2Self-Immolation of Buddhist Monk, June 11, 1963 On June 11, 1963, Buddhist monk Quang Duc, in a plea to South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem ( ) to show "charity and compassion" for all religions, doused himself with gasoline on a busy Saigon street corner and immolated himself before a screaming crowd. ajo
3The Vietnam WarAmerica’s most unpopular warCost LBJ his second term to Richard NixonAmerica’s longest and most expensive warDivided America on the homefrontThe best technical war money could buyAmerica hardly ever lost a tactical battleA war America did not winToday, we are living with the “ghosts of Vietnam”.
16Communist Expansion “CONTAINMENT” Soviet Union 1918Berlin BlockadeXXEastern Europe 1946China 1949XKorean War 1950 to 1953Cuban Missile Crisis *Vietnam War 1946 to 1975 US Involvement 1965 to 1975*Cuba would remain and still is a communist country.CONTAINMENTMarshall PlanBerlin AirliftNATOKorean WarCuban Missile CrisisAlliance for ProgressPeace CorpsCommunist Expansion “CONTAINMENT”1161
17Vietnam-1954 Communist Ho Chi Minh leads a revolution. Colonial power France is kicked out of Vietnam
18Ho Chi Minh“You can kill 10 of my men for every one I kill of yours, yet even at those odds, you will lose and I will win”
19Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emulation by a Buddhist Monk protesting against the brutality of Diem’s government
20U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963.MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brotherThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.20
21Vietnam-1954 Very Similar to Korea. North Vietnam –Communist (USSR) South Vietnam-non Communist(USA)
22Vietnam 196015,000 American troops are put into South Vietnam
23VIETNAM WARWhy are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American President has offered to support the people of South Vietnam.We have helped to build and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence.Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam"
24We are there to strengthen world order. VIETNAM WARI intend to keep our promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemy and to the terror that must follow would be an unforgivable wrong.We are there to strengthen world order.Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam"vietnam collage
26Johnson Sends Ground Forces Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China --> Domino Theory revivedI’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.What Johnson told CongressWhat he didn’t tell Congress:He had already written the resolution before the “incident.”The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.26
27Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin Bombing American Ships are bombed by North Vietnam.
28FOREIGN AFFAIRS: CONTAINMENT LEADS TO VIETNAM Gulf of Tonkin IncidentGulf of Tonkin Resolution
29FOREIGN AFFAIRS: CONTAINMENT LEADS TO VIETNAM Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionCongress charged that the North Vietnamese had deliberately and repeatedly attacked US naval vessels operating lawfully in international watersthis was part of systematic campaign of aggression being waged by North Vietnam against its neighbors.Congress gave the president sweeping powers to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.”The resolution was to expire when the president had determined that “the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured."
30Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin bombing President Johnson increases troop levels
31Vietnam 1964American troops were not trained properly to fight in the Jungle.
33The Vietnam War, 1964 to 19751964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident
34Who Is the Enemy?Vietcong: founded in South Vietnam who were communists—supported by N. Vietnam.Farmers by day; guerillas at night.Very patient people willing to accept many casualties.The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness.“Charlies” to American Troops that will later fight them.The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win Mao Zedong
35The Ground WarGeneral Westmoreland, late 1967: “We can see the light at the end of the tunnel’”Wearing down to weaken or destroy; "a war of attrition"
41The Vietnam War, 1964 to 1975 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1965 First sustained bombing of North Vietnam1966 U.S. air raids over Hanoi, 1966 to 19681968 Tet Offensive, Jan. 30 to Feb. 24
42The Tet Offensive, January 1968 N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously80,000 attack 100 cities, bases and the US embassy in SaigonTake every major southern cityU.S. + ARVN beat back the offensiveViet Cong destroyedN. Vietnamese army debilitated
43US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon The Tet OffensiveUS troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon
44The Tet Offensive: A Turning Point On January 30, 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam launched a major offensive. This series of attacks was called the Tet Offensive since it occurred during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year.During and after the Tet Offensive, both sides were guilty of brutal atrocities. Communists slaughtered anyone they labeled an enemy; Americans massacred hundreds of civilians at My Lai, a small village in South Vietnam. A helicopter crew that stopped the massacre was later rewarded, and the officer who had ordered it was imprisoned.
45The Tet Offensive: Results: A Turning Point Although the USA won….Americans now knew that the Viet Cong could launch massive attacks, and because no end to the war was in sight, the Tet Offensive proved to be a major psychological victory for the Viet Cong and a turning point in the war.
54Military police guard an entrance to the Pentagon during 1967 anti-war protest
55Antiwar Demonstrators Burn Draft Cards on the Steps of the Pentagon, May 22, 1972 ajo
56Anti-war demonstration at Pentagon Oct 1967 "A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at the Pentagon during an anti-Vietnam demonstration." By S.Sgt. Albert R. Simpson, Arlington, Virginia, October 21, National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer (111-CC-46331)
66Vietnam- 1973 A cease fire agreement is signed Communists overtake south Vietnam and Cambodia within 2 years50,000 Americans die in Vietnam
67B. FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN A MULTI-POLAR WORLD Henry Kissinger“Vietnamization”Cambodian invasion (1970)Kent State UniversityDaniel EllsbergThe Pentagon PapersParis Peace Accords (1973)Fall of Saigon (April 1975)U.S. Troop and Casualty Levels in VietnamBrinkley 11e GalleryJones, Wood Created Equal;
68Nash, The American People: Creating a Nation (6th ed); http://wps
69America's Longest War. Peters, Mike. Dayton Daily News 1976 [ajo]
77The Costs 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed 300,000 woundedOf those that died 11,465 were teenagers10,000 dead from accidents153,000 hospitalized & survive2,590,000 Americans in Vietnam.Great Society programs underfunded$150,000,000,000 in U.S. spendingU.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government decimatedDiversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!77
78The Costs 1,200 airplanes crash 6,727,084 tons of bombs were dropped. 3,750 fixed wing aircraft4,865 helicopters were lost.500,000 acres of Vietnam were sprayed with defoliants, Agent OrangeThe effects of Agent Orange may last up to 100 years.78