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Self-Immolation of Buddhist Monk, June 11, 1963

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2 Self-Immolation of Buddhist Monk, June 11, 1963
On June 11, 1963, Buddhist monk Quang Duc, in a plea to South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem ( ) to show "charity and compassion" for all religions, doused himself with gasoline on a busy Saigon street corner and immolated himself before a screaming crowd.  ajo

3 The Vietnam War America’s most unpopular war Cost LBJ his second term to Richard Nixon America’s longest and most expensive war Divided America on the homefront The best technical war money could buy America hardly ever lost a tactical battle A war America did not win Today, we are living with the “ghosts of Vietnam”.

4 grunts


6 grunts

7 tet

8 dead soldiers



11 bombing

12 bombing


14 Domino Theory- If one area falls to communism, areas near it will fall, like dominoes. This is taking Containment to the next level.

15 Domino Theory- In Asia

16 Communist Expansion “CONTAINMENT”
Soviet Union 1918 Berlin Blockade X X Eastern Europe 1946 China 1949 X Korean War 1950 to 1953 Cuban Missile Crisis * Vietnam War 1946 to 1975 US Involvement 1965 to 1975 *Cuba would remain and still is a communist country. CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War Cuban Missile Crisis Alliance for Progress Peace Corps Communist Expansion “CONTAINMENT” 1 16 1

17 Vietnam-1954 Communist Ho Chi Minh leads a revolution.
Colonial power France is kicked out of Vietnam

18 Ho Chi Minh “You can kill 10 of my men for every one I kill of yours, yet even at those odds, you will lose and I will win”

19 Early Protests of Diem’s Government
Self-Emulation by a Buddhist Monk protesting against the brutality of Diem’s government

20 U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam
Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive. JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat. The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s. 20

21 Vietnam-1954 Very Similar to Korea. North Vietnam –Communist (USSR)
South Vietnam-non Communist(USA)

22 Vietnam 1960 15,000 American troops are put into South Vietnam

23 VIETNAM WAR Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American President has offered to support the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam"

24 We are there to strengthen world order.
VIETNAM WAR I intend to keep our promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemy and to the terror that must follow would be an unforgivable wrong. We are there to strengthen world order. Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam" vietnam collage

25 Vietnam 1960

26 Johnson Sends Ground Forces
Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China --> Domino Theory revived I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went. What Johnson told Congress What he didn’t tell Congress: He had already written the resolution before the “incident.” The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time. He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred. The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit. 26

27 Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin Bombing
American Ships are bombed by North Vietnam.

Gulf of Tonkin Incident Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress charged that the North Vietnamese had deliberately and repeatedly attacked US naval vessels operating lawfully in international waters this was part of systematic campaign of aggression being waged by North Vietnam against its neighbors. Congress gave the president sweeping powers to “take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.” The resolution was to expire when the president had determined that “the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured."

30 Vietnam 1964-Gulf of Tonkin bombing
President Johnson increases troop levels

31 Vietnam 1964 American troops were not trained properly to fight in the Jungle.

32 Troop Deployments

33 The Vietnam War, 1964 to 1975 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident

34 Who Is the Enemy? Vietcong: founded in South Vietnam who were communists—supported by N. Vietnam. Farmers by day; guerillas at night. Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness. “Charlies” to American Troops that will later fight them. The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win Mao Zedong

35 The Ground War General Westmoreland, late 1967: “We can see the light at the end of the tunnel’” Wearing down to weaken or destroy; "a war of attrition"

36 The Air War: A Napalm Attack

37 Helicopter deploying American troops in the Vietnam War

38 American soldiers on a search and destroy mission, 1967
American soldiers on a search and destroy mission, 1967

39 American soldiers on patrol in Vietnam
American soldiers on patrol in Vietnam

40 Logistics in a Guerrilla War

41 The Vietnam War, 1964 to 1975 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident
1965 First sustained bombing of North Vietnam 1966 U.S. air raids over Hanoi, 1966 to 1968 1968 Tet Offensive, Jan. 30 to Feb. 24

