8Outbreak of war1690: Ottoman Sultan gave Roman Catholic Church authority over churches of Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem1740: Franco-Turkish treaty solidified RCC’s authority, but not many Catholics to protect.By 1840s Nicholas and Russian Orthodox Church basically controlled and assumed authorityOrthodox and Catholic priests actually fought over control of these churches.1844: Nicholas visited Britain, talked with Lord Aberdeen about the Ottoman Empire.8
9Outbreak of war (continued) 1849: Louis Napoleon elected President of France1851: Louis made himself Napoleon III1852: France seized control of the Holy PlacesJanuary 1853: Nicholas to British Ambassador Seymour: “We have a sick man on our hands, a man gravely ill, it will be a great misfortune if one of these days he slips through our hands, especially before the necessary arrangements are made.” (NB: Seymour did not disagree.)1853: Nicholas sent Menshikov to negotiate in Istanbul.2 July 1853: Russian forces occupied Wallachia and Moldova, bullying or brinkmanship?9
10Outbreak of war (continued) 2 July 1853: Russian forces occupied Wallachia and Moldova, bullying or brinkmanship?Vienna note: Russia agreed; the Sultan thought too vague, and felt snubbed.3 October 1853: Encouraged by British and French, Sultan Abdülmecid I declared war on Russia.10
18November 1854: Nightingale and nurses arrived at Scutari
19Endgame March 2, 1855: Nicholas I died Alexander II vowed change Armistice signed on 29 February 1856Treaty of Paris 30 March 1856:Black Sea became neutral territory, no warshipsOttoman independence and territorial integrity were to be “respected.”Ottomans had to proclaim Muslims and non-Muslims equal before the law.Moldavia and Wallachia back under nominal Ottoman ruleRussia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the DanubeRussia forced to abandon its claims to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire in favour of France.19
20Death toll Allies: 374,600 total dead Turks: total dead and wounded: 200,000 est. total dead est. 50,000French: 100,000, of which 10,240 killed in action; 20,000 died of wounds; ca 70,000 died of diseaseBritish: 2,755 killed in action; 2,019 died of wounds; 16,323 died of diseaseSardinians-Italians: 2,050 died from all causesRussians:(estimates vary):High: ca 522,000 killed, wounded and died of diseaseMedium: 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease, of which dead 60,000 to 110,000Low: ca 143,000 dead and 81,000 injured, of which 25,000 killed in action; 16,000 died of wounds; 89,000 died of disease
21Consequences Great Reforms in Russia (1860s) serfdom abolished in 1861 Army reformedIsolation of AustriaWar correspondents change warfareNursing professionalizedBritain and France on same side21
23In , the liberal nationalists had been defeated in their efforts to unify Italy and Germany. By the early 1850’s, the Austrians had re-imposed their control over Italian and German affairs, and the German confederation had been reestablished.Leadership now passed into the hands of professional politicians. They possessed what the revolutionary idealists of 1848 had lacked: power and the will to use power, practical political experience, and a clear vision of their goals.In Italy, Camillo Cavour, the Premier of Piedmont, established a united Kingdom of Italy in 1861, while in Germany, Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian minister-president, created a unified German Empire a decade later.
