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1. 2 knowledge structure SFL Sociology of knowledge [Bernstein]

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 knowledge structure SFL Sociology of knowledge [Bernstein]"— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 knowledge structure SFL Sociology of knowledge [Bernstein]

3 3 1.Field -activity sequence -taxonomy (classification & composition)

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5 5 - activity "In parts of the earth beneath the crust... heat accumulates to such an extent that it does cause local melting of rocks to form a molten mass called magma. This molten material is under such enormous pressure that some of it is forced into any cracks and crevices that might form in the upper solid crust of the earth, and in surrounding solid rock. Some of this molten material can actually cool and solidify without reaching the earth's surface; in other cases molten material is pushed right through the earth's surface and forms a volcano. When molten material is forced out to the earth's surface it is called lava." [Messel 1963: 12.1, ]

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8 8 igneous sedimentary metamorphic

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11 11 2. Knowledge in science - activity - classification - composition

12 12 Clouds have their origins in the water that covers 70 per cent of the earth's surface. Millions of tons of water vapour are evaporated into the air daily from oceans, lakes and rivers, and by transpiration from trees, crops and other plant life. As this moist air rises it encounters lower pressures, expands as a result, and in doing so becomes cooler. As the air cools it can hold less water vapour and eventually will become saturated. It is from this point that some of the water vapour will condense into tiny water droplets to form cloud (about one million cloud droplets are contained in one rain-drop). Thus, whenever clouds appear they provide visual evidence of the presence of water in the atmosphere. - activity: cloud formation...

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14 14 There are ten main cloud types, which are further divided into 27 sub-types according to their height shape, colour and associated weather. Clouds are categorised as low (from the earth's surface to 2.5 km), middle (2.5 to 6 km), or high (above 6 km). They are given Latin names which describe their characteristics, e.g. cirrus (a hair), cumulus (a heap), stratus (a layer) and nimbus (rain-bearing). It's an interesting fact that all clouds are white, but when viewed from the ground some appear grey or dark grey according to their depth and shading from higher cloud. - taxonomy: classification

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18 18 - images also portray composition...

19 19 We can pursue composition further into the realm of physics and atomic structure. There we learn that water is a V-shaped molecule, known chemically as H2O (meaning two hydrogen and one oxygen atom bonded together into a molecule). Pushing further we might find that water molecules are symmetric, with two mirror planes of symmetry and a 2-fold rotation axis... - uncommonsense composition...

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22 22 1 High-level clouds o 1.1 Cirrus o 1.2 Cirrocumulus o 1.3 Cirrostratus o 1.4 Contrail 2 Medium-level clouds o 2.1 Altostratus... o 2.2 Altocumulus o 2.3 Nimbostratus 3 Low-level clouds o 3.1 Stratocumulus o 3.2 Stratus o 3.3 Cumulus 4 Vertically developed clouds o 4.1 Cumulonimbus - subclassification of major cloud types...

23 23 altostratus clouds, which form when "a large air mass is condensed, usually from a frontal system, and can bring rain or snow” altostratus duplicatus altostratus lenticularis altostratus mammatus altostratus opacus altostratus praecipitatio altostratus radiatus altostratus translucidus altostratus undulatus - further subclassification...

24 24 Kingdom (animalia - obtain food, mobile... Phylum (chordata - with hollow dorsal nervous system Sub-phylum (vertebrata - with a backbone Class (mammalia - with hair & mammary glands Order (primates - with grasping hand Family (hominidae - man-like reasoning Genus (homo -... Species (sapiens living things...

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30 Technicality

31 31 There are ten main cloud types, which are further divided into 27 sub-types according to their height shape, colour and associated weather. Clouds are categorised as low (from the earth's surface to 2.5 km), middle (2.5 to 6 km), or high (above 6 km). They are given Latin names which describe their characteristics, e.g. cirrus (a hair), cumulus (a heap), stratus (a layer) and nimbus (rain-bearing). It's an interesting fact that all clouds are white, but when viewed from the ground some appear grey or dark grey according to their depth and shading from higher cloud. - technicality arising from classification & composition...

32 32 Warm fronts. When a warm air stream meets a colder air mass, the warm air, being less dense, slides up over the cold air and the temperature falls. Condensation generally ensues. The surface between the two air masses is inclined at a smaller angle than is the case for a cold front. Warm fronts are rare in Australia. The approach of a warm front is heralded by the appearance of high, white, wispy clouds, known as cirrus cloud. As the front approaches, the clouds become lower and thicker, culminating in masses of heavy rain clouds. The weather usually clears quickly after the front has passed. However, a warm front is commonly followed, after an interval which may be anything up to a day or more, by a cold front. [Mesel ] - technicality arising from activity...

