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DERİNKUYU YER ALTI ŞEHRİ Kayalara oyulmuş şehir Kapadokya bölgesinin jeolojik oluşumu sayesinde inşa edilmiş sekiz katlı Derinkuyu Yeraltı Şehri, büyük.

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Presentation on theme: "DERİNKUYU YER ALTI ŞEHRİ Kayalara oyulmuş şehir Kapadokya bölgesinin jeolojik oluşumu sayesinde inşa edilmiş sekiz katlı Derinkuyu Yeraltı Şehri, büyük."— Presentation transcript:

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3 DERİNKUYU YER ALTI ŞEHRİ Kayalara oyulmuş şehir Kapadokya bölgesinin jeolojik oluşumu sayesinde inşa edilmiş sekiz katlı Derinkuyu Yeraltı Şehri, büyük bir topluluğu içinde barındıracak ve ihtiyaçlarını karşılayacak mekânlardan oluşuyor. Bölgede bulunan bir diğer örnek olan Kaymaklı Yeraltı Şehri’nden farklı olarak Derinkuyu’da bir misyonerler okulu, günah çıkartma yeri, vaftiz havuzu ve ilgi çekici bir kuyu da bulunuyor. Derinkuyu’nun ilk yerlileri Asur kolonilerine kadar uzanıyor. II. yüzyılda Roma İmparatorluğu’nun zulmünden kaçan ilk Hıristiyanlar Antakya ve Kayseri üzerinden Kapadokya’ya gelerek buraya yerleşmişler. Bölgedeki yeraltı şehirlerini kuran ilk Hıristiyanlar, girişleri kolayca fark edilemeyecek şekilde yapılmış bu şehirlerde saklanarak Romalı askerlerin zulmünden kurtulabilmişler. Yeraltı şehirlerinde uzun süre dışarı çıkmadan yaşamak zorunda kalabilecekleri için erzak depoları, havalandırma bacaları, şarap imalathaneleri, kiliseler, manastırlar, su kuyuları, tuvaletler ve toplantı odaları yaparak alanlarını genişletmişler. Birbirine bağlı odalardan oluşan bu şehirlerde bazı odalar ancak bir insanın geçebileceği kadar dar tünellerle birbirine bağlanıyor. Tünellerin giriş çıkışlarında güvenlik nedeniyle tüneli kapatmak için kullanılan büyük taş silindirler var.

4 העיר התת-קרקעית בדרינקויו (תורכיה)

5 In 1963, an inhabitant of Derinkuyu (in the region of Capadocia, central Anatolia, Turkey), was demolishing a wall of his house-cave, and discovered astonished that behind the wall was a mysterious room that never had been seen; this room took to another one, and this one to another one and another one… By chance the underground city of Derinkuyu was discovered, whose first level could be excavated by the Hitites around year 1400 a.C. העיר התת-קרקעית התגלתה במקרה ע"י תושב הכפר הקפדוקי שרצה להרחיב את בית-המערה שלו וגילה מערכת ענקית של חדרים. התברר שמדובר בעיר תת-קרקעית שלמה שנבנתה (נחצבה) כנראה ב1400 לפני הספירה, ע"י החיתים שישבו באיזור.

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7 The archaeologists began to study this fascinating underground city. They were able to arrive at forty meters of depth, although guesses are that the bottom is as far down as 85 meters! At present 20 underground levels have been discovered. Only eight levels can be visited however; the others are partially obstructed or reserved for the archaeologists and anthropologists, who study Derinkuyu. החקירה הארכיאולוגית גילתה שהעיר משתרעת עד עומק של 85 מטר מתחת לפני הקרקע. כיום ניתן לבקר רק ב20 קומות, השאר חסומות או שהן עדיין נשמרות להמשך מחקר.

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11 The city was used for shelter by thousands of people who lived in the caves to protect themselves for the frequent invasions that Capadocia underwent, at the diverse times of their occupation, and also by the first Christians. The enemies, conscious of the dangers that lie hidden inside the city, generally tried to flush the people to the surface by poisoning their wells. העיר שמשה מגורים והגנה בזמן מלחמה לכעשרת אלפים תושבים וכמו כן כמסתור לנוצרים הראשונים מפני השלטון הרומי האלילי. אויבים ניסו בד"כ להציף את המערות או להרעיל את מקורות המים שלהם.

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14 The interior is amazing: the underground passages of Derinkuyu (in which there is space for at least 10,000 people) could be blocked in three strategically important points by moving circular stone doors. These heavy rocks that closed the corridor prevented the entrance of the enemies. They were 1 to 1.5 meters in height, about 50 centimeters in width and a weight of up to 500 Kilos. בכמה נקודות אסטרטגיות ניתן היה לסגור את המעבר ע"י דיסקוס אבן כבד ("גולל") בקוטר מטר ובעובי של 50 ס"מ. משקל דלת כזו הגיע לחצי טון.

15 In the image it is shown how the circular stone door closed the corridor, having isolated the inhabitants solidly.

16 In addition, Derinkuyu has a tunnel of almost 8 kilometers in length that leads to another underground city of Capadocia, Kaymakli. בנוסף התגלתה מנהרה באורך של 8 קילומטר שמובילה לעיר תת קרקעית נוספת – קיימאקלי.

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18 Of the underground cities of this zone, the Greek historian Jenofonte spoke. In his work Anabasis. He explained that the people who lived in Anatolia had excavated their houses under the earth and lived sufficiently in great lodgings for the entire family, his domestic animals and the food provisions that were stored.

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20 In the reclaimed levels stables have been located, dining rooms, a church (of 20 by 9 meters, with a ceiling of more than three meters of height), kitchens (still blackened by the soot of bonfires that ignited to cook), presses for the wine and the oil, warehouses, places of feeding, a school, numerous rooms and even a bar. בין המערות שנחקרו, נמצאו אורוות לבע"ח, חדרי אוכל, אולם כנסיה בשטח של על 9 מטרים וגובה תקרה של 3 מ', מטבחים שעדיין מפוייחים, יקבים ליין, בתי-בד, חנויות, בית-ספר, מספר גדול של חדרי מגורים ואפילו בית-מרזח.

21 The city benefitted from the existence of an underground river; it had water wells and a magnificent exhaust fan (52 wells of ventilation were discovered) that astonishes engineers of the present time. מקור המים של העיר היה נחל תת-קרקעי וכן בארות רבות. התגלתה מערכת מתוחכמת עם 52 פירים לאיוורור שמדהימה מהנדסים בני ימינו.

22 The End Translation: Prema עברית : דבון

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