32. 教学手段:网络教学It is this feature, the combination of writing and speech, which led one prominent cognitive scientist to describe the Internet as bring about “ the fourth revolution in the means of production of knowledge,” on a par with the “ three prior revolution in the evolution of human communication and cognition: language, writing and print.” ( Harnad, 1992, p.1)What is the principal role of computer? ( Warschauer , 2000)1. StructuralTo provide unlimited drill, practice, tutorial explanation and corrective feedback. (as tutor)2. CognitiveTo provide language input and analytical and inferential tasks.( as pupil)3. SociocognitiveTo provide alternative contexts for social interaction; to facilitate access to existing discourse communities and the creation of new ones. ( as tool)
4Input Krashen (i+1): meaningful and comprehensible input of linguistic competence and the purpose of interaction is to provide inputSchaefer (1981): meaningful and comprehensible input when we designthe activities with the aid of a computerHiggins, Johns (1984): four learning paradigms: 1. instructional ( computercan increase input through teacher and textbook)Doughty (1991): compared 3 kinds of computerized instruction, presentedthe same reading texts on the computer1. rule-oriented instruction2. meaning-oriented instruction ( perform best in comprehending)3. control groupQ: How to measure “input”?
5Output Kelm (1992); Chun (1994); Kern (1995) First language is minimized in electronic discussionKern (1995): compared web discussion with oral one, found that studentshad from 2-3 times more turns and produced 2-4 times more sentencesand more wordsWang (1993): more questions; more answers; complicated structures after communicationSchultz (1996): complex structures; longer sentences; correct word order;more natural (after 6 month exchange between a German learner andnatives)Nagata (1998): 2 computer programs were developed1. an input-focused program with explicit grammatical instruction2. an output-focused program with explicit grammatical instructionconclusion: there are rules for output in SLA that are independent of input
6Interaction (Collaboration) Computer-mediated interaction provides a useful mechanism for helping learners achieve high levels of metalinguistic awareness.(Jill Pelletierri)CMC (Mark Warschauer, 1997) has the following 5 features:1. text-based and computer-mediated2. many-to-many communication:the differences between CMC and face-to face communication: turn- taking; interruption, balance; agreement; decision-making
7Kiesler, Siegel (1987): online: women made the first proposal as often as face-to- face: men made the first proposalWeisband (1992): FTF: opinion tending to agreementCMC: opinion tending to disagreementCMC: equal communication1) Reducing social context clues (Sproull, Kiesler, 1991)2) Reducing non-verbal clues ( Finholt, Kiesler, Sproull, 1986)3) Allowing individual to contribute at their own time and spaceAll studies found a great amount of student participation in three measures:1) percentage of student talk vs. teacher talk ( 85%-92%:35%-60%)2) directional focus of student talk3) equality of student participation3. Time and place independent communication1) It allows for more in-depth analysis and critical reflection
8teacher outside the classroom 4. Long distance exchange 2) It allows students to initiate communication with each other or with theteacher outside the classroom4. Long distance exchangeTella (1991; 1992) conducted investigation of a semester-long exchangebetween high school students in Finland and England:1) teacher-centered, large-group---learner-centered, individualized2) a shift from form to content3) the whole writing process changed4) the quality of writing improved5) the modes of writing became more versatile6) reading became more public and collaborative5. Hypermedia information and student publishing1) It provides access to up-to-date authentic information2) It makes use of technologies to construct new knowledge
9FeedbackFeedback is an essential component of the instructional process. Its most common mode is through teacher-student interaction in a classroom setting.The student teacher ratio is often 25:1, or higher, which therefore limits the frequency and quality of the feedback the student will receive. (Ross, 1993)Feedback in CAI: 1. knowledge of response ( right; wrong; do it again)2. knowledge of correct response3. answer until correct4. elaborated5. adapted6. adaptiveFeedback in CALL:Bationo (1992): the combination of written and spoken feedback was more effective for the immediate recall of the learning material. Subjects in the treatment group used significantly greater amount of conversational fillers, self-repair, hesitations and pauses than those in the control group.
10Environment Egbert (1996) : ideal language learning environment: 1. opportunities for learners to interact and negotiatemeaning with authentic audience2. learners involved in authentic tasks which promoteexposure to and production of varied and creativelanguage3. learners have opportunities to formulate ideas andthought and intentional cognition is promoted4. an atmosphere with ideal stress/ anxietyChaudron ( 1988) :It would not be unreasonable to argue that a strict separation of behaviorist and constructivist interface is pedagogically unhelpful and that an effective CALL environment needs to offer different combination of interfaces to accommodate different learning styles as appropriate to different skills.
