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Academic Writing 1 Part One. Academic Writing 2 Agreement Nouns and pronouns must agree in number Employees are free to express their (NOT his/her) opinions.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Writing 1 Part One. Academic Writing 2 Agreement Nouns and pronouns must agree in number Employees are free to express their (NOT his/her) opinions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Writing 1 Part One

2 Academic Writing 2 Agreement Nouns and pronouns must agree in number Employees are free to express their (NOT his/her) opinions (NOT opinion, unless they only have one in common). Pronouns must agree with each other Once one has decided on a strategy, one (NOT you) must keep to it. Subjects and verbs must agree in number Recent discoveries about the impact of EU membership reveal (NOT reveals) that there are various effects at the national level.

3 Academic Writing 3 Agreement What about ’number’, ’either’, ’neither’, percentages, fractions, etc.? See for example: ok/ SubjectVerb.html ok/

4 Academic Writing 4 Exercise: agreement Agreement: choose the appropriate verb form: 1. Either the employees of this company or the administration ____ going to have to make a decision. (is or are?) 2. Some of the patients __________ to have been mistreated. (seem or seems?) 3. The migratory birds that travel through this area every spring _____ more than just an annoyance. (is or are?) 4. Everyone selected to serve on this committee _____ to be able to give up a lot of time from other tasks. (has or have?) 5. Tara Walters, together with her team, _________ a formidable taskforce. (forms or form?) 6. He seems to forget that there __________ matters to be finalized before he can take his pension. (is or are?) 7. There _______ to be some people present despite the recent uproar. (have or has?) 8. Some of the material __________ to be contaminated. (appear or appears?) 9. Three-quarters of the inhabitants __________ against the tax increase. (is or are?) 10. Three-quarters of the population__________ against the tax increase. (is or are?) 11. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the renewed town plan. (is or are?) 12. The personnel _______ on vacation this time every year. (is or are?)

5 Academic Writing 5 Agreement * KEY 1. Either the employees of this company or the administration is going to have to make a decision. (is or are?) COMMENT: ”is” = agreement by proximity 2. Some of the patients seem to have been mistreated. (seem or seems?) COMMENT See e.g. 3. The migratory birds that travel through this area every spring are more than just an annoyance. (is or are?) 4. Everyone selected to serve on this committee has to be able to give up a lot of time from other tasks. (has or have?) COMMENT See e.g. 5. Tara Walters, together with her team, presents a formidable taskforce. (presents or present?) 6. He seems to forget that there are matters to be finalized before he can take his pension. (is or are?) 7. There have to be some people present despite the recent uproar. (have or has?) 8. Some of the material appears to be contaminated. (appear or appears?) 9. Three-quarters of the inhabitants are against the tax increase. (is or are?) 10. Three-quarters of the population is [OR: are] against the tax increase. (is or are?) COMMENT: ”is” = agreement with [part, not all of] student body, a singular subject ; ”are” = notional agreement (a plural entity) 11. A high percentage of the population is voting for the renewed town plan. (is or are?) 12. The personnel is on vacation this time every year. (is or are?)

6 Academic Writing 6 Sentence fragments A sentence always includes at least a subject and an inflecting verb: NO: The liquid was poured into a glass container. Being a strong substance. YES: Because the liquid was a strong substance, it was poured into a glass container. Please go to: grammar/g_fragEX2.html Consider paragraphs 2, 3 and 5. Identify and improve the fragments in the paragraphs.

7 Academic Writing 7 Exercise: fragments * KEY A. For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans' trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi-political trust and confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political" means all levels of government, and "quasi-political" [means] churches, labor unions, large professional/ business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has taken place every year since B. For 200 years Americans believed in better jobs, better homes, a better life for one's children. This confidence no longer exists. Polls now indicate that fewer Americans who feel they are better off today than they were five years ago. A public-opinion analysis group has found that large numbers of Americans, at some times and in some places, see themselves as lower on the ladder. They also mention worse living conditions and anticipation of further decline over the next five years. C. A president is an appointed leader, someone who is a decision maker in the executive branch of our government. This does not necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. [They just (hopefully) assume so.] They base their assumption on his past record as a politician and his experience of handling situations. (adapted from: grammar/g_fragA2.htmlgrammar/g_fragA2.html)

8 Academic Writing 8 Passives Although it is often said that the passive voice should be used in academic writing as a reflection of objectivity and impersonality, passives should not be overused. Often, other structures with an impersonal approach may produce better results: Instead of writing A number of things are indicated by these results. you could write These results indicate a number of things. without compromising the impersonality of the sentence.

