Presentation on theme: "Self-Immolation of Buddhist Monk, June 11, 1963."— Presentation transcript:
Self-Immolation of Buddhist Monk, June 11, 1963
Americas most unpopular war Cost LBJ his second term to Richard Nixon Americas longest and most expensive war Divided America on the homefront The best technical war money could buy America hardly ever lost a tactical battle A war America did not win A war America did not win Today, we are living with the ghosts of Vietnam.
Domino Theory- If one area falls to communism, areas near it will fall, like dominoes. This is taking Containment to the next level.
Domino Theory- In Asia
Communist Expansion CONTAINMENT China 1949 Soviet Union 1918 Korean War 1950 to 1953 Eastern Europe 1946 CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War Cuban Missile Crisis Alliance for Progress Peace Corps Berlin Blockade X X Vietnam War 1946 to 1975 US Involvement 1965 to 1975 Cuban Missile Crisis * X X X X *Cuba would remain and still is a communist country.
Vietnam-1954 Communist Ho Chi Minh leads a revolution. Colonial power France is kicked out of Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh You can kill 10 of my men for every one I kill of yours, yet even at those odds, you will lose and I will win
Early Protests of Diems Government Self-Emulation by a Buddhist Monk protesting against the brutality of Diems government
U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam
Vietnam-1954 Very Similar to Korea. North Vietnam –Communist (USSR) South Vietnam-non Communist(USA)
Vietnam ,000 American troops are put into South Vietnam
Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American President has offered to support the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American President has offered to support the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam"
vietnam collage I intend to keep our promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemy and to the terror that must follow would be an unforgivable wrong. We are there to strengthen world order. I intend to keep our promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemy and to the terror that must follow would be an unforgivable wrong. We are there to strengthen world order. Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam"
Johnson Sends Ground Forces Domino Theory a Remembers Trumans loss of China --> Domino Theory revived Im not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.
Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin Bombing Gulf of Tonkin American Ships are bombed by North Vietnam.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS: CONTAINMENT LEADS TO VIETNAM Gulf of Tonkin Incident Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
FOREIGN AFFAIRS: CONTAINMENT LEADS TO VIETNAM Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress charged that the North Vietnamese had deliberately and repeatedly attacked US naval vessels operating lawfully in international waters Congress charged that the North Vietnamese had deliberately and repeatedly attacked US naval vessels operating lawfully in international waters this was part of systematic campaign of aggression being waged by North Vietnam against its neighbors. this was part of systematic campaign of aggression being waged by North Vietnam against its neighbors. Congress gave the president sweeping powers to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. Congress gave the president sweeping powers to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. The resolution was to expire when the president had determined that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured." The resolution was to expire when the president had determined that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured."
Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin bombing President Johnson increases troop levels
Vietnam 1964 American troops were not trained properly to fight in the Jungle.
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident The Vietnam War, 1964 to 1975
Who Is the Enemy? a Vietcong a Vietcong: founded in South Vietnam who were communistssupported by N. Vietnam. e Farmers by day; guerillas at night. e Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. e The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness. Charlies Charlies to American Troops that will later fight them. Mao Zedong The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win. -- Mao Zedong
The Ground War a General Westmoreland a General Westmoreland, late 1967: We can see the light at the end of the tunnel Wearing down to weaken or destroy; "a war of attrition"
The Air War: A Napalm Attack
Helicopter deploying American troops in the Vietnam War
American soldiers on a search and destroy mission, 1967
American soldiers on patrol in Vietnam
Logistics in a Guerrilla War
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1965 First sustained bombing of North Vietnam 1966 U.S. air raids over Hanoi, 1966 to Tet Offensive, Jan. 30 to Feb. 24 The Vietnam War, 1964 to 1975
The Tet Offensive, January 1968 a N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously a 80,000 attack 100 cities, bases and the US embassy in Saigon a Take every major southern city a U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive a Viet Cong destroyed a N. Vietnamese army debilitated
The Tet Offensive US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon
The Tet Offensive: A Turning Point On January 30, 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam launched a major offensive. This series of attacks was called the Tet Offensive since it occurred during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year. During and after the Tet Offensive, both sides were guilty of brutal atrocities. Communists slaughtered anyone they labeled an enemy; Americans massacred hundreds of civilians at My Lai, a small village in South Vietnam. A helicopter crew that stopped the massacre was later rewarded, and the officer who had ordered it was imprisoned.
The Tet Offensive: Results: A Turning Point Although the USA won…. Americans now knew that the Viet Cong could launch massive attacks, and because no end to the war was in sight, the Tet Offensive proved to be a major psychological victory for the Viet Cong and a turning point in the war.
Impact of the Tet Offensive a Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration a Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?
The War at Home
GUIDING QUESTION How did the war in Vietnam affect American society and its political and social beliefs?
C.FOREIGN AFFAIRS: CONTAINMENT LEADS TO VIETNAM teach-ins Deferments Protests draft resisters guns and butter
University of California, Berkeley students during free speech sit in, 1964
Anti war protesters, 1967
Military police guard an entrance to the Pentagon during 1967 anti-war protest
Antiwar Demonstrators Burn Draft Cards on the Steps of the Pentagon, May 22, 1972
Anti-war demonstration at Pentagon Oct 1967
Anti-War Demonstrations Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University, 1967
Vietnam The protest movement gains momentum Hippies Rejoice.
DEEP DIVISIONS AT HOME: Election of 1968 Eugene McCarthy LBJ Robert Kennedy Hubert Humphrey Democratic Convention - Chicago Richard M. Nixon – silent majority Robert Kennedy Hubert H. Humphrey Richard Nixon President Johnson
Presidential Election of 1968
Vietnam A cease fire agreement is signed Communists overtake south Vietnam and Cambodia within 2 years 50,000 Americans die in Vietnam
B. FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN A MULTI-POLAR WORLD Henry Kissinger Vietnamization Cambodian invasion (1970) Kent State University Daniel Ellsberg –The Pentagon Papers Paris Peace Accords (1973) Fall of Saigon (April 1975) U.S. Troop and Casualty Levels in Vietnam
The Fall of Saigon America Abandons Its Embassy April 30, 1975
The Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace
The Costs 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed 300,000 wounded Of those that died 11,465 were teenagers 10,000 dead from accidents 153,000 hospitalized & survive 2,590,000 Americans in Vietnam. Great Society programs Great Society programs underfunded $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government decimated
1,200 airplanes crash 6,727,084 tons of bombs were dropped. 3,750 fixed wing aircraft 4,865 helicopters were lost. 500,000 acres of Vietnam were sprayed with defoliants, Agent Orange The effects of Agent Orange may last up to 100 years. The Costs