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34 34 Warm fronts. When a warm air stream meets a colder air mass, the warm air, being less dense, slides up over the cold air and the temperature falls. Condensation generally ensues. The surface between the two air masses is inclined at a smaller angle than is the case for a cold front. Warm fronts are rare in Australia. The approach of a warm front is heralded by the appearance of high, white, wispy clouds, known as cirrus cloud. As the front approaches, the clouds become lower and thicker, culminating in masses of heavy rain clouds. The weather usually clears quickly after the front has passed. However, a warm front is commonly followed, after an interval which may be anything up to a day or more, by a cold front. [Mesel ] - technicality constructed by definition...

35 35 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs as a result of cold front conditions. Fig. 7.7 shows how a cold front causes uplift and condensation in a warmer, humid, air mass. The arrival of a cold front is marked by a sharp drop in temperature and a sudden change of the wind direction. - technicality constructed by definition...

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38 38 The amount of water vapour present in a sample of air is called the humidity. The amount of water vapour actually present in the air, expressed as a percentage of the amount needed to saturate it at its temperature, is called the relative humidity. In a low pressure area - often called a depression or simply a “low”,... - definitions (constructing technicality)...

39 39 - it is important to keep in mind that technical terms are more than just words... their role in building uncommon sense classification, composition and activity in science is crucial!

40 40 3. Humanities knowledge (history) 3.1 classification & composition

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42 42 - some borrowed composition for entities... e.g. government agencies (note acronyms DIMIA, DFAT, DEET, HREOC): DIMIADept of Immigration, Mutlicultural & Indigenous Affairs DFATDept of Foreign affairs & Trade DEET Dept of Employment, Education and Training HREOCHuman Rights & Equal Opportunity Commission etc.

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45 45 - setting in time...

46 46 - named phases of time...

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48 48 Once time is packaged as a thing it can be named; and where proper names become established for phases of history, they do transcend the text/s which created them and enter into the field as technical terms. Examples include Tampa, Mabo, The Sharpeville Massacre, The Long March, the Depression, The First Gulf War. In short then we can say that the ‘technicality’ of history has to do with activity not participants, but that activity is reconstructed as a participant that gets named and potentially technicalised as part of an uncommon sense composition taxonomy. - so, in history...

49 historical explanation...

50 50 - explaining...

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52 52 cause inside the clause cause between clauses

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56 56 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs as a result of cold front conditions. Fig. 7.7 shows how a cold front causes uplift and condensation in a warmer, humid, air mass. The arrival of a cold front is marked by a sharp drop in temperature and a sudden change of the wind direction. - comparing science...

57 57 - causality between clauses... if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place.

58 58 This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs as a result of cold front conditions. Fig. 7.7 shows how a cold front causes uplift and condensation in a warmer, humid, air mass. noun verb prepositional adjectival - causality within clauses...

59 59 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler because ‘the temperature of an expanding air mass falls because it uses heat energy to expand’

60 60 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. So usually cumulous clouds form.

61 61 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs as a result of cold front conditions. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs because cold front conditions occur.

62 62 Cold fronts.... Fig. 7.7 shows how a cold front causes uplift and condensation in a warmer, humid, air mass. Fig. 7.7 shows how a warmer, humid air mass rises and (water vapour) condenses because a cold front (arrives).

63 63 The arrival of a cold front is marked (cf. is heralded) by a sharp drop in temperature and a sudden change of the wind direction. - evidence of...

64 64 Cold fronts. A stream of comparatively cold, dense air tends to move along close to the ground as it flows towards regions in which warmer, less dense, air is rising. This rising air becomes cooler for the reasons mentioned earlier, and if it is humid condensation of water vapour will take place. The resulting clouds are usually of the cumulous type. The front edge of the cold air mass is known as a cold front. Much of the rain that falls in Australia occurs as a result of cold front conditions. Fig. 7.7 shows how a cold front causes uplift and condensation in a warmer, humid, air mass. The arrival of a cold front is marked by a sharp drop in temperature and a sudden change of the wind direction.

65 65 - like history, science tends to construct causal relations inside the clause; this facilitates packaging up the relevant causes and effects - unlike history, science does not exploit this resource to introduce finely nuanced types of cause

66 66 4. Nominalisation (grammatical metaphor) - e.g. sociology...

67 67 Consider a situation where a small holder meets another and complains that what he/she had done every year with great success, this year failed completely. The other says that when this happened he/she finds that this 'works'. He/she then outlines the successful strategy. Now any restriction to circulation and exchange reduces effectiveness. Any restriction specialises, classifies and privatises knowledge. Stratification procedures produce distributive rules which control the flow of procedures from reservoir to repertoire. Thus both Vertical and Horizontal discourses are likely to operate with distributive rules which set up positions of defence and challenge. - Bernstein changing gears...