42 The Tet Offensive, January 1968
N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously 80,000 attack 100 cities, bases and the US embassy in Saigon Take every major southern city U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive Viet Cong destroyed N. Vietnamese army debilitated

43 US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon
The Tet Offensive US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon

44 The Tet Offensive: A Turning Point
On January 30, 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam launched a major offensive. This series of attacks was called the Tet Offensive since it occurred during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year. During and after the Tet Offensive, both sides were guilty of brutal atrocities. Communists slaughtered anyone they labeled an enemy; Americans massacred hundreds of civilians at My Lai, a small village in South Vietnam. A helicopter crew that stopped the massacre was later rewarded, and the officer who had ordered it was imprisoned.

45 The Tet Offensive: Results: A Turning Point
Although the USA won…. Americans now knew that the Viet Cong could launch massive attacks, and because no end to the war was in sight, the Tet Offensive proved to be a major psychological victory for the Viet Cong and a turning point in the war.

46 Vietnam

47 Vietnam

48 Impact of the Tet Offensive
Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?

49 The War at Home

50 GUIDING QUESTION How did the war in Vietnam affect American society and its political and social beliefs? (2004)

teach-ins Deferments Protests draft resisters ‘guns and butter”

52 University of California, Berkeley students during free speech sit in, 1964

53 Anti war protesters, 1967

54 Military police guard an entrance to the Pentagon during 1967 anti-war protest

55 Antiwar Demonstrators Burn Draft Cards on the Steps of the Pentagon, May 22, 1972

56 Anti-war demonstration at Pentagon Oct 1967
"A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at the Pentagon during an anti-Vietnam demonstration." By S.Sgt. Albert R. Simpson, Arlington, Virginia, October 21, National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer (111-CC-46331)

57 Anti-war movements brinkely

58 Anti-War Demonstrations
Columbia University, 1967


60 Vietnam The protest movement gains momentum Hippies Rejoice.

61 Vietnam

62 Vietnam 1965-1973-flower-power

63 DEEP DIVISIONS AT HOME: Election of 1968
Eugene McCarthy LBJ Robert Kennedy Hubert Humphrey Democratic Convention - Chicago Richard M. Nixon – “silent majority” RFK - HHH - Description: Hubert H. Humphrey. Jun. 21, Credit: LBJ Library Photo by Yoichi R. Okamoto; RMN - President Johnson Robert Kennedy Hubert H. Humphrey Richard Nixon

64 Presidential Election of 1968
Brinkley 10th

65 Ending Vietnam

66 Vietnam- 1973 A cease fire agreement is signed
Communists overtake south Vietnam and Cambodia within 2 years 50,000 Americans die in Vietnam

Henry Kissinger “Vietnamization” Cambodian invasion (1970) Kent State University Daniel Ellsberg The Pentagon Papers Paris Peace Accords (1973) Fall of Saigon (April 1975) U.S. Troop and Casualty Levels in Vietnam Brinkley 11e Gallery Jones, Wood Created Equal;

68 Nash, The American People: Creating a Nation (6th ed); http://wps

69 America's Longest War. Peters, Mike. Dayton Daily News 1976 [ajo]


71 America Abandons Its Embassy
The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975 America Abandons Its Embassy

72 North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace
The Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace

73 pojer

74 Pojer



77 The Costs 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed
300,000 wounded Of those that died 11,465 were teenagers 10,000 dead from accidents 153,000 hospitalized & survive 2,590,000 Americans in Vietnam. Great Society programs underfunded $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government decimated Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment! 77

78 The Costs 1,200 airplanes crash 6,727,084 tons of bombs were dropped.
3,750 fixed wing aircraft 4,865 helicopters were lost. 500,000 acres of Vietnam were sprayed with defoliants, Agent Orange The effects of Agent Orange may last up to 100 years. 78

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