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The Second Great Awakening Jesus Drops in for a Visit Jesus Drops in for a Visit.

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Presentation on theme: "The Second Great Awakening Jesus Drops in for a Visit Jesus Drops in for a Visit."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Second Great Awakening Jesus Drops in for a Visit Jesus Drops in for a Visit

2 Awakenings Periodic Waves of Religious Excitement Periodic Waves of Religious Excitement Separated by long periods of Religious calm Separated by long periods of Religious calm 1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENING 1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENING s: SECOND GREAT AWAKENING s: SECOND GREAT AWAKENING Enthusiasm, controversy, religious experiment. Enthusiasm, controversy, religious experiment.

3 Religion in the 1800s Deism helped to create a Unitarian faith, which held that God existed in only one person Deism helped to create a Unitarian faith, which held that God existed in only one person Unitarians-proclaimed that their belief was in free will and possibility of salvation through good works (Ralph Waldo Emerson-Leading thinker) Unitarians-proclaimed that their belief was in free will and possibility of salvation through good works (Ralph Waldo Emerson-Leading thinker) Unitarianism contrasted from the Calvinist doctrines of the 1700's, differing on subjects such as predestination and human depravity Unitarianism contrasted from the Calvinist doctrines of the 1700's, differing on subjects such as predestination and human depravity First Unitarian church was founded in 1796 but the faith became more widely accepted in the 1800's, especially in the Northeast and by intellectuals First Unitarian church was founded in 1796 but the faith became more widely accepted in the 1800's, especially in the Northeast and by intellectuals

4 William Ellery Channing, Unitarian Christianity (1819) William Ellery Channing, Unitarian Christianity (1819) Are people free to re- invent Religion? Are people free to re- invent Religion? UNITARIANISM: UNITARIANISM: (1) Rejects Trinity (insists on Unitary God) (2) Rejects Jesus divinity (3) Rejects Centrality of Jesus Crucifixion & Resurrection (4) Modifies Fall/Redemption concept (5) Insists on right of individual to mold his or her own religion

5 Prophecies in the Books of Daniel and Revelation

6 Two Key Notions of the Second Great Awakening Christian Perfectionism- Belief that salvation can lead to a sinless life: heaven on earth Christian Perfectionism- Belief that salvation can lead to a sinless life: heaven on earth Millennialism- Christs return to earth will begin a thousand year reign Millennialism- Christs return to earth will begin a thousand year reign

7 "The belief of this doctrine has seriously affected my temporal wellbeing" THE SECOND ADVENT OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST A PAST EVENT. BY ROBERT TOWNLEY, A.B. MINISTER

8 James McGready credited with inaugurating 1 st camp meeting credited with inaugurating 1 st camp meeting

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10 Cane Ridge

11 Methodists John and Charles Wesley- credited with the founding of the Methodist faith. John and Charles Wesley- credited with the founding of the Methodist faith. –. –believed that by living in a Christian manner & truly believing in God, a person would gain salvation.

12 Methodist After Wesley died in 1791, the Methodist faith divided: After Wesley died in 1791, the Methodist faith divided: –Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Protestant Methodism advanced westward; one of the earliest Christian faiths to arrive in Ohio. Methodism advanced westward; one of the earliest Christian faiths to arrive in Ohio. –Thomas Worthington –Edward Tiffin

13 Francis Asbury, A Spiritual Letter (1790) Americas Great METHODIST leader Americas Great METHODIST leader DEMOCRACY (everyone …) DEMOCRACY (everyone …) OPTIMISM (… can be saved!) OPTIMISM (… can be saved!) How: FREE WILL, PERSONAL CHOICE How: FREE WILL, PERSONAL CHOICE

14 Methodist Many Methodists disagreed about slavery Many Methodists disagreed about slavery Church initially condemned slavery but many of its white members favored slavery. Church initially condemned slavery but many of its white members favored slavery. Some African American members broke with the Methodist Church in 1816 & established the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Some African American members broke with the Methodist Church in 1816 & established the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist circuit riders or traveling preachers.