24Divided Italy South-Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ruled by Bourbon King Center- the Pope governed the Papal StatesNorth-Austrian domination, except for Piedmont
25Camillo CavourAs Premier of the Piedmont carried out a program of liberal reformEstablished banks, built railroadsUnder Cavour, Piedmont became a progressive state
26Cavour’s Foreign Policy Austria presented roadblock to Italian unificationCavour sought French assistanceSent troops to Crimean war in 1854-to win support from France and England
27Cavour met with Napoleon III 1858 NIII promised to send troops to aid the Piedmont against the Austrians in warPiedmont would get Lombardy and VenetiaNIII would get Nice and SavoyNapoleon III
30Austro-Sardinian War 1859April 1859 Cavour provoked Austria into declaring warA combined French and Piedmontese army counterattackedAustrians defeated at Magenta and Solferino-pulled out of Lombardy
31NIII backs out of deal with Cavour Shocked by the bloodiness of the battles and fearful of a hostile reaction by French Catholics if Piedmont moved to annex Papal StatesNIII made a separate peace with AustriaPeace of Villa Franca gave Lombardy to PiedmontAustria was allowed to keep venetia
32Cavour was furious at Napoleon III’s double dealing
33Piedmont’s annexations in northern Italy By September 1859 revolutionary assemblies in Tuscany, Parma, Modena and a part of the Papal States offered to unite with the Piedmont
34Nice and Savoy-done deal NIII agreed to allow Piedmont to annex the Northern territories.In exchange NIII received Nice and Savoy
35Revolution in Southern Italy Revolution broke out in Sicily in response to the reactionary policies of the Bourbon King.Spread of revolution to the south was more than Cavour expected and more than NIII could support
36Garibaldi’s Expedition Sailed form Genoa with 1,000 “red shirt”volunteersOfficially Cavour opposed the expedition, Secretly he suuported itBy April 1860 Garibaldi had taken Naples, capital of the Two SiciliesBourbon King fled
37The problem with RomeCavour thought that the Red shirts might go for Rome.Could cause Austria and France to defend the Pope.Since 1848 French troops had been in Rome protecting the Pope against revolutionIn order to restrain Garibaldi, Cavour sent Piedmontese troops into the Papal states-avoiding Rome
38Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy On March 17, 1861 the Italian Parliament proclaimed the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy with Victor Emmanuel as King.Cavour died three months later.
39Annexation of Venice and Rome April 1866 Italy made an alliance with PrussiaPrussia defeated Austria in 7 weeksAustria ceded Venetia to the Italians
40Addition of RomeWith the Franco- Prussian war of 1870, French troops in Rome were removed to fight the Prussians.The Italians occupied and annexed RomeThe annexations of Venetia and Rome completed the Risorgimento.
42Divided GermanyFollowing 1848 german Confederaion made up of 39 States, Austria and PrussiaHolding the presidency of the German confederation, the Austrians dominated Germany as they did Italy
43Bismarcks RiseKing William sought to strengthen the Prussian Army requiring new taxesLiberal parliament would not approve taxes without concessions from the KingBismarck addressed the parliament- “great issues of the day would not be settled by parliamentary debate and majority vote, but by blood and iron”Parliament still refused new taxes, Bismarck proceeded to collect the taxes any way
44Schleiswig-Holstein Affair Danish King ruled the partly Danish and German duchies-although they were not a part of DenmarkIn 1863 the danish parliament annexed Schlewig.Infuriated German nationalists
45Austro-Prussian alliance Bismarck proposed a Prussian alliance with Austria to take action against Denmark.Prussia and Austria went to war with Denmark in 1864.Denmark was quickly defeated and gave up Schleswig and Holstein.Bismarck set up joint occupation of the territories with Prussia getting Schleswig and Austria getting Holstein.Bismarck used arrangement to provoke arguments with Austrians
46Bismarck’s Alliances isolating Austria Napoleon III remains neutral-he thought that Austria would winAlliance with Italy-promised Venetia to Italians if Prussians won
47Seven Weeks War Austro-Prussian war 1866 Prussia accused the Austrians of violating German confederation agreements.Prussia proposed the abolition of the German ConfederationThe Prussians defeated the Austrains at the battle of Sadowa
48Treaty of Prague Bismarck made a moderate peace with Austria. Prussia gained full possession of Schleswig and Holstein.Prussia also annexed the Northern German States of Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfurt.
49North German Confederation Austria was now out of German affairsKleindeutshPrussia dominated the North German ConfederationFour independent southern States, Bavaria,Wurtemburg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt
50Southern Germany Traditionally quite liberal and Catholic Reluctant to be controlled by autocratic/militaristic/Lutheran PrussiaNapoleon III opposed the further expansion of PrussiaBismarck believed he would have to fight a war with France to win the Southern states
51The Hohenzollern candidacy An 1868 revolution in Spain set the wheels in motion for Franco-Prussian warSpanish revolution led to overthrow of Queen Isabella-spain needed new monarchA Hohenzollern (Prussian relative) was consideredFrance strongly opposed this possibility
52French demands on Prussia In the face of French protests, Kaiser William I withdrew Leopold’s nameOn July 13, 1870 French ambassador Count Bennedetti met with William I in Ems and asked the king that a hohenzollern candidacy would not be considered for SpainWilliam I refiused this request and reported it to Bismarck
53Ems DispatchBismarck edited the Kings report and released it to the papers.Bismarck made it apear that William I and Bennedetti insulted each other.Napoleon III declared war on July,Bismarck had made alliances with the southern German states in anticipation of warNow all of Germany went to war with France
54Franco-German War German armies invaded France French were defeated at the battle of SedanIn Paris rebels declared the third French Republic-which sought to continue the war
55Completion of German Unification January 18,1871 William I was declared the Emperor of the Germany.This occurred in the Hall of mirrors at the palace of Versailles
56Treaty of Frankfurt May 10, 1871 French ceded the Provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to the Germans and had to pay the Germans the equivalent of $1 billion dollars.The annexation of Alsace and Lorraine enraged the French-pick tha back up in WWI.