9 Academic Writing 9 COMMENTS On the passive voice, see e.g. and

10 Academic Writing 10 Passives Instead of using passives, consider using non-personal subjects in active sentences, structures beginning with ’it’ and ’there’, and other similar structures. Use passives: 1. To emphasize an object. –Over 50 percent of the votes are required to pass the bill. 2. To de-emphasize an unknown subject/actor. –Over 120 different toxic substances have been dumped into the river. 3. If your readers do not need to know who is responsible for the action.

11 Academic Writing 11 Exercise: passives Passives: What do you think about the use of the passive in these extracts? Write a new version of the text so that you replace all passives by other forms of impersonality. In extracts 2 and 3, some of the passives are ill-formed. Correct the mistaken passive structures. EXTRACT 1. By science is meant, literally, knowledge. But it is knowledge which has been critically examined, rigorously tested and ordered into a system of ideas. By science is implied a method of assessing and understanding knowledge. In the natural sciences are included the physical sciences by which non-living substances are dealt with, the biological sciences by which living things are studied, and medicine in so far as humans are studied by it as biological systems. It was these natural sciences in particular by which were enabled the development of rigorous and objective methods for the acquisition of new knowledge which would be of universal application in the development of modern civilization.

12 Academic Writing 12 Exercise: passives * KEY EXTRACT 1. Science means [literally] knowledge. But it is knowledge critically examined, rigorously tested and ordered into a system of ideas. Science implies a method of assessing and understanding knowledge. The natural sciences include the physical sciences which deal with non-living substances, the biological sciences which study living things, and medicine which studies humans as biological systems. These natural sciences in particular enabled the development of rigorous and objective methods for the acquisition of new knowledge which would be of universal application in the development of modern civilization.

13 Academic Writing 13 Passives (2): Correct the passives EXTRACT 2. Electricity, which has got from the sun during the day, is conserved in the traditional lead accumulators. Even in private houses, they are fit on a solid bottom and they have covered with glass or transparent plastic. The accumulator has to change every second of third year. EXTRACT 3. Because of the constant virus threat, computer networks have protected against any intrusion from outside. Experts will tell the user how this can done.

14 Academic Writing 14 Passives (2): * KEY EXTRACT 2. Electricity, which is obtained from the sun during the day, is conserved in the traditional lead accumulators. Even in private houses, they are fitted on a solid bottom and they are covered with glass or transparent plastic. The accumulator has to be changed every second of third year. EXTRACT 3. Because of the constant virus threat, computer networks have to be protected against any intrusion from outside. Experts will tell the user how this can be done.

15 Academic Writing 15 Basic and intermediate level exercises for training the passive voice r-passive_voice.asphttp://www.nonstopenglish.com/allexercises/Grammar/Gramma r-passive_voice.asp up/grammar/passive/exercises?present-progressivehttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram- up/grammar/passive/exercises?present-progressive

16 Academic Writing 16 Mistaken parallels When you use conjunctions such as ’and’, ’or’, and so on, notice that you should only link grammatically similar elements: Wrong: Drinking, smoking, and too little exercise have an effect on the national economy. OK: Drinking, smoking, and exercising too little have an effect on the national economy.

17 Academic Writing 17 Exercise: parallels Improve the mistaken parallels: 1. During the company recreation day, we would prefer hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. 2. The person in charge was demanded to write a report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner. 3. The headmaster reproached the students because they waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed lab problems in a careless manner, and their motivation was low. 4. The sales representative expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his PowerPoint presentation, and that numerous questions would be asked by prospective buyers. 5. This online dictionary and grammar can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciation advice, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verb forms. 6. Today’s automobiles include systems that analyse sensor data and for alerting the driver, for example the antilock braking system (ABS).

18 Academic Writing 18 Exercise: parallels * KEY 1. During the company recreation day, we would prefer hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle. 2. The person in charge was demanded to write a report quickly, accurately, and descriptively. (… his report quickly in an accurate and detailed manner). 3. The headmaster reproached the students because they waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed their lab problems in a careless manner, and had a low motivation. 4. The sales representative expected that he would present his product at the meeting, have time to show his PowerPoint presentation, and hear numerous questions asked by prospective buyers. 5. This online dictionary and grammar can be used for these purposes: for finding word meanings, pronunciation advice, and correct spellings, and for looking up irregular verb forms. 6. Today’s automobiles include systems that analyse sensor data and alert the driver, for example the antilock braking system (ABS).

19 Academic Writing 19 Pronouns without a clear link Make sure that pronouns such as ’it’ and ’this’ refer to something specific: Wrong: In the study it suggests that… OK: The study suggests that… Wrong: The committee decided to meet in January, but this did not happen until May OK: The committee decided to meet in January, but the meeting did not take place until May.