11Making CALL work: Towards normalisation Andrea Chambers, Stephen Bax How can CALL become normalised and therefore fully effective?A. LogisticsFor normalisation to take place, CALL facilities will ideally not be separated from ‘normal’ teaching space….the classroom will ideally be organised so as to allow for an easy move from CALL activities to non-CALL activities.B. Stakeholders’ conceptions, knowledge an abilitiesIf CALL is to be normalised, teachers and managers need to avoid the ‘technical fallacy’, namely the view that the main determinant of success or failure is the hardware and software, or any other single factor.C. Syllabus and software integrationIf asked to identify one crucial factor, we would emphasise syllabus integration. This for us means the need to integrate CALL into the syllabus in such a way that teachers are expected, as often as the facilities allow, to use computers in their teaching.D. Training, developing and support
12How do learners construct meaning via online communication? How do learners attend to content and form in online communication?How does participation in CMC affect learners’ motivation and identity?What is the teachers’ role in the CMC?How can teachers make the effective transition from “ sage on the stage” to “ guide on the side”? (Tella, 1996, p.6)How do gender, linguistic and cultural differences reproduce themselves online?What areas have been best served and which areas can be better served?To what extent has computer technology served language pedagogy?
133. 教学方法: TBI and Lexical Approach Recognition of the essential roles of the teacher and the learner and of the need for situationally relevant language pedagogy has brought about the decline of methods, with their specific philosophies and prescribed sets of classroom procedures.…The centrality of key learner variables, such as learning needs and goals, as well as cognitive processing and resources has been widely recognized in research and pedagogy. Investigations into the social, cultural, economic, and political contexts of L2 learning have provide much insight into populations of learners and their specific learning goals. (Eli Hinkel)
14TBIWhile TBI may successfully develop learners’ command of what is known, it is considerably less effective for the systematic teaching of new language. This is especially so where time is limited and out-of-class exposure unavailable, thus making heavily task-based programmes inappropriate for most of the world’s language learners.…Countless people seem to have learnt languages over the centuries through the kind of instruction currently condemned in the TBI literature. ( Michael Swan )R. Ellis says: “ the rationale for task-based syllabuses is largely theoretical in nature, there being little empirical evidence to demonstrate that they are superior to linguistic syllabuses.”
15TBI is of obvious value to learners who do not need much new input from their language classes, and whose main concern is to improve the accuracy, fluency and complexity of their output.…The claim that traditional approaches have failed is not well founded… the naturalistic communication-driven pedagogy characteristic of TBI has serious limitations, esp. as regards the systematic teaching of new linguistic material. Its exclusive use is particularly unsuitable for exposure-poor contexts where time is limited. ( Michael Swan )Currently, task-based and content-based instruction are probably among the most widely adopted integrated models. However, some leading specialists in L2 teaching and applied linguistics have maintained that the superiority of, for example, task-based instruction over traditional teaching has not been demonstrated empirically and that to date research has had little to say about its effectiveness. (Eli Hinkel)
16Task-based language teaching: sorting out the misunderstandings Rod Ellis Task-based teaching need not be seen as an alternative to more traditional, form-focused approaches but can be used alongside them.Task must satisfy the following criteria:1. The primary focus should be on ‘meaning’2. There should be some kind of ‘gap’( a need to convey information, toexpress meaning of utterances)3. Learners should largely have to rely on their own resources (linguisticand non-linguistic) in order to complete the activity4. There is a clearly defined outcome other than the use of language ( thelanguage serves as the means for achieving the outcome, not as an endin its own right)Tasks can be ‘unfocused’ or ‘focused’. Unfocused tasks are tasks designed to provide learners with opportunities for using language in general communication. Focused tasks are those designed to provide opportunities for communicating using some specific linguistic features ( typically a grammatical structure)
17Task-based and task-supported: the former requires a syllabus consisting of unfocused tasks; that is, the content of the instructional programme is specified in terms of the tasks to be completed. The latter utilizes a structural syllabus and typically involves ‘ppp’, with the final stage taken up with what is often referred to as a ‘task’ but more correctly constitutes a ‘ situational grammar exercise’.Tasks can also be ‘input-providing’ or ‘output-prompting’. Input-providing tasks engage learners in listening and reading, while output-prompting tasks engage them in speaking or writing.The nature of the interactions that take place in TBLT will depend on three factors: the proficiency level of the students, the design features of the task, and the method of implementation.Critics frequently make the mistake of assuming that a task is invariably a speaking task, it can involve listening and reading.
