7 Protein Amino acids joined together in chains Animal Sources Fish, Chicken, Lean Pork, Eggs, BeefPlant SourcesNutsSeedsLegumesSoyTempehSeitan
8 Lipids Fats (solid at room temperature) Oils (liquid at room temperature)Fats and oils are made of Triglycerides
9 Fatty AcidsThose fatty acids with no carbon-carbon double bonds are called saturated. Those that have two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated have one double bond.Unsaturated fats have a particular geometry that prevents the molecules from packing as efficiently as they do in saturated molecules. Thus they are EASIER to breakdown for energy and HARDER to store as fat.
10 Fatty Acids (cont.)Saturated fats are typically solids and are derived from animals, while unsaturated fats are liquids and usually extracted from plants.Your body converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into triglycerides. The triglycerides are stored in your fat cells. Later, hormones release triglycerides for energy between meals.
11 VitaminsA, D, E and KFat soluble vitaminsInadequate dietary fat intake can result in deficiencies of these vitaminsVitamin D is vital (more later)B6, B12, Thiamine, Riboflavin, C, Folate, NiacinHuge roles in CHO metabolism and other essential body functions
12 EnzymesEssential for ALL chemical reactions in the body. Function by lowering the energy needed for chemical reaction and speeding up the reaction.In short, Enzymes help the body perform the billions of chemical reactions it does each day EASIER (with less energy cost)
13 Food Preparation: Commercial and Domestic Fats and Proteins (MACRO) as well as Vitamins and Enzymes (MICRO) are VERY sensitive to HEAT.PasteurizationNo real controlLeaves higher % of carbs per unit volumeCookingMuch more control
14 WaterALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS in the body need to take place in or use waterCHO, Proteins and Fats all require huge amounts of water to break downDeath occurs in 5-7 days without water
15 MACRONUTRIENTS + MICRONUTRIENTS WATER CELLULAR ENERGY (ATP)
16 Digestion and Assimilation The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into progressively smaller and smaller piecesCan be an issue with poor dental health, ulcers, esophageal disorders, etc.AssimilationThe utilization (absorption into the bloodstream) of the nutrients in those small pieces for energy, growth and repairPoor “gut” health is very common in the US
17 Carbohydrate Digestion and Assimilation Begins in the mouth via our saliva, with help from an enzyme - salivary amylaseThis only occurs with CHO – WHY?The brain can only use CHO as an energy sourceThe brain “steals” up to 40% of CHO intake before the rest of the body gets a shot at them
18 Carbohydrate Digestion and Assimilation (cont.) Digestive enzymes released by the pancreas into the small intestine (in response to eating carbohydrates) allows the absorption of carbs throughout the small intestine, but when eating refined sugars, the absorption occurs in the first part of the small intestine only (it happens too fast)– increasing the chances they’ll be stored as fat tissue.
19 Protein Digestion and Assimilation Begins in the stomach. Ingested proteins are first split into smaller fragments by pepsin (enzyme) in the stomach or by trypsin or chymotrypsin (enzymes) from the pancreas. These proteins are then further broken down in the small intestine (middle 1/3) one amino acid at a time. The free amino acids released into the digestive system are then absorbed through the walls of the 2nd and 3rd parts of the small intestine into the blood stream where they are then resynthesized into new tissue proteins (muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc.) or are broken down for energy or for fragments for further tissue building.
20 Protein Digestion and Assimilation BOTTOM LINE:The process of breaking down and using protein requires:Lots of waterLots of timeA healthy gut and pancreas to produce proper enzymes
21 Lipid Digestion and Assimilation Very unique process. Just putting fat into your mouth triggers the release of salivary lipase – an enzyme that signals the brain and body that fat is coming.This is due to the high energy value of fatsCHO = 4 calories/gramProtein = 4 calories/gramFats = 9 calories/gram
22 Lipid Digestion and Assimilation Fat digestion doesn’t begin until the first part of the small intestine when the liver/gall bladder release bile salts that emulsify or breakdown fat into smaller and smaller pieces. These smaller pieces can then be dissolved into triglycerides by enzymes released from the pancreas (pancreatic lipase). THIS PROCESS REQUIRES A LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER OR IT WILL NOT TAKE PLACE PROPERLY.
23 Why Do We Need to Know This? The body’s cells energy/nutrient needs are diverse at different timesGiving the body only one Macronutrient at a time “feeds” some cells while it “starves” othersIn an effort to “get to the next Macro” which is needed, the body increases the speed at which the food moves through the GI tractFast digestion results in poor assimilation
24 Why Do We Need to Know This? Fast digestion results in sharp rise in blood sugarAs a result, Insulin levels rise quickly to high levelsWhen insulin levels are high the body goes into “storage mode” – you store calories present as fat rather than using them as energy
26 Macronutrient EatingBy combining all 3 Macronutrients at EVERY meal and snack the following can occur:Increased food mixing with waterleads to greater amount of successful chemical reactionsSlower progression of food through the GI tractensures the body has enough time to breakdown these foods and extract every last bit of nutrition from them
27 Greater stretching of the GI tract “Fuller” longer – less prone to overeatIncreases ease of nutrient assimilationReduced colorectal cancer riskStabilizes blood sugar and insulin levelsLess fat storageImproves utilization of both CHO and FatsAllows us to access these nutrients for longer periods of time (when they are needed during the day).
28 Some Important Concepts We Should All Be Aware Of Glycemic Index of FoodsTypes of Dietary Fats and Their Effect on CholesterolsVitamin D
29 Glycemic Index (GI)Refers to how quickly blood sugar levels rise in response to eating a particular foodScale of with pure glucose at the top of the listEating foods lower (below 50) on the GI prevents spikes in blood sugar and insulin levelsCombing fat and protein with carbs has same effect
30 Understanding Cholesterol Cholesterol is ESSENTIALBackbone of ALL Hormones in the bodyCell membrane integrityCellular communication2 main typesExogenous – dietary (what we eat)Endogenous – what our body producesLots of bad information out there
31 Understanding Cholesterol LDL vs. HDL LDL – Low Density LipoproteinA molecule made of fat and proteinFat is less dense than proteinLarge molecules that can “clog up” blood vesselsFunction to deliver fats to our cellsToo many can be detrimentalHDL – High-density LipoproteinMore protein than fatSmaller moleculesRemove unused fat from blood and brings it back to the liver
32 Understanding Cholesterol Total Cholesterol # can be unimportant if there are 2 or less risk factors for CVD presentDiabetesObesitySmokingFamily history of CVDAlcohol consumptionTotal Cholesterol/HDL Ratio is the key factor in determining CVD riskOptimal is 3.5 or below
33 Understanding Cholesterol Exercise and consuming Mono-unsaturated (Omega-3) fats INCREASE HDL levelsConsuming saturated (Omega-9) and poly- unsaturated (Omega-6) fats can INCREASE LDL levels
34 Vitamin DRecent research has shown that Vitamin D’s importance goes well beyond teeth and bones“Usher” of fats and Carbs from blood into cellsToo few ushers = increased levels of fat and sugar in the bloodElevated blood pressureIncreased risk of diabetes and many types of cardiovascular disease
35 Parting Thoughts Food ain’t what it used to be Farming practicesFood safety protocolsSynthetic ingredientsMacronutrient intake at every meal and snackMaximizes the efficiency of your GI tractRegulates insulin levelsHelps inhibit overeating
36 Thank you for your time.Be sure to write down any questions you may have, along with your address, and I will answer them to the best of my ability.