Presentation on theme: "The Second Great Awakening"— Presentation transcript:
1The Second Great Awakening Jesus Drops in for a Visit
2“Awakenings” Periodic Waves of Religious Excitement Separated by long periods of Religious calm1740s: FIRST GREAT AWAKENINGs: SECOND GREAT AWAKENINGEnthusiasm, controversy, religious experiment.
3Religion in the 1800’sDeism helped to create a Unitarian faith, which held that God existed in only one personUnitarians-proclaimed that their belief was in free will and possibility of salvation through good works (Ralph Waldo Emerson-Leading thinker)Unitarianism contrasted from the Calvinist doctrines of the 1700's, differing on subjects such as predestination and human depravityFirst Unitarian church was founded in 1796 but the faith became more widely accepted in the 1800's , especially in the Northeast and by intellectuals
4William Ellery Channing, “Unitarian Christianity” (1819) Are people free to re-invent Religion?UNITARIANISM:Rejects “Trinity” (insists on “Unitary” God)Rejects Jesus’ “divinity”Rejects Centrality of Jesus’ Crucifixion & ResurrectionModifies “Fall/Redemption” conceptInsists on right of individual to mold his or her own religion
6Two Key Notions of the Second Great Awakening Christian Perfectionism- Belief that salvation can lead to a sinless life: “heaven on earth”Millennialism- Christ’s return to earth will begin a thousand year reign
7"The belief of this doctrine has seriously affected my temporal wellbeing" THE SECOND ADVENTOFTHE LORD JESUS CHRISTA PAST EVENT.BYROBERT TOWNLEY, A.B. MINISTER
8James McGready credited with inaugurating 1st camp meeting historians have generally credited James McGready (c. 1760–1817), a Presbyterian, with inaugurating the first typical camp meetings in 1799–1801 in Logan county, Kentucky. Other ministers who associated with McGready subsequently spread his methods throughout the southwestern United States.
11MethodistsJohn and Charles Wesley- credited with the founding of the Methodist faith.believed that by living in a Christian manner & truly believing in God, a person would gain salvation.Lead In:Methodists and Baptists benefited the most from the ideas brought by revivalism. Both sects stressed personal conversion, a relatively democratic control of church affairs, and a rousing emotionalism.Methodists:John Wesley was credited with finding the Methodist faith.He believed that by living in a Christian manner & truly believing in God, a person would gain salvation.After Wesley died in 1791, the Methodist faith divided into a number of denominations, the main two: Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Protestant.Methodism advanced westward almost as quickly as the people who settled the land and was one of the earliest Christian faiths to arrive in Ohio.Prominent Ohioans that belonged to Methodists were:Thomas Worthing- One of Ohio’s first United States SenatorsEdward Tiffin- Ohio’s first governor.Many Methodists disagreed about slavery. The Church initially condemned slavery but many of its white members favored the institution of slavery.Some African American members broke with the Methodist Church in 1816 and established the African Methodist Episcopal Church.Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist “circuit riders”, or traveling preachers.
12Methodist After Wesley died in 1791, the Methodist faith divided: Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist ProtestantMethodism advanced westward; one of the earliest Christian faiths to arrive in Ohio.ThomasWorthingtonEdward Tiffin
13Francis Asbury, “A Spiritual Letter” (1790) America’s Great METHODIST leaderDEMOCRACY (everyone …)OPTIMISM (… can be saved!)How: FREE WILL , PERSONAL CHOICE
14Methodist Many Methodists disagreed about slavery Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist “circuit riders” or traveling preachers.Many Methodists disagreed about slaveryChurch initially condemned slavery but many of its white members favored slavery.Some African American members broke with the Methodist Church in 1816 & established the African Methodist Episcopal Church.