20 Academic Writing 20 Exercise: pronouns Do not use pronouns vaguely or ambiguously. Correct the following: Wrong: Many people say they should not show so much violence on TV. Wrong: Although the test tube was not on the table at the time of the accident, it had been damaged. Wrong: A 7-day extension of the holiday season is being planned, which is convenient for the employees. Wrong: The young man worked for the national railways last summer. This may be his life's work.

21 Academic Writing 21 Exercise: pronouns * KEY Many people say there should not be so much violence on TV. Although the test tube was not on the table at the time of the accident, the tube had been damaged. A 7-day extension of the holiday season is being planned. Such an extension is convenient for the employees. The young man worked for the national railways last summer. The job may be his life's work.

22 Academic Writing 22 Faulty word choice Do not use ’fancy’ words just for the sake of using them (’feline olfactory organ’ vs. ’cat’s nose’). Use a dictionary to check words whose meaning or spelling you are not certain of. Consider: affect/effect alternately/alternatively amount/number complement/compliment principal/principle through/trough

23 Academic Writing 23 What is wrong with the choice of words? Improve the choice of words in these extracts: EXTRACT 1. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be computerized and linked into an integrated whole via a computer communication network. EXTRACT 2. Electricity that comes from the sun is stored in an accumulator, and in the evening it is used for TV and lightning. EXTRACT 3. A gas turbine, as the name says, uses pressurized gas for turning the turbine. This article considers basic issues about designing turbines driven by gas. EXTRACT 4. Because the microstructure of heat- treated wood changes pipe-like, the ends of the board absorb more moisture compared to non- treated wood. Therefore the boat should be protected with boat varnish. EXTRACT 5. The manager had also heard that there were constant problems with electric supplying.

24 Academic Writing 24 Choice of words * KEY EXTRACT 1. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) means that all aspects of manufacturing are computerized and linked into an integrated whole via a computer communication network. EXTRACT 2. Electricity that comes from the sun is stored in an accumulator, and in the evening it is used for [watching/viewing] TV and [for] lighting. EXTRACT 3. A gas turbine, as the name says, uses pressurized gas for turning the turbine. This article deals with basic issues of designing turbines driven by gas. EXTRACT 4. Because the microstructure of heat- treated wood becomes pipe-like, the ends of the board absorb more moisture compared to non- treated wood. Therefore the boat should be protected with boat varnish. EXTRACT 5. The manager had also heard that there were constant problems with electricity supply.

25 Academic Writing 25 Relative clauses (1) Please bear in mind the following regarding relative clauses: A. Relative Pronouns 1. In relative clauses, who is typically used to refer to people. 2. That and which are typically used for non- human referents. Items such as where and when are also used in relative meanings. 3. Please notice that what does not have the same relative meanings in English that similar items have in many other languages. The only meaning of what that is linked to relative structures is the so-called what-cleft: What is important is the usefulness of the theory. (=that which, the matter that). Therefore, do not write: This thesis deals with network solutions what are relatively new in China

26 Academic Writing 26 Relative clauses (2) B. Punctuation and Types of Relative Clause 1. When forming relative clauses, pay attention to the use of commas. A relative clause beginning with that is never separated by a comma. This is because that- relatives are restrictive; essential to the content of the sentence: The idea that cash should be abolished is not a novel one. 2. Problems typically arise in the use of who and which, because they can be used in both restrictive and non- restrictive relative clauses. To illustrate the difference in meaning, let us take a simplified example: a) The children who were eating ice cream were happy. In sentence a) the relative clause is restrictive, also referred to as a defining relative clause. The relative clause identifies those children who are happy from a larger group of children (those eating ice cream were happy, the ones without ice cream possibly not). b) The children, who were eating ice cream, were happy. In sentence b) who introduces a non-restrictive and thus non-defining relative clause. The relative clause merely gives additional information about all of the children being talked about, but no cause-effect relationship between ice cream and happiness is suggested (the children were happy, and, by the way, they were also eating ice cream). In sum, the use of commas in relative clauses may have a significant impact on meaning.

27 Academic Writing 27 Exercises: relative clauses Add suitable relative pronouns. Also add commas where necessary: 1. Light fuel oil _____ is lighter than water rises to the surface. 2. Taxicabs _____ do not have seatbelts are still legal in some countries. 3. Blue jeans _____ were once in vogue have not been fashionable for several years now. 4. Students _____ do not usually talk about their feelings said the scholarship changes had upset them. 5. The ginkgo tree _____ leaves _____ turn bright yellow in the fall came to Europe from Asia. 6. Fred and Wilma _____ often copy Internet material just harm themselves. 7. Students _____ copy Internet material only harm themselves. 8. The candidate _____ had the smallest budget won the election.

