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The Harlem Renaissance Mr. Oppel AP US History. Harlem Renaissance 2 The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America.

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Presentation on theme: "The Harlem Renaissance Mr. Oppel AP US History. Harlem Renaissance 2 The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Harlem Renaissance Mr. Oppel AP US History

2 Harlem Renaissance 2 The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America

3 Harlem Renaissance 3 I. Introduction A. Definition Generic term describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement 1920s and 30s

4 Harlem Renaissance 4 New York City B. Location

5 Harlem Renaissance 5 Manhattan Island WTC Central Park Harlem

6 Harlem Renaissance 6

7 7 C. European Origins 1. European Art French artists study West African sculpture Popularize artistic primitivism Spontaneous Instinctive

8 Harlem Renaissance 8 Amedeo Modigliani

9 Harlem Renaissance 9

10 10 Pablo Picasso Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907 African masks

11 Harlem Renaissance 11

12 Harlem Renaissance 12

13 Harlem Renaissance European Music Incorporate syncopation from ragtime Later reintroduced to jazz

14 Harlem Renaissance 14 Sousa on Tour in Europe 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair touring repertoire began to include early ragtime cakewalks and syncopated songs

15 Harlem Renaissance 15 introduced ragtime to Europe Performances Paris Exposition Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

16 Harlem Renaissance 16 Incorporate American jazz Claude DeBussy Childrens Corner, Igor Stravinsky Le Sacre duprintemps, 1913 Eric Satie Parade, 1917

17 Harlem Renaissance 17 Black jazz bands toured Europe during WWI

18 Harlem Renaissance 18 D. American influences Southern Counter- Reconstruction Black Codes Jim Crow laws

19 Harlem Renaissance 19 WWI Experience in Europe Harlem Hellfighters

20 Harlem Renaissance 20 The Great Migration & Urbanization

21 Harlem Renaissance 21 The Red Scare The NEW YORK TIMES lamented the new black militancy: "There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race."

22 Harlem Renaissance 22 Claude McKay If We must Die, 1919 If we must die, let it not be like hogs Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, Making their mock at our accursed lot. If we must die, O let us nobly die, So that our precious blood may not be shed In vain; then even the monsters we defy Shall be constrained to honor us though dead! O kinsmen we must meet the common foe! Though far outnumbered let us show us brave, And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow! What though before us lies the open grave? Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack, Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!

23 Harlem Renaissance 23 II. Harlem Renaissance A. Activists B. Artists & Photographers C. Writers D. Composers, Musicians, Actors & Singers

24 Harlem Renaissance 24 Prognostications The nation was on the verge of a renaissance of American Negro literature W.E.B. DuBois NAACPs Crisis, 1920

25 Harlem Renaissance 25 America was on the edge, if not already in the midst of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance New York Herald Tribune, 1925

26 Harlem Renaissance 26 A. Activists

27 Harlem Renaissance 27 Marcus Garvey Jamaican Back to Africa movement Universal Negro Improvement Association

28 Harlem Renaissance 28 Uniform of the Provisional President of Africa Opened office in Harlem in 1917

29 Harlem Renaissance 29

30 Harlem Renaissance 30 Black Star steamship line Raised money to help blacks emigrate to Africa

31 Harlem Renaissance 31

32 Harlem Renaissance 32

33 Harlem Renaissance 33 Liberia feared he was a revolutionary and pulled away its support Jailed & deported to Jamaica, 1923

34 Harlem Renaissance 34 African Folklore & Africanism Alain Locke W.E.B. DuBois

35 Harlem Renaissance 35 B. Artists & Photographers Aaron Douglas Jacob Lawrence LM Jones Arthur J. Motley, Jr. James Van Der Zee

36 Harlem Renaissance 36 Aaron Douglas Painted murals Illustrated The Crisis and Opportunity taught art at Fisk University

37 Harlem Renaissance 37 Aaron Douglas Aspects of Negro Life, 1934

38 Harlem Renaissance 38 Into Bondage, 1936

39 Harlem Renaissance 39 L.M. Jones The Ascent of Ethiopia, 1932

40 Harlem Renaissance 40

41 Harlem Renaissance 41 Arthur J. Motley, Jr – 1981 Art Institute of Chicago Realistic, urban subjects, jazz, & abstract painting

42 Harlem Renaissance 42 Cocktails, 1926

43 Harlem Renaissance 43 Motley Blues, 1929

44 Harlem Renaissance 44 James Van Der Zee 1886 – 1983 photographer celebrated the black middle class brought dignity reshaped the image of blackness

45 Harlem Renaissance 45 "A Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats With a Cadillac, Taken on West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932

46 Harlem Renaissance 46

47 Harlem Renaissance 47

48 Harlem Renaissance 48 Alpha Phi Alpha Basketball Team, 1926 Alpha Phi Basketball Team, 1926

49 Harlem Renaissance 49 C. Writers Countee Cullen Langston Hughes Alain Locke Claude McKay Wallace Thurman Jeane Toomer Walter White Jessie Fauset Zora Neale Hurston Nella Larsen

50 Harlem Renaissance 50 purpose of writing? Many establishment blacks wanted black writers to promote positive images The writers themselves wanted to show realism of life in Harlem

