Presentation on theme: "ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO1 Des smart grids aux smart communités japonaises From Smart-Grids to Smart Communities in Japan Yveline LECLER."— Presentation transcript:
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO1 Des smart grids aux smart communités japonaises From Smart-Grids to Smart Communities in Japan Yveline LECLER Lyons Institute of East Asian Studies Professor at Sciences-Po Lyon ARC 6: Forum "Le Web : quelles mutations dans la prise des décisions ?"
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO2 Plan of the paper Point 1 draw the energy and environmental situation of Japan over time and the policy landscape that led to the smart community concept development explain what a smart community is or is supposed to be Point 2 presents the program describing main characteristics of each selected projects Point 3 concludes by pointing out some of the questions preliminary surveys have unveiled The multi-actors governance The overlapping programs through the case of Kyoto (city and prefecture)
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO3 A new demonstration program In 2010 METI launched the « Demonstration of Next- Generation Energy and Social System » program Based on: former experimentation on smart-grids and on green technologies developed by Japanese firms ICT integrated to power grids, making them ‘smart’ and opening the door to new solutions To address global warming, reduction of GHG, security of purchasing etc., while maintaining good quality and stability of grids Introduction of large quantity of renewable energies into the grid; Stability ensure thanks to real time consumption control through visualization functions; Possibility for power provider to adjust demand-offer by introducing power from non renewables when demand peak/not enough renewables
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO4 Smart-grids experimentations To take a strong position in establishment of international standards, to gain markets in growing worldwide demand for such infrastructure and finally to strengthen the country competitiveness Japan Smart Grid Technology Market Value Forecast 2011 to 2016 (in U.S. millions) Source: Zpryme Smart Grid Insights, March 2012
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO5 What is a smart community ？ According to METI home page: “regional deployment of next-generation energy and social systems that combine in multiple ways concepts such as the “coordinated use” of energy, which means effectively using not only electricity but also heat and untapped energy as well as the transformation of regional transport systems and people’s lifestyle”.
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO6 Why smart community and not smart-grid? The idea seems to be that: thanks to the world leading electric power grid network that the country could build and with Japanese companies know how and innovation in ICT and environmental technologies it is now possible through coordination and cooperation between power suppliers and demand side users to achieve a greener social system Smart Communities were born
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO7 Smart community: techno ＋ human While smart-grids refer to technologies only smart communities would be (or are supposed to be) the combination of technologies and social system involving citizens whose lifestyle will (or has to) change accordingly Citizens’ involvement pointed out by all promoters as a key factor of success Reality ?
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO8 A new brand to be exported? Projects remain heavily technology oriented Include awareness campaign or education programs at schools but participation to the definition of their future standards of living not on the agenda A marketing offensive to be attractive to populations worldwide?
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO9 Smart communities METI selection 4 areas selected for large-scale pilot projects (April 2010) Over 20 areas applications Funded during 2010-2015 Reasons for choice: quality of the project proposed specificities of each area to test the new configurations in different environments: –A large city for Yokohama –a provincial city for Toyota –a science city for Kyoto-Keihanna district –a special zone in an industrial city for Kitakyushu
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO10 The 4 large scale-pilot projects Source: Hironori Nakanishi (METI), Japan’s Approaches to Smart Community.
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO11 multi-actors issues players are numerous Cities/prefecture at the head Consortium coordinated whether by a leading company or by a special institution/association created for the purpose governance (and players) close to knowledge clusters (MEXT in 2002) + users to be involved researches on clusters have shown how difficult it was to manage cooperation between industry-academia and government (special action to promote cooperation needed) Smart communities need new institutional arrangements to make the structure cooperate and work results and changes they will be able to induce in the life style will probably depend on it
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO12 Programs overlapping: Eco-Towns Smart communities not the only program to promote sustainable cities of the future: in 1997, the Eco-town Model project was launched jointly by METI and Ministry Of Environment (MOE) help local authorities to establish a resource-recycling socio- economic system through cooperation with residents and industries building environmental industries while reducing and recycling waste to be reused (3R) –26 eco-towns labelled under this program
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO13 Programs overlapping: EST and EMC In 2004, MLIT started the Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST) model project jointly with MOE Pilot cities supported to promote public transportation, smoother car traffic, environmental improvement for bicycles and pedestrian, law-emission vehicles and so on in 2008, the Eco-Model City project was launched by the Cabinet as part of the revitalization policies The project aims at building a green economy (ambitious target of GHG emissions reduction). EMC share a lot of elements with smart communities, although not centred on smart-grids. 13 cities have been selected as EMC also called low-carbon cities 3 EMC selected as smart communities: Kitakyushu city, Yokohama city and Toyota city
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO14 Smart communities booming Fukushima accident accelerate the consciousness of Japan vulnerability: nuclear as a solution rejected by population Smart communities quite fashionable, cities want to be one And companies willing to capture the new market create their own smart communities
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO15 The Kyoto EMC Kyoto city an EMC, but not a smart community Smart-City = prefecture project of Kyoto-Keihanna designated (Kyoto-Keihanna only government labelled smart community to start the project without relying on achievements under the EMC scheme) EMC project defined around 3 areas: pedestrian-centred urban planning: expand policies for eco-commuting (200 local government and public offices and 700 other offices: total: 190 000 persons); implement low carbon public transportation (highly frequency, highly reliable buses; power city buses with biodiesel); promote transition of the entire vehicle fleet to eco-cars and EVS by 2018; develop the necessary charging infrastructure for EVs.
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO16 The Kyoto EMC low carbon building and use of local materials: extend CASBEE Kyoto-certified buildings low carbon buildings (energy saving, long-lasting structures) using locally produced materials renewable energies (promote solar power system by expanding subsidies, deploy wood pellet production equipment) lifestyle changes: establish an eco-fund to implement environmental policy by promoting activities in the community and at school and business; the “Do You Kyoto ?” project (the 16th of each month, anniversary of the Kyoto protocol: no TV, no video game campaign at kindergarten, lower light/candle day at restaurants…)
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO17 Kyoto city from EMC to smart community ? ASTEM, in charge of a study group (kenkyukai): “study group on Kyoto smart city” formed in December 2011 includes as members: Kyoto city representatives, research institutes and/or professors (ASTEM, Ritsumeikan University) and companies (Kansai power Company, Omron…) study the transforming of Kyoto city in a smart city/community main elements: integrate renewable energy (solar with storage capacities, small hydro device, heat, biomass), transform houses in smart houses equipped with solar panels and visualization functions, develop an eco-transportation system through eco-friendly buses, EVs, a bicycle rental service, to tend to 0 emission streets implement an eco point system to serve as incentive to transform the house in smart house; or to shift from car to EVs or from EVs to bicycle the whole coordinated by an EMS (ICT center).
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO18 The Kyoto city project Source: NAKAMURA Yukihiro, 2012.
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO19 Final remarks: overlapping EMC project is going on, but: Local funds are tight even for a large city like Kyoto Cities appointed as Eco-Town, then EMC and finally smart community (for example Kitakyushu), are benefiting from a larger support. It is not the case for Kyoto (local incentives): The new consciousness of energy, environment importance coming out from Fukushima accident will it be strong enough to push inhabitants, small business, shops owner etc. to equip houses with solar panels at its own costs in a period of economic uncertainty, income lowering ? Will eco points be enough as incentives? Or will the newly reviewed FIT making it more advantageous to invest in devices for producing solar (or other alternative) energy in house (business) be a better incentive. This needs to be surveyed carefully
ARC6, 18 octobre 2012, Yveline Lecler, IAO20 Thank you for your attention