60Third French Republic Declared! September, 1870 after France’s defeat at the Battle of Sedan.Napoleon III abdicated the throne.New government headed by Adolphe Thiers.This new government continued the fight against the Germans who laid siege to Paris.To defend Paris, a National Guard was raised numbering over 350,000.France surrendered in February, 1871 after 40,000 Parisians died.
61The Third French Republic Thiers’ government was seen as:Too conservative.Too royalist.Too ready to accept a humiliating peace with Prussia.Prussian troops marched into Paris in March, 1871.The French government established itself at Versailles, NOT in Paris.Parisians were angered by this.They opposed the policies of this new government.It attempted to restore order in Paris.
62Paris in Revolt!The Paris Commune [Communards] was elected on March 28 and established itself at the Hôtel de Ville.
63Troops from Versailles Civil War!Troops from VersaillesCommunardsThe Commune was suppressed by government troops led by Marshal Patrice MacMahon during the last week of May, 1871.Known as the “Bloody Week.”
66Attempted Communard Reforms Allowed trade unions & workers cooperatives to take over factories not in use and start them up again.Set up unemployment exchanges in town halls.Provide basic elementary education for all they were strongly against church-controlled schools.Attempted to set up girls schools.Day nurseries near factories for working mothers.
67First Communist Revolution? It served as an inspiration to later revolutionaries like Vladimir Lenin.25,000 Communards killed.35,000 were arrested.
71An Overview of the 3rd French Republic Politically very unstable.Rivalry between monarchists and republicans.A number of scandals:The Boulanger Affair.The Panama Canal Scandal.The Dreyfus Affair [L’Affaire]Because there were so many factions, all governments were coalitions.Still, it survived longer than any other regime since 1789!
72The Constitution The President: The Senate: Head of state little political power.Right to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies with the support of the Senate.Right to nominate the new head of government.Played an important role in foreign affairs.The Senate:Elected by mayors & councillors in the counties throughout France.Nicknamed the “Chamber of Agriculture” because the countryside was over represented.
73The Constitution The Senate: Senators elected every nine years. Very conservative body able to block progressive legislation.The Chamber of Deputies:Chosen every four years.600 members elected by universal male suffrage.There was no organized party system.Major political groupings in the Chamber:Socialists many were Marxists.Moderate Republicans middle class.Radicals anti-clerical.Monarchists Catholics, Bonapartists, etc.
751. The Boulanger Affair Bonapartism without a Bonaparte. Most of the army was dominated by monarchists.BUT, the Minister of War, General Georges Boulanger, was a republican.
761. The Boulanger AffairVery popular with the troops the government was suspicious and removed him in 1887.
771. The Boulanger AffairNow a national figure, he was the focal point of conservative opposition to the republican government.Was part of a plot to overthrow the Republic.Was summoned to trial, but he fled to Belgium where he committed suicide on the grave of his mistress.Boulanger’s fall increased public confidence in the Republic.
782. The Panama Canal Scandal : Ferdinand de Lesseps President of the French Company that worked on the Panama Canal.Govt. officials took bribes from the company to withhold news from the public that it was in serious economic debt.One billion francs affecting 800,000 investors.
792. The Panama Canal Scandal : Ferdinand de Lesseps All but one of the accused went unpunished due to lack of evidence.Anti-Semitism:Two German Jews were also involved they received the most press coverage.Results:The scandal proved to the public that the Republic was corrupt.It created a climate of anti-Semitism that would increase in time.
803. The Dreyfus AffairIn 1894 a list of French military documents [called a bordereau] were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris.French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy Alsatian Jewish family he was one of the few Jews on the General Staff.