16Burned Over DistrictsThe Burned Over Districts was a named coined by historian Whitney Cross in a 1950 book to describe an area in central and western New York during the 2nd Great Awakening.Western New York was so blisteredby sermonizers preaching “hellfireand damnation” that it came to beknown as the Burned-Over District.“Burned Over Districts”:The Burned Over Districts was a named coined by historian Whitney Cross in a 1950 book to describe an area in central and western New York during the 2nd Great Awakening.Western New York, where many descendants of New England Puritans had settled, was so blistered by sermonizers preaching “hellfire and damnation” that it came to be known as the “Burned-Over District.”The name was given because the area was so heavily evangelized during the revivalism of antebellum America so as to have no fuel (unconverted population) left to burn (convert). When religion is related to reform movements of the period, such as abolition, women's rights, and utopian social experiments, the region expands to include areas of central New York that were important to the aforementioned reform movements.
17Charles Grandison Finney leader of the “river of revivals”Supported loose interpretation of scriptures and styles of worshipPersonal Relationship with Christ“Sinners are bound to change their own hearts”Old School religion with new twists:- “Anxious bench”- Women public prayerdenounced alcohol and slaveryGreatest and most notable leader of the “river of revivals”Supported a more loose interpretation of the scriptures, and of styles of worshipEncounter with Jesus, Personal Relationship with Christ, your savior:“Sinners are bound to change their own hearts”Old School religion with new twists:- Anxious bench: people who waited to be prayed for by the congregation in the front of the church- Women public prayerCharles denounced alcohol and slavery and viewed them as sin.Also: personal prayers.
19Idealism in the Second Great Awakening Emotionalism in religion began againReligion began to influence other ideals such as freedom from cruelty of war, discrimination, intoxicated drinking, and slaveryThere were increased plantation missions held for slavesMethodists and Presbyterians divide on the issue of slavery in 1830's-1840'sIdealistic religion on a utopian socialism, moral reform, and other ideas came to Christianity
20The Second Great Awakening led many people to believe that the second coming of Christ was near. Several of these groups settled in the area that came to be known as the "Burned Over District.“Millerites were who one these groups, founded by William Miller, they believed the coming of Christ was going to happen on October 22, 1844.
21Millerites Spawned from the Burned Over Districts Named after William Miller, self-taught Bible ScholarInterpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return to earth on October 22, 1843.The failure of Jesus to descend onschedule dampened but did notdestroy the movement.
30John Harvey KelloggGraduate of Bellevue Medical College in 2 years (1876)Began supervision of SDA Western Health Reform Institute in Battle CreekEvolved into Battle Creek SanitariumVegetarian, Inventor, Physician,Author, Oddball: “Biologic Living”
53“Oneida Ltd. is the #1 Brand in silverware / flatware with the top 5 designs in the entire industry.”
54Lyman Beecher Great Orator Urged people to join associations lead by the churchMoral Reform on poverty, teaching, reading, writing to poor and prevention of alcohol abuse.
55Divisiveness Caused by the Second Great Awakening Second Great Awakening widened lines between class and regionEpiscopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians --> Wealthy classes and better-educatedBig Boundary between Northern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists; and Southern Protestants, Methodists, and Baptists.This split between North and Southern Faith and ideals in religion was considered the first sign of splitting. Later followed by a split in politics and the Union.Protestants encouraged increase in educational learning and also importance of education in every household
56Mormonism (LDS)1830- Joseph Smith, a visionary, reported an encounter with an angelThis led to the religion of MormonsDeciphered the Book of Mormon from golden plates claimed to be received by Joseph SmithChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints was founded through J. Smith's claimHad leaders that were dedicated to free enterpriseVoted as a unit and produced their own militiaPolygamy became a problem for Joseph Smith and the LDSBrigham Young was an “eloquent” preacher with only 11 days of schoolingMovement to Utah- use of irrigation system in desert of Utah
68Important Religions and People Two largest denominations became Methodists and BaptistsPeter Cartwright ( ) prominent Methodist preacherCharles Grandison Finney was a prominent revival preacher. Known as the “greatest preacher” of the Second Great AwakeningFinney led massive revivals in in Rochester, New YorkEncouraged women to pray aloud in public and denounced both alcohol and slaveryStressed personal conversion and explored a democratic control of church affairsWilliam Miller – Millerites and Adventists: interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on Earth Oct. 22, 1844