51 Harlem Renaissance 51 African–American publications NAACPUrban League

52 Harlem Renaissance 52 The NAACP magazine Art Aaron Douglas Literature Countee Cullen Langston Hughes Clause McKay

53 Harlem Renaissance 53 Claude McKay Born in Jamaica Wrote poetry and novels Tried to use poetry to inform as well as please

54 Harlem Renaissance 54 Wrote poem If We must Die in response to a series of 1919 race riots Fled to Soviet Union and Europe,1922 In conflict with Harlem Renaissance and claimed to be an older forerunner

55 Harlem Renaissance 55 Langston Hughes Lived in MO and Cleveland Worked or traveled in Mexico, Europe, and Africa Harlem Renaissance poet

56 Harlem Renaissance 56 Stressed nobility of lowly walks of life, developed racial pride, place of AA in white world Gained attention of whites and raised self-esteem of blacks

57 Harlem Renaissance 57 Wrote in African-American vernacular Brought rhythm of blues and jazz to writing process The Negro Speaks of Rivers, Negro, Harlem, Weary Blues

58 Harlem Renaissance 58 Zora Neale Hurston Raised in all-black town in Florida near Orlando Literary realism and consciousness of race issues like degree of skin-color

59 Harlem Renaissance 59 Color Struck Mules and Men, 1935 Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937

60 Harlem Renaissance 60 D. Composers & Musicians Jazz Music Clubs artists Stage Concerts Brodaway

61 Harlem Renaissance JAZZ Harlem jazz culture Clubs, cabarets, theaters, ballrooms, rent parties Liquor White and black worlds

62 Harlem Renaissance 62 Musical origins African American Southern poor rural Blues, Negro Spirituals, Ragtime

63 Harlem Renaissance 63 Criticism of jazz as music cacophpony and deliberate vulgarity Bolshevistic smashing of the rules of music Jazzing and ad libbing

64 Harlem Renaissance 64 as a cultural influence Promoted daring couple dancing The sex-exciting music affected girls morals and threatened chaste girls

65 Harlem Renaissance 65 White Clubs segregated shows and music black staff dance shows light-skinned girls 56 or taller under 21

66 Harlem Renaissance 66 NEGROTARIANS Hurstons name for whites interested in Harlem life fascinated with Negro culture still condescended with views of exoticism and a lack of civilization

67 Harlem Renaissance 67 Connies Inn Fats Waller Bill Bojangles Robison Louis Armstrong

68 Harlem Renaissance 68 Cotton Club Cab Calloway Duke Ellington

69 Harlem Renaissance 69 Black Clubs for blacks less expensive food, music, no shows

70 Harlem Renaissance 70 Duke Ellington, ? Went to NYC at 23 Played with bands & then formed own pianist, conductor, orchestrator Improvised well Rose to prominence from 1928 – 1934 playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem

71 Harlem Renaissance 71 Jazz compositions The Mooche It Dont Mean a Thing If It Aint Got That Swing Mood Indigo Sophisticated Lady

72 Harlem Renaissance 72 Bessie Smith

73 Harlem Renaissance Negro Spirituals Sung for musical merit Not baggage of slavery Performers Marian Anderson Paul Robeson

74 Harlem Renaissance BROADWAY Eubie Blake & Noble Sissle Shuffle Along, 1921 Chocolate Dandies, 1924 Fats Waller Aint Misbehavin

75 Harlem Renaissance 75 White writers supported movement Sherwood Anderson, Sinclair Lewis, & Eugene ONeil Secret financial benefactors Tried to encourage the exoticism

76 Harlem Renaissance 76 Paul Robeson Lawyer Athlete Singer Actor Political radical

77 Harlem Renaissance 77 Robeson won the title role in Eugene ONeils Broadway play The Emperor Jones on a lark and improvised on stage into success

78 Harlem Renaissance 78 George Gershwin Porgy and Bess Jerome Kern & Oscar Hammerstein Showboat Eugene ONeil The Emperor Jones All Gods Chillun Got Wings

79 Harlem Renaissance 79 In London The Emperor Jones Showboat, 1928 Othello, 1930 (picture on left from 1944)

80 Harlem Renaissance 80 Better treatment in Europe led him to radicalism Socialism Communism Ties to U.S.S.R.

81 Harlem Renaissance 81 Josephine Baker Born in St. Louis Performing by 15 as a singer and dancer Expatriate

82 Harlem Renaissance 82 Shuffle Along, danced sang clowned improvised

83 Harlem Renaissance 83

84 Harlem Renaissance 84 exoticism

85 Harlem Renaissance 85 style

86 Harlem Renaissance 86 showgirl

87 Harlem Renaissance 87 clown

88 Harlem Renaissance 88 sophisticated lady

89 Harlem Renaissance 89 La Revue Negre Paris, France scantily clad erotic dancing suggestive music

90 Harlem Renaissance 90 La Folie du Jour Paris, France, 1926 Folies Berger night club topless, banana skirt, climbs down a tree like an animal danced the charleston erotic and comic

91 Harlem Renaissance 91

92 Harlem Renaissance 92 the charleston

93 Harlem Renaissance 93 The end of a movement By the late 20s & early 30s Economic hardships with the Depression Participants moved on Some prospered throughout the 30s

94 Harlem Renaissance 94 Bibliography Harlem Renaissance Josephine Baker Claude DeBussy Marcus Garvey Amedeo Modigliani Pablo Picasso Red Summer


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