28 Academic Writing 28 Exercises: relative clauses * KEY 1.Light fuel o il, which is lighter than water, rises to the surface. 2. Taxicabs that/which do not have seatbelts are still legal in some countries. 3. Blue jeans, which were once in vogue, have not been fashionable for several years now. 4. Students who [that] do not usually talk about their feelings said the scholarship changes had upset them. 5. The ginkgo tree, the leaves of which turn bright yellow in the fall, came to Europe from Asia. 6. Fred and Wilma, who often copy Internet material, just harm themselves. 7. Students who copy Internet material only harm themselves. 8. The candidate who had the smallest budget won the election.

29 Academic Writing 29 Which article to use? A proper noun or a common noun? Plural - the Singular - zero article SpecificGeneral (indefinite) the Uncountable or countable? zero article Plural zero article Singular if followed by a consonant if followed by a vowel a an These general rules apply to the majority of cases. Certain exceptions do, however, exist. The rule of thumb is: If in doubt, leave the article out.

30 Academic Writing 30 Article use Remember that all countable nouns need an article in the singular, either a/an or the. The is used with both countable and uncountable nouns in both the singular and plural when the noun is already known from the context or presumed otherwise known. Proper names are normally used without any article, except for some special cases (the United Nations, the Hague, the Thames, etc.) Examples: A representative of our company received (Ø) information about (Ø) explosions in London. The information shook the employee (=a representative of our company) as well as many others visibly, because our company had just opened a branch office in London. Later, the explosions proved to be (Ø) accidents that took place quite far from the office.

31 Academic Writing 31 Exercise: article use All articles have been omitted from this text extract. Insert a, an, or the where necessary: Learning foreign language is important in intercultural business communication (IBC) studies. But equally important is development of intercultural communicative competence, that is, recognition of cultural factors that influence behavior in business encounters around globe. This study suggests how tertiary-level foreign language courses can be contextualized to promote intercultural learning geared to achieving awareness of cultural diversity and understanding of different modes of living and behavior. It describes learning projects and tasks incorporated into 1st-year IBC program at Nijmegen University in Netherlands, where integrative approach to course programming was introduced in (Adapted from: Korzilius, H., Planken, B., and Van Hooft, A Promoting Intercultural Communicative Competence through Foreign Language Courses. Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 67.)

32 Academic Writing 32 Exercise: article use Learning a foreign language is important in intercultural business communication (IBC) studies. But equally important is the development of intercultural communicative competence, that is, the recognition of cultural factors that influence behavior in business encounters around the globe. This study suggests how tertiary-level foreign language courses can be contextualized to promote intercultural learning geared to achieving the awareness of cultural diversity and understanding of different modes of living and behavior. It describes [the] learning projects and tasks incorporated into a 1st-year IBC program at Nijmegen University in the Netherlands, where an integrative approach to course programming was introduced in

33 Academic Writing 33 Exercise: article use (2) Proof-read by adding or removing articles (a, an, the): EXTRACT 1. In the next phase, remaining sulphuric dioxide is oxidised in two last catalyst beds. Formed sulphuric trioxide is absorbed in concluding absorption tower. EXTRACT 2. About 60 percent of sulphuric acid transportation is organised by three methods: by truck, train or by ship. There are different loading places for tank trucks, trains and ships. The rest 40 per cent of the transportation takes place by pipe lines.

34 Academic Writing 34 Exercise: article use (2) EXTRACT 1. In the next phase, the remaining sulphuric dioxide is oxidised in the two last catalyst beds. The formed sulphuric trioxide is absorbed in a concluding absorption tower. EXTRACT 2. About 60 per cent of sulphuric acid transportation is organised by three methods: by truck, train or by ship. There are different loading places for tank trucks, trains and ships. The rest 40 per cent of (Ø) transportation takes place by pipe lines.

35 Academic Writing 35 Word order Now it is time to add your planned text into the document. He visited also Scansped and they gave some information about the topic. But if you need electricity daily, the only way to have electricity enough is to add more solar panels. From the acid tank is sulphuric acid pumped to a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Pictures and texts are added to a DreamWeaver page visually so that you do not need to know necessarily anything about coding.

36 Academic Writing 36 Word order * KEY Now it is time to add the text you planned into the document. He also visited Scansped and they gave some information about the topic. But if you need electricity daily, the only way to have enough electricity is to add more solar panels. From the acid tank sulphuric acid is pumped to a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Pictures and texts are added to a DreamWeaver page visually so that you do not necessarily need to know anything about coding.

37 Academic Writing 37 Word Order HTML files to be used for self-study


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