813. The Dreyfus AffairDreyfus was tried, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana.The real culprit was a Major Esterhazy, whose handwriting was the same as that on the bordereau.The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days.
823. The Dreyfus AffairA famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter called J’Accuse!He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up.The government prosecuted him for libel.Found him guilty sentenced to a year in prison.
843. The Dreyfus AffairAnti-DreyfusardsDreyfusardsPublic opinion was divided it reflected the divisions in Fr. society.The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals, free masons, & socialists.For Anti-Dreyfusards, the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence.Were army supporters, monarchists, & Catholics.
863. The Dreyfus Affair Dreyfus finally got a new trial in 1899. He was brought back from Devil’s Island white-haired and broken.Results:Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating circumstances.Was given a presidential pardon.Exonerated completely in 1906.Served honorably in World War I.Died in 1935.
87The Zionist MovementWas motivated by the Dreyfus trial to write the book, Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896.Creates the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.“Father of Modern Zionism.”Theodore Herzl [ ]
88New Wave of Anti-Catholicism The anti-clerical, republican left took power in the National Assembly in 1879.This anti-Catholicism was a remnant of the French Revolution.They stayed in power until 1914.Ferry Laws [ ]:Named after Jules Ferry, one of the ablest politicians of the 3rd Republic.Were the first major attempt at educational reform.
89Ferry Laws Only the State could grant degrees. Free education in public primary schools.Religious instruction was excluded from the State school curriculum.Unauthorized religious orders [Marists, Dominicans, and Jesuits, who were eventually expelled from France] were forbidden to teach.Authorized Catholic orders could NOT teach in French public schools.State improved training of teachers.
91Aims of French Foreign Policy To regain the provinces of Alsace & Lorraine lost to Germany in 1871.To end her isolation in international affairs after the Franco-Prussian War.To expand her colonial empire and regain some of her prestige lost after the Franco-Prussian War.
92A National Trauma: France’s Loss of Alsace-Lorraine
93French Colonial Empire The empire set up under the 3rd Republic was the greatest France had ever possessed.Jules Ferry played a huge role in French empire building.Ironically, two-thirds of the missionary priests outside Europe were French!By 1914, France was the second largest colonial power in the world and the largest in Africa.
98Britain: 1850-1870s The most prosperous period in British history. Unprecedented economic growth.Heyday of free trade.New fields of expansion shipbuilding from wood to iron.By 1870, Britain’s carrying trade enjoyed a virtual monopoly.Br. engineers were building RRs all over the world.Br.’s foreign holdings nearly doubled.BUT, Britain’s prosperity didn’t do away with political discontent!
99The “Victorian Compromise” Therefore, the aims of the two political parties seemed indistinguishable.But, by the 1860s, the middle class and working class had grown they wanted the franchise expanded!This era saw the realignment of political parties in the House of Commons:Tory Party Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli.Whig Party Liberal Party under William Gladstone.Both Tories and Whigs had considered the 1832 Reform Bill as the FINAL political reform.
100The Two “Great Men” Benjamin Disraeli, Conservative Prime Minister 1868William Gladstone, Liberal Prime Minister1886
101The 2nd Reform BillIn 1866, Gladstone introduced a moderate reform bill that was defeated by the Conservatives.A more radical reform bill was introduced by Disraeli in 1867, passed largely with some Liberal support.
102The 2nd Reform Bill - 1867 This ended the “Victorian Compromise.” Disraeli’s Goals:Give the Conservative Party control over the reform process.Labor would be grateful and vote Conservative.Components of the Bill:Extended the franchise by 938,427 an increase of 88%.Vote given to male householders and male lodgers paying at least £10 for room.Eliminated rotten boroughs with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants.Extra representation in Parliament to larger cities like Liverpool & Manchester.This ended the “Victorian Compromise.”
104Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) A dandy and a romance novelist. A brilliant debater.Baptized by his father into the Anglican Church.BUT, he was the first & only Prime Minister of Jewish parentage.A strong imperialist.“Greater England” foreign policy.Respected by Queen Victoria.
105William Gladstone (1809-1898) An active legislator and reformer. Known for his populist speeches.Could be preachy.Queen Victoria couldn’t stand him.Tried to deal with the “Irish Question.”Supported a “Little England” foreign policy.
