all states as well as rich to federal govt this way States w/ smaller debt (mainly the South) not happy, so… Assumption Bill –Pay the entire debt at par and put nations new capital in the South
Designed by Frenchman Pierre LEnfant Notice any similarities to Paris?
V. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Debt is now $75 million Hamilton – debt is a blessingmore money you are owed, more stake you have in stable govt Sources of paying debt? –1. External customs duties/tariff = 8% Both revenue and protective purposes –2. Internal excise tax On some domestic items, esp. whiskey This will hurt western farmers
VI. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Hamiltons idea: Private bank w/ government the major stockholder and w/ government deposits but with limited government involvement; print currency = loose construction Jeffersons reaction: No! Not allowed for in enumerated powers in Constitution (Art. I, Sec. 8, clauses 1-17); so therefore right is reserved to states = strict construction Hamiltons reaction to that? elastic necessary and proper clause of 18 th clause implies it since govt can coin money, collect taxes, regulate trade, etc. Bank chartered for 20 years; most support came from North
VII.Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Whiskey Rebellion –Unhappy westerners against excise tax because theyve been distilling grain since its cheaper to transport –Tar and feather tax collectors –Washington calls militia; 13,000 arrive –Whiskey Boys had dispersed Significance? New government commands a new respect! (Not like with Shays Rebellion!)
VIII. The Emergence of Political Parties Many of Hamiltons successes at the cost of states rights (funding, assumption, excise tax, bank) Leads to rise of first 2 parties Founding Fathers hadnt prepared for that Ironically, most agree parties improve democracy
IX.The Impact of the French Revolution French Revolution has a huge impact on new U.S. and world Jeffersons Democratic- Republicans – support war, even with terror Hamiltons Federalists – oppose war, especially with Reign of Terror Then French Revolution spread to Britain which will now affect us
X. Washingtons Neutrality Proclamation 1778 Franco-American alliance still in effect; U.S. supposed to help them defend West Indies Jeffersonians want to honor alliance Washington felt we were too new to risk it; must delay involvement Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 (announced w/out consulting Congress) –Govt is neutral and so should citizens be –Jefferson resigns from the Cabinet Replaced by Edmund Randolph Citizen Genet tries to secure our involvement –We were incensed; he was sent home and replaced Our neutrality actually favored France – they needed us to feed Fr. West Indies; Bri. could blockade us
XI. Embroilments with Britain British retained posts on US soil to insure its fur trade and use Indians to buffer Gen. Mad Anthony Wayne – defeated Indians in Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794 –Leads to Treaty of Greenville of 1795 – ceded Ohio Bri. assumed wed defend Frances West Indies, so they seized 300 of our ships, impressed our sailor, and threw others into dungeons Though the Jeffersonians were especially angry, again, we cannot risk war with anyone so early
XII. Jays Treaty, Washingtons Farewell Jays Treaty of 1794 –Britain will evacuate posts, pay damages for anything past –No promises for future seizures, impressments, Indians –We will pay our debts on pre-war accounts Jeffersonians feel this is humiliating and are galvanized to form their party Pinckneys Treaty of 1795 –Spain doesnt want us to get too close to Bri. –free use of Mississippi and disputed Fla. land Washingtons Farewell Address –Establishes precedent of 2 term limit –Warns us of permanent alliances and parties
XIII. Bonny Johnny Becomes President Hamilton was unpopular, so Fed. chose John Adams Dem.-Rep. chose Thomas Jefferson Some rather ugly campaigning Adams won, but Jefferson came in second because Founding Fathers hadnt anticipated distinct parties; corrected by 12 th Amendment Adams not as formidable as Washington –Stuffy, stubborn, tactless, aristocratic, trying to fill Washingtons shoes, hated by Hamilton who has split off into high Federalists, and were still quarrelling w/ Fr.
XIV. Unofficial Fighting with France France angry about Jays Treaty –Start seizing our ships, impressing our sailors –Wont receive our envoy in Paris Adams sent 3 men to France –John Marshall + 2 hope to meet Talleyrand –Approached by X, Y, Z wanting a bribe –Return home –Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute! –Federalists happy, Jeffersonians ashamed War preparation at home –Navy and Marine Corps established –Some bloodshed in West Indies Will there be war with France?!
XV. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party Talleyrand makes up to us, because he doesnt want war or to drive us closer to Britain Adams at high point of popularity, but wisely wants to also avoid war, so appoints new minister to France (Hamiltonians angry) 3 new envoys meet w/ Napoleon Convention of 1800 –Fr. will annul alliance w/ us –US, not Fr., will pay claims of Amer. shippers –Our only peacetime mil. alliance 150 years Adams did good to preserve peace; lays groundwork for La. Purchase
XVI. The Federalist Witch Hunt Federalists had gotten anti-Jeffersonian laws passed due to anti-French frenzy Alien Acts –Lengthened residency time for naturalization from 5 to 14 yrs. –Pres. can deport dangerous foreigners in peacetime and imprison them in wartime Sedition Acts (to expire in 1801 before next election) –Anyone who impeded or defamed govt or officials could be fined and imprisoned –What about freedoms of press and speech?! –Ten tried and convicted –Yet popular support for laws
XVI. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Jefferson penned Kentucky Resolutions Madison penned Virginia Resolutions (remember, Madison had been a Federalist!) Both called on Compact theory of govt – contract between states and federal govt States have the right to nullify laws of excessive govt Others said people had made contract, so it was up to Supreme Court to rule laws unconstitutional Defeated, but will be used by South before secession
XVII Federalists v Democratic-Republicans See chart for differences (next)