18The term ‘focus on form’ was coined by Long (1991) to stand in contrast to ‘focus on forms’. The latter refers to traditional language teaching based on a structural syllabus. ‘Focus on form’ refers to teaching where learners’ attention is focused on form in the context of communicative activities.‘Form’ does not merely refer to grammar, it can also refers to vocabulary and pronunciation. Extensive reading activities can be viewed as tasks.There is now a rich literature documenting how teachers respond to learners errors in TBLT. This shows that they adopt both implicit and explicit corrective strategies, at times intervening very directly to ‘teach’ about some item of language…TBLT can be both learner-and teacher-centred.TBLT aims to create a context in which grammar can be acquired gradually and dynamically while at the same time fostering the ability to use this grammar in communication. It is ideally suited to ‘acquisition-poor’ environments.
19Principles of TBLT:1. The tasks must be tailored to the proficiency levels of the students.2. Tasks need to be trialled to ensure that they result in appropriate L2 useand revised in the light of experience.3. For TBLT to work, teachers need a clear understanding of what a task is.4. Teachers and students need to be made aware of the purpose and rationale for performing tasks.5. Ideally, the teachers involved in teaching a task-based course must beinvolved in the development of the task materials.
20Conclusion1. TBLT offers the opportunities for ‘natural’ learning inside the classroom.2. It emphasizes meaning over form but also cater for learning form.3. It affords learners a rich input of target language.4. It is intrinsically motivating.5. It is compatible with a learner-centred educational philosophy but alsoallows for teacher input and direction.6. It caters to the development of communicative fluency while notneglecting accuracy.7. It can be used alongside a more traditional approach.
21Lexical ApproachChomskyan notions of infinite, creative utterances are half-truth: prefabricated items form a significant part of the output, minority of utterances are novel, creative. Speakers need both a refabricated, automatized element as well as a creative, generative one. (Now he has adopted a “lexicon-is-prime” position).Language is grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar (Lewis 1993). In other words, lexis is central in creating meaning, grammar plays a subservient managerial role.
22The bottom-up processing of reading involves a broad array of distinct cognitive subskills, such as word recognition, spelling and phonological processing, morphosyntactic parsing, and lexical recognition and access.In general terms, a vocabulary of about 2,000 words may serve as an essential base needed for daily interaction and speaking, whereas 5,000 base words are typically considered to be minimal L2 learning goal to comprehend texts intended for a general, nonspecialist audience.In the past two decades, a vast body of research has established that explicit teaching represents the most effective and efficient means of vocabulary teaching. Researchers have also voiced caution that incidental learning leads to lower rates of vocabulary retention and that a word needs to be encountered times to be learned from context. According to Nation and Hulstijin, research has not supported the connection that meaning-focused use and encounters with new words in context are the best way to learn vocabulary.
23The effects of repetition of vocabulary knowledge Stuart Webb This article discusses the effects of repetition ( 1, 3, 7, and 10 encounters) on word knowledge in a carefully controlled study of 121 Japanese students learning English. The study is innovative and original in several aspects. (1) the study uses 10 tests to measure knowledge of orthography, association, grammatical functions, syntax, and meaning and form. (2) the study controls for several different numbers of repetition. (3) the study controls for type of context in which the world occurs. (4) the study makes use of nonsense words to replace frequently used words in authentic text. (5) the study examines word knowledge acquisition at different levels. The results showed that greater gains in knowledge were found for at least one aspect of knowledge each time repetitions increased. If learners encounter unknown words ten times in context, sizable learning gains may occur. However, to develop full knowledge of a word more than ten repetitions may be needed.
283. 教学内容: Listening* In L2 listening pedagogy, two complementary approaches reflect current perspectives. One emphasizes the integrates teaching of listening for communication and in conjunction with other L2 skills, such as speaking, sociopragmatics, grammar, and vocabulary. The other moves to the foreground the learners’ use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies to booster the listening process. (Eli Hinkel)metacognitive strategies: self management, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, selective attention, advance preparationcognitive strategies: repetition, deduction, note-taking, translation, grouping, recombination
29The findings have led L2 listening experts to advocate the teaching of metacognitive and cognitive strategies specifically for L2 listening comprehension.The key metacognitive strategies widely adopted in L2 listening instruction include planning for listening, self-monitoring the comprehension processes, evaluating comprehension, and identifying comprehension difficulties.For more advanced learners, an addition of cognitive strategies, such as discourse organization, inferencing, elaboration, and summation, also represent an effective approach to teaching listening.
