4LE 54-4 Open ocean Continental shelf 65.0 125 24.4 5.2 360 5.6 Estuary Algal beds and reefs0.30.11,5001.22,5000.9Upwelling zonesExtreme desert, rock, sand, ice5000.14.73.00.04Desert and semidesert scrubTropical rain forest3.5900.93.32,20022SavannaCultivated land2.99007.92.76009.1Boreal forest (taiga)Temperate grassland2.48009.61.86005.4Woodland and shrublandTundra1.77003.51.61400.6Tropical seasonal forest1.51,6007.1Temperate deciduous forestTemperate evergreen forest1.31,2004.91.01,3003.8Swamp and marshLake and stream0.42,0002.32500.31020304050605001,0001,5002,0002,500510152025KeyPercentage of Earth’ssurface areaAverage net primaryproduction (g/m2/yr)Percentage of Earth’s netprimary productionMarineTerrestrialFreshwater (on continents)
5Fig: 54.5 Productivity of the Earth (Based on Chlorophyll Density)
6(millions of cells/mL) (millions of cells per mL) LE 54-63021Long IslandShinnecockBay19515411Great South BayMoriches Bay2Atlantic OceanCoast of Long Island, New York8Phytoplankton87Inorganicphosphorus766(millions of cells/mL)Phytoplankton5Inorganic phosphorus(µm atoms/L)5443322112451130151921Station numberGreatSouth BayMorichesBayShinnecockBayPhytoplankton biomass and phosphorus concentration30Ammonium enrichedPhosphate enrichedUnenriched control2418(millions of cells per mL)Phytoplankton126Startingalgaldensity2451130151921Station numberPhytoplankton response to nutrient enrichment
11Fig: 54.14 Pyramids of Numbers (Think about how much each consumer eats over its lifetime.)
12bog at Silver Springs, Florida. LE 54-12aTrophic levelDry weight(g/m2)Tertiary consumersSecondary consumersPrimary consumersPrimary producers1.51137809Most biomass pyramids show a sharp decrease in biomass at successively higher trophic levels, as illustrated by data from abog at Silver Springs, Florida.
13Primary consumers (zooplankton) Primary producers (phytoplankton) 21 4 LE 54-12bTrophic levelDry weight(g/m2)Primary consumers (zooplankton)Primary producers (phytoplankton)214In some aquatic ecosystems, such as the English Channel, a small standing crop of primary producers (phytoplankton) supports a larger standing crop of primary consumers (zooplankton).
15LE 54-17a Transport over land Solar energy Net movement of water vapor by windPrecipitationover landPrecipitationover oceanEvaporationfrom oceanEvapotranspirationfrom landPercolationthroughsoilRunoff andgroundwater
16LE 54-17b Higher-level consumers Primary consumers Carbon compounds CO2 in atmospherePhotosynthesisCellularrespirationBurning offossil fuelsand woodHigher-levelconsumersPrimaryconsumersCarbon compoundsin waterDetritusDecomposition
17LE 54-17c N2 in atmosphere Denitrifying bacteria Nitrogen-fixing AssimilationDenitrifyingbacteriaNO3–Nitrogen-fixingbacteria in rootnodules of legumesDecomposersNitrifyingbacteriaAmmonificationNitrificationNH3NH4+NO2–Nitrogen-fixingsoil bacteriaNitrifyingbacteria
26Two CIO molecules react, forming chlorine peroxide (Cl2O2). Chlorine from CFCs interacts with ozone (O3), forming chlorine monoxide (CIO) and oxygen (O2).Chlorine atomsO2ChlorineO3CIOO2Sunlight causes Cl2O2 to break down into O2 and free chlorine atoms. The chlorine atoms can begin the cycle again.CIOCl2O2Two CIO molecules react, forming chlorine peroxide (Cl2O2).Sunlight
27Fig: 54.28 Ozone hole over Antarctica in dark blue