68 68 - writing as we speak (another Basil Bernstein example) Imagine four lavatories. The first is stark, bare, pristine, the walls are painted a sharp white; the washbowl is like the apparatus, a gleaming white. A square block of soap sits cleanly in an indentation in the sink. A white towel (or perhaps pink) is folded neatly on the chrome rail or hangs from a chrome ring. The lavatory paper is hidden in a cover, and peeps through its slit. participants as nouns: lavatory, walls, washbowl, apparatus, soap, sink, towel, rail, ring, paper qualities as adjectives: stark, bare, pristine, white, square processes as verbs: imagine, are painted, sits, is folded, hangs, is hidden, peeps

69 69 - writing as we speak (another Basil Bernstein example) Imagine four lavatories. The first is stark, bare, pristine, the walls are painted a sharp white; the washbowl is like the apparatus, a gleaming white. A square block of soap sits cleanly in an indentation in the sink. A white towel (or perhaps pink) is folded neatly on the chrome rail or hangs from a chrome ring. The lavatory paper is hidden in a cover, and peeps through its slit. participants as nouns: lavatory, wall, washbowl, apparatus, soap, sink, towel, rail, ring, paper

70 70 - writing as we speak (another Basil Bernstein example) Imagine four lavatories. The first is stark, bare, pristine, the walls are painted a sharp white; the washbowl is like the apparatus, a gleaming white. A square block of soap sits cleanly in an indentation in the sink. A white towel (or perhaps pink) is folded neatly on the chrome rail or hangs from a chrome ring. The lavatory paper is hidden in a cover, and peeps through its slit. participants as nouns: lavatory, walls, washbowl, apparatus, soap, sink, towel, rail, ring, paper qualities as adjectives: stark, bare, pristine, white, square

71 71 - writing as we speak (another Basil Bernstein example) Imagine four lavatories. The first is stark, bare, pristine, the walls are painted a sharp white; the washbowl is like the apparatus, a gleaming white. A square block of soap sits cleanly in an indentation in the sink. A white towel (or perhaps pink) is folded neatly on the chrome rail or hangs from a chrome ring. The lavatory paper is hidden in a cover, and peeps through its slit. participants as nouns: lavatory, walls, washbowl, apparatus, soap, sink, towel, rail, ring, paper qualities as adjectives: stark, bare, pristine, white, square processes as verbs: imagine, are painted, sits, is folded, hangs, is hidden, peeps

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73 73 In the second lavatory there are books on a shelf, pictures on the wall, and some relaxing of the rigours of the first. In the third lavatory there are books on the shelf, pictures on the wall, and perhaps a scattering of tiny objects. In the fourth lavatory the rigour is totally relaxed. The walls are covered with a motley array of postcards, there is a wide assortment of reading matter and curio. The lavatory roll is likely to be uncovered and the holder may well fall apart in use. nominalising (processes as things): some relaxing of the rigours of the first [not organised as strictly] a scattering of tiny objects [tiny objects are scattered (about)] in use [when used] - towards writing as we write...

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75 75 We can say that as we move from the first to the fourth lavatory we are moving from a strongly classified to a weakly classified space; from a space regulated by strong rules of exclusion to a space regulated by weak rules of exclusion. [Bernstein 1975: 153] 'cause in the clause' (nominalised processes as Agents): a space regulated by strong rules of exclusion - written explanations...

76 76 Imagine four lavatories. The first is stark, bare, pristine, the walls are painted a sharp white; the washbowl is like the apparatus, a gleaming white. A square block of soap sits cleanly in an indentation in the sink. A white towel (or perhaps pink) is folded neatly on the chrome rail or hangs from a chrome ring. The lavatory paper is hidden in a cover, and peeps through its slit. In the second lavatory there are books on a shelf, pictures on the wall, and some relaxing of the rigours of the first. In the third lavatory there are books on the shelf, pictures on the wall, and perhaps a scattering of tiny objects. In the fourth lavatory the rigour is totally relaxed. The walls are covered with a motley array of postcards, there is a wide assortment of reading matter and curio. The lavatory roll is likely to be uncovered and the holder may well fall apart in use. We can say that as we move from the first to the fourth lavatory we are moving from a strongly classified to a weakly classified space; from a space regulated by strong rules of exclusion to a space regulated by weak rules of exclusion. [Bernstein 1975: 153] - drifting from exemplification to theory (Maton’s semantic gravity)...

77 77 - Bernstein’s explanatory drift...