106Gladstone’s 1st Ministry Goals: [“Gladstonianism”]Decrease public spending.Reform laws that prevented people from acting freely to improve themselves.He’s against privilege & supports a meritocracy.Protect democracy through education.Promote peace abroad to help reduce spending and taxation, and to help enhance trade.Low tariffs.All political questions are moral questions!
107Gladstone’s 1st Ministry Accomplishments:1868: Army reform peacetime flogging was illegal.1869: Disestablishment Act Irish Catholics did not have to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church in Ireland.1870: Education Act elementary education made available to Welsh & English children between 5-13 years.1870: Irish Land Act curtailed absentee Protestant landowners from evicting their Irish Catholic tenants without compensation.1871: University Test Act non-Anglicans could attend Br. universities.
108Gladstone’s 1st Ministry Accomplishments (con’t.):1872: Ballot Act secret ballot for local and general elections.1872: The settlement of the CSS Alabama claims [from the American Civil War] in America’s favor.1873: Legislation was passed that restructured the High Courts.Civil service exams introduced for many government positions.
109Disraeli’s 2nd Ministry Accomplishments:Domestic Policy1875: Artisans Dwelling Act govt. would define minimum housing standards.1875: Public Health Act govt. to create a modern sewer system in the big cities & establish a sanitary code.1875: Pure Food & Drug Act.1875: Climbing Boys Act licenses only given to adult chimney sweeps.1875: Conspiracy & Protection of Property Act allowed peaceful picketing.
110Disraeli’s 2nd Ministry Accomplishments:Domestic Policy1876: Education Act1878: Employers & Workmen Act allowed workers to sue employers in civil courts if they broke legal contracts.
111Gladstone’s 2nd Ministry Accomplishments:Domestic Policy1884 Reform BillExtended the franchise to agricultural laborers.Gave the counties the same franchise as the boroughs.Added 6,000,000 to the total number who could vote in parliamentary elections.1885: Redistribution of Seats Act changes M.P. seats in Commons to reflect new demographic changes.
112Gladstone’s Last Ministries 3rd Ministry: 1886First introduced an Irish Home Rule Bill.This issue split the Liberal Party.Gladstone lost his position in a few months.4th Ministry:1893: Reintroduced a Home Rule Bill.Provided for an Irish Parliament.Did NOT offer Ireland independence!Passed by the Commons, but rejected in the House of Lords.
113Gladstone debates Home Rule in Commons. Home Rule for Ireland??Gladstone debates Home Rule in Commons.
115Emmeline PankhurstHer husband & children were all involved in the suffrage movement.They became militants & were arrested and imprisoned.1917: She and her daughter, Christabel, formed the Women’s Party in 1917:Equal pay for equal work.Equal marriage & divorce laws.Equality of rights & opportunities in public service.A national system of maternity benefits.
116Representation of the People Act (1918) Women over 30 got the right to vote.All men gained suffrage.Property qualifications were completely eliminated!Reform Act of 1928Women over 21 years of age gained the right to vote at last!
118The Foreign Policy Debate “Little England” Policy“Big England” PolicyGladstone.Liberal Party.England must invest in her own people at home.Try negotiations, rather than costly military solutions.DisraeliConservative PartyEngland must be the greatest colonial power.Spend £ on supporting the empire.
129England’s Economic Decline? (1870s-1914) Germany & the U. S. became England’s chief economic rivals.Influx of cheap agricultural products from overseas caused a rapid decline in British farming.Germany & U. S. overtake Britain in basic iron & steel production.England’s share of world trade fell from 23% in 1876 to 15% in 1913.British science & technological education lagged behind Germany.England is slow to modernize her aging industrial infrastructure.England clings to free trade while everyone else is erecting tariff walls.
130FabianismA British socialist intellectual movement founded in the mid-1880s.Purpose advance socialism by working through the political system, not through revolution.Laid the foundations for the British Labour Party.Famous Fabian Society members:George Bernard Shaw.H. G. Wells.Sidney & Beatrice Webb.Emmeline Pankhurst.Bertram Russell.John Maynard Keynes.
131The British Labour Party Founded in 1900 by the Scotsman, Keir Hardie.The growth of labor unions gave voice to socialism in Britain.By 1906, it won 26 seats in Commons.Had to form a political coalition with the Liberal Party.By the 1920s, Labour would replace the Liberals as on of the two major British political parties.