15 Itinerant Methodist Ministers Circuit Riders

16 Burned Over Districts The Burned Over Districts was a named coined by historian Whitney Cross in a 1950 book to describe an area in central and western New York during the 2nd Great Awakening. The Burned Over Districts was a named coined by historian Whitney Cross in a 1950 book to describe an area in central and western New York during the 2nd Great Awakening. Western New York was so blistered Western New York was so blistered by sermonizers preaching hellfire by sermonizers preaching hellfire and damnation that it came to be and damnation that it came to be known as the Burned-Over District. known as the Burned-Over District.

17 Charles Grandison Finney leader of the river of revivals leader of the river of revivals Supported loose interpretation of scriptures and styles of worship Supported loose interpretation of scriptures and styles of worship Personal Relationship with Christ Personal Relationship with Christ Sinners are bound to change their own hearts Sinners are bound to change their own hearts Old School religion with new twists: Old School religion with new twists: - Anxious bench - Women public prayer denounced alcohol and slavery denounced alcohol and slavery

18 Charles Grandison Finney

19 Idealism in the Second Great Awakening Emotionalism in religion began again Emotionalism in religion began again Religion began to influence other ideals such as freedom from cruelty of war, discrimination, intoxicated drinking, and slavery Religion began to influence other ideals such as freedom from cruelty of war, discrimination, intoxicated drinking, and slavery There were increased plantation missions held for slaves There were increased plantation missions held for slaves Methodists and Presbyterians divide on the issue of slavery in 1830's-1840's Methodists and Presbyterians divide on the issue of slavery in 1830's-1840's Idealistic religion on a utopian socialism, moral reform, and other ideas came to Christianity Idealistic religion on a utopian socialism, moral reform, and other ideas came to Christianity

20 The Second Great Awakening led many people to believe that the second coming of Christ was near. The Second Great Awakening led many people to believe that the second coming of Christ was near. Several of these groups settled in the area that came to be known as the "Burned Over District. Several of these groups settled in the area that came to be known as the "Burned Over District. Millerites were who one these groups, founded by William Miller, they believed the coming of Christ was going to happen on October 22, Millerites were who one these groups, founded by William Miller, they believed the coming of Christ was going to happen on October 22, 1844.

21 Millerites Spawned from the Burned Over Districts Spawned from the Burned Over Districts Named after William Miller, self-taught Bible Scholar Named after William Miller, self-taught Bible Scholar Interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to earth on October 22, Interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to earth on October 22, The failure of Jesus to descend on The failure of Jesus to descend on schedule dampened but did not schedule dampened but did not destroy the movement. destroy the movement.

22 William Miller?

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25 Millerite Pamplet

26 Sylvester Graham: Food Reformer

27 Ellen White: The New Prophet

28 Sister Ellens Visions

29 Seventh Day Adventist Church

30 John Harvey Kellogg Graduate of Bellevue Medical College in 2 years (1876) Graduate of Bellevue Medical College in 2 years (1876) Began supervision of SDA Western Health Reform Institute in Battle Creek Began supervision of SDA Western Health Reform Institute in Battle Creek Evolved into Battle Creek Sanitarium Evolved into Battle Creek Sanitarium Vegetarian, Inventor, Physician, Vegetarian, Inventor, Physician, Author, Oddball: Biologic Living

31 The San

32 Electro-Treatment Chair at the San

33 Eventually, it all comes to this because of...

34 William Keith Kellogg none genuine without this signature

35 T.C. Boyless novel and a bad 1994 flick

36 Joseph Smith, Jr.

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38 Hill Cumorrah

39 Moroni Gives Joe the Golden Plates

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41 Smith Homestead

42 Young Brigham Young

43 Great Mormon Trek Zion in the Wilderness Zion in the Wilderness Deseret (Utah) Deseret (Utah)

44 Seagull Monument, Temple Square

45 Mormon Temple and Tabernacle

46 Old Brigham Young

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49 Oneida Complex

50 The cover of Puck shown at right portrays its critics proclaiming the Oneida Community members to be living in peace and harmony, without clergy scandals, and that therefore "They must be stopped!"