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79 79 the pay-off - explanations (Halliday 1998, 2004; Martin & Wodak 2004) Consider a situation where a small holder meets another and complains that what he/she had done every year with great success, this year failed completely. The other says that when this happened he/she finds that this 'works'. He/she then outlines the successful strategy. Now any restriction to circulation and exchange reduces effectiveness. Any restriction specialises, classifies and privatises knowledge. Stratification procedures produce distributive rules which control the flow of procedures from reservoir to repertoire. Thus both Vertical and Horizontal discourses are likely to operate with distributive rules which set up positions of defence and challenge.

80 80 Now any restriction to circulation and exchange (Agent) reduces effectiveness (Medium) Any restriction (Agent) specialises, classifies and privatises knowledge (Medium) Stratification procedures (Agent) produce distributive rules… (Medium) distributive rules which (Agent) control the flow of procedures from reservoir to repertoire (Medium)...distributive rules which (Agent) set up position of defence and challenge (Medium) - finely tuned causality...

81 81 5. Types of knowledge structure - science - social science - humanities

82 82 - a sociological perspective

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86 86 ‘testing’ ‘interpreting’

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91 91 - degrees of technicality (re verticality) linguistics sociology

92 92 - knowledge activity & taxonomy (classification; composition) - grammatical metaphor defining & explaining - horizontal & vertical knowledge structures verticality ( ) grammaticality (‘testable’ propositions/instantiation) L1 L2 L3

93 93 5. SFL as a knowledge structure - warring triangle (‘social science’) - relatively strong verticality (technical; extravagant hierarchies/complementarities) - relatively strong grammaticality (e.g. realisation, instantiation, individuation...) text

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96 96 - e.g. rank hierarchy

97 97 - e.g. metafunction complementarity

98 98 - verticality, hierarchy & complementarity hierarchycomplementarity complementary hierarchies!

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100 100 - deep taxonomy...

101 101 - multiperspectival text analysis

102 102 system text system text system text reservoir repertoire reservoir repertoire reservoir repertoire instantiation individuation realisation ‘overdetermined grammaticality’

103 Deploying SFL - formulating knowledge structures e.g. - history as taxonomy (partial; shallow); compositional construals of time - history as activity (sequence in time, setting in time, cause in the clause) - featuring extensive grammatical metaphor, very little of which is subsumed in technicality

104 104 - genre perspective... exploring the topologies of genres a field affords...

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107 107 - typological perspective...

108 108 - learner pathway...

109 109 For horizontal knowledge structures (e.g. history), are we... - adding verticality? - adding grammaticality? - adding a new language (a more ‘vertical’ one!)? - engineering a metasemiotic system (a system which takes another semiotic system as its content plane)?

110 110 For hierarchical knowledge structures (e.g. science), are we... - subtracting verticality? - subtracting grammaticality? - horizontalising by adding another (less vertical) language? - engineering metasemiotic a system (a system which takes another semiotic system as its content plane)?

111 111 And how is it that our metasemiotic deconstructions seem to facilitate a more democratic apprenticeship...? enabling a visible pedagogy... with metasemiosis deployed for - curriculum planning - designing pedagogic interactions - and as a lingua franca for teachers & students

112 Implications - field and genre in a model of social context - SFL readings of Muller’s verticality & grammaticality - the role of metasemiosis in pedagogic discourse [F Christie & J R Martin [Eds] Language, Knowledge and Pedagogy: functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London: Continuum]

113 113 Bernstein, B 1996 Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: theory, research, critique. London: Taylor & Francis. [Revised Edition 2000] Christie, F & J R Martin [Eds.] 2007 Language, Knowledge and Pedagpgy: functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London: Continuum. Coffin, C 2006 Historical Discourse: the language of time, cause and evaluation. London; Continuum. Halliday, M A K 2004 The Language of Science. London: Continuum (Vol 5 in the Collected Works of M A K Halliday J Webster Ed.). London: Continuum. Halliday, M A K & J R Martin 1993 Writing Science: literacy and discursive power. London: Falmer (Critical Perspectives on Literacy and Education). Halliday, M A K & C M I M Matthiessen 1999 Construing Experience through Language: a language-based approach to cognition. London: Cassell. Halliday, M A K & C M I M Matthiessen 2004 An Introduction to Functional Grammar. (3rd Edition) London: Arnold. Martin, J R & D Rose 2003 Working with Discourse: meaning beyond the clause. London: Continuum. Martin, J R & R Veel (eds.) 1998 Reading Science: critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science. London: Routledge. Martin, J R & R Wodak (eds.) 2004 Re/reading the past: critical and functional perspectives on discourses of history Amsterdam: Benjamins. Muller, J 2000 Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and education policy. London: Routledge (Knowledge, Identity and School Life Series 8).


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