132The Beginnings of the “Welfare State”? Labour’s Political Agenda:Gradual socialization of key industries & utilities.Workman’s Compensation Act.State employment bureaus.Minimum wage set.Aid to dependent children & the elderly.Old age pension to all over 70.National Insurance Act.
133The “People’s Budget”The Liberals dominated government from 1906 to 1924.The Liberal Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, presented a “People’s Budget” in 1911.Increase income taxes for those in the higher brackets.Raise the inheritance tax.The House of Lords rejected this budget.
134The Parliament Act of 1911 A political crisis. WHY? Lords had traditionally approved all revenue bills passed by the Commons in the past.By threatening to create enough new Liberal peer to control that chamber, King George V forced the House of Lords to pass this bill!!Also known as the 4th Reform Bill.Provisions:Lords could not defeat a bill passed three times by Commons.Lords can’t hold up revenue bills for more than one month.Members of Commons would be paid a salary.
135Summary Question:Who was more “democratic” at the beginning of the 20c —Britain OR France?
136Kulturkampf, 1870sBarring Jesuits from the Empire136
137The Kulturkampf 1870: The doctrine of Papal Infallibility published. 1872: Catholic schools brought under state control. The Jesuit Order banned from Germany.1873: The ‘May Laws’Only candidates for ordination who had been trained in Germany and passed a state approved examination could become priests.All religious appointments had to be approved by the state.1874: Civil marriage introduced.1875: All religious orders except nursing orders banned.Cranium measurements became a popular means of proving the hereditary nature of papal stupidity137
138Enemies Within: Social Democrats August Bebel138
139The Development of the SPD 1869: August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht form the Marxist Social Democratic Workers’ Party.1875: This merges with Ferdinand Lassale’s General German Workers’ Association to form the Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) at a ‘Unity Conference’ in Gotha.The party’s ‘Gotha Programme’ (1875) of the SPD called for:“universal, direct, equal suffrage, with secret ballot and obligatory voting for all citizens over 20 years of age”freedom of press, association and assemblythe abolition of child & female laboura shorter working weekfree, universal primary education139
140Anti-Socialist Legislation 1876: Legislation banning the publication of Socialist propaganda defeated in the Reichstag.1878: Two failed assassination attempts on Wilhelm I provide an opportunity to introduce anti-Socialist legislation.Oct 1878: The Anti-Socialist Law passed by the Reichstag:Banned socialist organizations (including trade unions)Gave the police powers to break up socialist meetingsOutlawed the publication and distribution of socialist literature140
141State SocialismInnovative social insurance policies that failed to woo workers from SPD or successfully tackle growing social and economic problems:1883: Sickness Insurance ActProvided medical treatment and up to 13 weeks sick pay for 3 million low-paid workers.1884: Accident Insurance ActProvided protection for workers permanently disabled or sick for more than 13 weeks.1889: Old Age & Disability ActProvided old age and disability pensions for people over 70 and those permanently disabled.141
145Assessment Bismarck’s Admirers Bismarck’s Critics He maintained peace between 1871 and 1890His policies helped Germany’s economic developmentHe pioneered state socialismIn the 1870s he worked closely with the National Liberals and implemented many liberal policiesHe was not a dictator – his powers were limited and he worked with the parties in the ReichstagHis long tenure in power points to his political skillBismarck’s CriticsHe was responsible for France remaining isolated and embitteredHis influence has been exaggerated“Negative integration” – using attacks on minorities to whip up patriotismThe Kulturkampf was a major miscalculationHis anti-socialist policies were unsuccessfulHe was unable to delegate and jealous of perceived rivalsA flawed legacy – Bismarck’s rule led to Wilhemine & Nazi Germany145
146Questions for ReadingHow did social/regional divisions affect the new nation?In what ways were these divisions new or manipulated from above?In what ways were they part of people’s lived experience?
1471888 – The Year of Three Emperors Wilhelm I ( ) Friedrich III (1888) Wilhelm II ( )147
148Wilhelm II,“I shall let the old man shuffle on for six months then I shall rule myself.”148
149‘Dropping the Pilot’Bismarck and Wilhelm disagreed over the need to retain close links with Russia.They clashed over social policy and the Anti-Socialist Law.In March 1890 Bismarck and Wilhelm quarrelled over ministers access to the monarch.Wilhelm gave Bismarck an ultimatum: resign or be dismissed. The next day Bismarck resigned.149