30Novice-level learners tend to rely on prior knowledge, while intermediate-level students, with their larger linguistic base and therefore larger information processing capacity are able to use more metacognitive strategies. (Suzanne Graham et al.)when native listeners make an incorrect segmentation, they seem able to resolve the problem relatively quickly; but non-natives seem far less flexible, tending to persist with their original word boundary allocation in spite of evidence that it is inappropriate---perseveration effect.…One reason may be that a lack of confidence in their decoding skills makes L2 listeners cautious about using incoming perceptual information to overrule interpretations already established. (John Field )
31An Experiment Subjects: 44 of Advanced English; 4hpw; Course books: College English (New Edition)integrated course: book 4 , 5; listening and speaking : book 4, 5…The materials I used for listening and speaking: What a Story(altogether 5 times)interestingauthentic : naturalness of language : false starts,hesitation, stuttering, self correction,loose sentences; filler…real life experiencenon-availablemanageable (6 m)
32Steps Pre-listening (45 m) 1. to present the title together with three questions: What is itabout, when did it happen, What does the word “lucky” imply?The Lucky Story of the Holiday Money (for brainstorming andpresentation)Purposes: to use top-down strategy; to create motivation2. to provide critical words: without which any understanding ofthe text would be impossible:camping, border, folder, garage, traveler’s check, policestation, British consol, steal, window-ledge, mat, swing rounda corner, flow, change the note, split, half3. to ask students to write a composition about 250 words, using as much as possible the key words ( check with the peer)
33Listening (30 m )Initial period of extensive listening: main idea1. Why did the speaker stop at a garage?2. Where did the speaker find that she lost the folder?3. How much money was involved?4. When did the story happen?5. Why did the speaker think the woman sitting on a window-ledge stole her folder?6. Why did the speaker worry when she was told that somebodyhad found her folder?7. How did the speaker thank the shop keeper?8. How did the speaker lose the folderIntensive listening: for specific information ：blank filling
34Post—Listening (15 m) (speaking) Draw students’ attention to functions such as inviting, refusing, surprise,…Good heavens! (from the tape)I was caught unaware.It drops from the clouds.It came from out of the blue.You could have knocked me over with a feather.It was a bolt from the blue.Raise students’ awareness of features of real-world listening ( from spoken text to written text )“ On holiday one summer, we were camping, of course, er, and had been to Italy and, er, back into France, and, at the border, we had an awful lot trouble finding the passport and this and that…”Ask students to infer the meaning of key words from the contextBut you felt rich, because you’d got everything back.
35Put listening, speaking, writing together AdvantagesPut listening, speaking, writing togetherStimulate students’ motivationIncrease students’ participation and use variant strategiesfacilitate students’ access to authentic EnglishLimitationsMaterials hard to findTime constraintTest requirements must be metResults are unclear
36Comprehensive English for Graduates 5. 教材建设新编研究生英语系列教材 基础综合英语Comprehensive English for Graduates综合性。听说读写针对性。交际能力的培养真实性。尤其是听力材料
37Unit One Education (Love, Health, Technology, Plagiarism…) Lesson A Listening and SpeakingPart One Problems with US EducationSpeaking: Spoken English vs. Written English;Persuasion Skills…Speaking TipsPart Two Arts EducationPart Three Graduate EducationLesson B Reading and WritingText A In Praise of the F WordTranslation SkillsWriting SkillsText B Essence of Education
38Lead-inYou will hear an excerpt of an interview with Professor Howard Gardner. Before listening, read what Professor Gardner said in the interview and guess the questions raised by the interviewer. Compare your guesses with a partner’s.Question 1: Professor Gardner, what did you find in your studies to be the biggest difference between arts education in the United States and China? What struck you most, then?Professor Gardner : I was so struck by the differences between arts education in the United States and arts education in China.
39Speaking: spoken English vs Speaking: spoken English vs. written English; negotiation skills; debate skills,…Speaking Tips ArguingStating that sb. is wrongYou don’t know what you’re talking about.You don’t have a leg to stand on.You don’t know the first thing about it.You’re the way off the base.You can lay that notion to rest.Arguing about the factsYou’ve got the facts wrong.I don’t think you’ve got the facts straight.Don’t jump to conclusion.When sb. argues too muchYou see everything in black and white. (= in simple yes/ no terms)That’s as different as day and night.You’re just disagreeing to disagree.You’re just playing the devil’s advocate.
40Translation skills: 删减；引申; 语境选词，… Rewrite the following sentences by using the words given. Keep the original meaning and do not alter the words in any way.Tens of thousands of 18-yeat-olds will graduate this year and be handed meaningless diplomas.granted ( v.)Tens of thousands of 18-yeat-olds will graduate this year and be granted meaningless diplomas.翻译点评Translation skills: 删减；引申; 语境选词，…Writing skills: memo; summary; abstract; report; resume…