51 Oneida Community: Practitioners of Stirpiculture

52 Oneida Mansion (now Museum)

53 Oneida Ltd. is the #1 Brand in silverware / flatware with the top 5 designs in the entire industry.

54 Lyman Beecher Great Orator Great Orator Urged people to join associations lead by the church Urged people to join associations lead by the church Moral Reform on poverty, teaching, reading, writing to poor and prevention of alcohol abuse. Moral Reform on poverty, teaching, reading, writing to poor and prevention of alcohol abuse.

55 Divisiveness Caused by the Second Great Awakening Second Great Awakening widened lines between class and region Second Great Awakening widened lines between class and region Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians --> Wealthy classes and better-educated Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians --> Wealthy classes and better-educated Big Boundary between Northern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists; and Southern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists. Big Boundary between Northern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists; and Southern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists. This split between North and Southern Faith and ideals in religion was considered the first sign of splitting. Later followed by a split in politics and the Union. This split between North and Southern Faith and ideals in religion was considered the first sign of splitting. Later followed by a split in politics and the Union. Protestants encouraged increase in educational learning and also importance of education in every household Protestants encouraged increase in educational learning and also importance of education in every household

56 Mormonism (LDS) Joseph Smith, a visionary, reported an encounter with an angel Joseph Smith, a visionary, reported an encounter with an angel This led to the religion of Mormons This led to the religion of Mormons Deciphered the Book of Mormon from golden plates claimed to be received by Joseph Smith Deciphered the Book of Mormon from golden plates claimed to be received by Joseph Smith Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints was founded through J. Smith's claim Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints was founded through J. Smith's claim Had leaders that were dedicated to free enterprise Had leaders that were dedicated to free enterprise Voted as a unit and produced their own militia Voted as a unit and produced their own militia Polygamy became a problem for Joseph Smith and the LDS Polygamy became a problem for Joseph Smith and the LDS Brigham Young was an eloquent preacher with only 11 days of schooling Brigham Young was an eloquent preacher with only 11 days of schooling Movement to Utah- use of irrigation system in desert of Utah Movement to Utah- use of irrigation system in desert of Utah

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59 This image from a broadside of the American Anti-Slavery Society shows the battle between the "Eagle of Liberty" and the "Serpent of Slavery" (1838).

60 United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing

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62 Shaker Beliefs and Practices from Mother Ann Lee –Pacificism –Celibacy –Work –Dance –Song –Collective Ownership

63 Shaker Meeting House, Hancock Village

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65 Sabbathday Lake Shakers (1885) Shaker Tree of Life

66 Hands to work and hearts to God

67 Shaker Communities

68 Important Religions and People Two largest denominations became Methodists and Baptists Two largest denominations became Methodists and Baptists Peter Cartwright ( ) prominent Methodist preacher Peter Cartwright ( ) prominent Methodist preacher Charles Grandison Finney was a prominent revival preacher. Known as the greatest preacher of the Second Great Awakening Charles Grandison Finney was a prominent revival preacher. Known as the greatest preacher of the Second Great Awakening Finney led massive revivals in in Rochester, New York Finney led massive revivals in in Rochester, New York Encouraged women to pray aloud in public and denounced both alcohol and slavery Encouraged women to pray aloud in public and denounced both alcohol and slavery Stressed personal conversion and explored a democratic control of church affairs Stressed personal conversion and explored a democratic control of church affairs William Miller – Millerites and Adventists: interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on Earth Oct. 22, 1844 William Miller – Millerites and Adventists: interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on Earth Oct. 22, 1844


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