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AP Biology Chapter 54 Ecosystem Dynamics. LE 54-2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Detritus Primary consumers.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Chapter 54 Ecosystem Dynamics. LE 54-2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Detritus Primary consumers."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Biology Chapter 54 Ecosystem Dynamics

2 LE 54-2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Detritus Primary consumers Sun Primary producers Heat Key Chemical cycling Energy flow

3 10% Rule of Energy

4 LE 54-4 Open ocean Continental shelf Upwelling zones Extreme desert, rock, sand, ice Swamp and marsh Lake and stream Desert and semidesert scrub Tropical rain forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate evergreen forest Tropical seasonal forest Savanna Cultivated land Estuary Algal beds and reefs Boreal forest (taiga) Temperate grassland Woodland and shrubland Tundra Freshwater (on continents) Terrestrial Marine Key Percentage of Earths surface area Average net primary production (g/m 2 /yr) ,500 2,0001,500 1, Percentage of Earths net primary production , , , ,600 1,200 1,300 2,

5 Fig: 54.5 Productivity of the Earth (Based on Chlorophyll Density)

6 LE 54-6 Atlantic Ocean Shinnecock Bay Moriches Bay Long Island Coast of Long Island, New York Great South Bay Phytoplankton Inorganic phosphorus Great South Bay Moriches Bay Shinnecock Bay Station number Phytoplankton biomass and phosphorus concentration Phytoplankton (millions of cells/mL) Inorganic phosphorus (µm atoms/L) Ammonium enriched Station number Phytoplankton (millions of cells per mL) Starting algal density Phytoplankton response to nutrient enrichment Phosphate enriched Unenriched control

7 Fig:54.7

8 Rachel Carson

9 LE Growth (new biomass) Cellular respiration Feces 100 J 33 J 67 J 200 J Plant material eaten by caterpillar

10 Fig: Pyramids of Energy Production

11 Fig: Pyramids of Numbers (Think about how much each consumer eats over its lifetime.)

12 LE 54-12a Trophic level Dry weight (g/m 2 ) Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers Most biomass pyramids show a sharp decrease in biomass at successively higher trophic levels, as illustrated by data from a bog at Silver Springs, Florida.

13 LE 54-12b Trophic level Dry weight (g/m 2 ) Primary consumers (zooplankton) Primary producers (phytoplankton) 21 4 In some aquatic ecosystems, such as the English Channel, a small standing crop of primary producers (phytoplankton) supports a larger standing crop of primary consumers (zooplankton).

14 Fig: Pyramids of Numbers

15 LE 54-17a Transport over land Precipitation over land Evaporation from ocean Precipitation over ocean Net movement of water vapor by wind Solar energy Evapotranspiration from land Runoff and groundwater Percolation through soil

16 LE 54-17b Cellular respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Carbon compounds in water Photosynthesis Primary consumers Higher-level consumers Detritus Decomposition CO 2 in atmosphere

17 LE 54-17c Assimilation N 2 in atmosphere Decomposers Nitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Denitrifying bacteria Nitrification Ammonification Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes NO 3 – NO 2 – NH 4 + NH 3

18 LE 54-17d Sedimentation Plants Rain Runoff Weathering of rocks Geologic uplift Soil Leaching Decomposition Plant uptake of PO 4 3– Consumption

19 Harvesting

20 Sources for Acid Precipitation

21 Fig: 54.22

22 Effects of Acid Precipitation

23 LE Zooplankton ppm Phytoplankton ppm Lake trout 4.83 ppm Smelt 1.04 ppm Herring gull eggs 124 ppm Concentration of PCBs

24 Rachel Carson

25 Fig: Rising CO2 and rising temperature

26 LE Chlorine atoms O3O3 Chlorine Cl 2 O 2 CIO O2O2 O2O2 Chlorine from CFCs interacts with ozone (O 3 ), forming chlorine monoxide (CIO) and oxygen (O 2 ). Sunlight causes Cl 2 O 2 to break down into O 2 and free chlorine atoms. The chlorine atoms can begin the cycle again. Two CIO molecules react, forming chlorine peroxide (Cl 2 O 2 ). Sunlight

27 Fig: Ozone hole over Antarctica in dark blue

28 LE October 1979 October 2000

29 Melting Antarctic Ice


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