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25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics Prof. Donald Koetke Valparaiso University 5 February 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics Prof. Donald Koetke Valparaiso University 5 February 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics Prof. Donald Koetke Valparaiso University 5 February 2010

2 Outline Nuclear Physics vs. Particle Physics Nuclear Physics vs. Particle Physics Experiment Goals Experiment Goals Experimental Methods Experimental Methods A Timeline A Timeline The Local Players The Local Players The Future The Future

3 Nuclear Physics Nucleus: any assembly of one or more nucleons Nucleus: any assembly of one or more nucleons Nucleon: proton or neutron Nucleon: proton or neutron Simplest nuclei: 1 H (proton); 2 H (deuteron) Simplest nuclei: 1 H (proton); 2 H (deuteron) Nuclear physics (I): any experiment whose goal it is to learn about the properties of the nucleus. Nuclear physics (I): any experiment whose goal it is to learn about the properties of the nucleus. Nuclear physics (II): any experiment in which a nucleus plays a role (e.g., as a target) Nuclear physics (II): any experiment in which a nucleus plays a role (e.g., as a target)

4 Nuclear Physics N Z

5 Particle Physics Particle physics (I): study of members of the “particle zoo” Particle physics (I): study of members of the “particle zoo” Baryon family (n,p,  o,  o,  +,  -,  o,  +,  -, …) Baryon family (n,p,  o,  o,  +,  -,  o,  +,  -, …) Meson family ( , , ,K, , , ,B,D, …) Meson family ( , , ,K, , , ,B,D, …) Lepton family (e, , , e, ,  ) Lepton family (e, , , e, ,  ) Force propagators ( ,…, ,W +,W -,  o ) Force propagators ( ,…, ,W +,W -,  o ) Particle physics (II): study of Particle physics (II): study of quarks, leptons, bosons (photons, gluons, W +,W -,  o ) quarks, leptons, bosons (photons, gluons, W +,W -,  o ) Particle physics(III): studies of the Standard Model Particle physics(III): studies of the Standard Model

6 Particle Physics

7 Research Goals To understand and describe nature in terms of its most fundamental objects and interactions.

8 How to do these experiments? Cu H Synchrotron Source Production Target K+K+ ++ -- Velocity Selector Momentum Selector Hydrogen Interaction Target Detector DAQ Linac

9 Research Timeline US DOE Funding ANL & LANL ANL Y* S 17

10 Why? ?

11 S 17 Why? How do you test this theory? What gets out of the center of the sun that you can measure?  = 53 d

12 Why? “Solar Neutrino Problem” PredictedMeasured Hypothesis: S 17 A reaction rate used in the Solar Model is wrong!

13 S 17 Why? How do you test this theory? What gets out of the center of the sun that you can measure?  = 53 d

14 S 17 Where? 4 MeV Dynamatron proton accelerator

15 S 17 4

16 Research Timeline S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

17 Why? Appear “Solar Neutrino Problem” PredictedMeasured Hypothesis: Will NOT be detected in expt!

18 Why? Appear Implications -- Explain Cold Dark Matter? Standard Model is Wrong

19 Where? Appear

20 Where? Appear Laboratory Town 7400 ft

21 Where? Appear Accelerator (LAMPF) p (800 MeV) 

22 Appear 30

23 Research Timeline MEGA S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

24 Why? MEGA Lepton families do NOT mix. Q: Why NOT?? A: ?????

25 Where? Accelerator (LAMPF) p (800 MeV) MEGA  

26 28

27 MEGA 67

28 Research Timeline MEGA Crystal Ball S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

29 Why? Crystal Ball Previous data were limited in precision because of limited detection efficiencies. Previous data were limited in precision because of limited detection efficiencies. We had access to a much more advanced detector with much better efficiency for detecting high energy photons. We had access to a much more advanced detector with much better efficiency for detecting high energy photons.

30 Where? Crystal Ball Alternating Gradiant Synchrotron Crystal Ball Detector 672 NaI detectors

31 Crystal Ball 43

32 Crystal Ball 43

33 Research Timeline MEGA Crystal Ball NuSea S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

34 Why? NuSea Nuclear Sea (of quarks) Proton uu d Neutron u dd The sea quarks must be very important for nucleons  The sea quarks must be very important for nucleons

35 Where? NuSea Nuclear Sea (of quarks)

36 NuSea Nuclear Sea (of quarks) 32

37 Research Timeline MEGA TWIST Crystal Ball NuSea S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

38 Why? TWIST T riumf W eak I nteraction S ymmetry T est Standard Model Values

39 Why? TWIST T riumf W eak I nteraction S ymmetry T est Actual Measured Values

40 Where? TWIST Vancouver, BC

41 TWIST 36 New & final results will be released at the APS meeting in D.C. next week! Improve precision on the weak interaction physics by ~factor of 10! Improve precision on the weak interaction physics by ~factor of 10! So far all values agree with Standard Model (assumed) values. So far all values agree with Standard Model (assumed) values. Stay tuned for final results… Stay tuned for final results… Improve precision on the weak interaction physics by ~factor of 10! Improve precision on the weak interaction physics by ~factor of 10! So far all values agree with Standard Model (assumed) values. So far all values agree with Standard Model (assumed) values. Stay tuned for final results… Stay tuned for final results…

42 Research Timeline MEGA TWIST Crystal Ball NuSea S 17 US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

43 Why? STAR Solenoid Tracker At RHIC Because the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of every proton we have ever seen is exactly the same - but nobody knows how it comes to be this value!! We need to understand this at a fundamental level. Because the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of every proton we have ever seen is exactly the same - but nobody knows how it comes to be this value!! We need to understand this at a fundamental level. Because we now have the tools to do this experiment and the composite model of the proton is now well established - probably. Because we now have the tools to do this experiment and the composite model of the proton is now well established - probably.

44 Where? STAR RHIC counter-circulating beams

45 STAR

46 369

47 STAR

48 53

49

50 Research Timeline MEGA TWIST Crystal Ball NuSea S 17 nEDM US DOE Funding ANL & LANL US DOE Research Grant at VU Appear ANL Y*

51 Why? nEDM neutron Electric Dipole Moment Intrinsic spin angular momentum ( 1/2) Magnetic Dipole Moment Magnetic Dipole Moment − (5) μ N ( − × 10 −27 J/T) Q net = 0.0  

52 nEDM Where?

53 VU Physicists Prof. Randall Fisk * Prof. Randall Fisk * Prof. David Grosnick Prof. David Grosnick Prof. Donald Koetke Prof. Donald Koetke Prof. Robert Manweiler Prof. Robert Manweiler Mr. Paul Nord Mr. Paul Nord Prof. Shirvel Stanislaus Prof. Shirvel Stanislaus Dr. Jason Webb * Dr. Jason Webb *

54 VU Students Dale Koetke (‘86), Philip Nickel (‘88), Hope Concannon (‘90), Jim Kolterman (‘91), Paul Nord (‘91), Jay Dittmann (‘92), Grant Kiehne (‘92), Laura Nickerson (‘96), Nathan Bachmann (‘93), Adam Gibson (‘00), Daniel Allen (‘00), Robert Greene (‘00), Christopher Hoffman (‘01), Jon Thoms (‘01), Steve Wolf (‘03), Louis Kastens (‘04), Sarah Schlobohm (‘04), Brian Bucher (‘05), Ross Corliss (‘05), Tim Rogers (‘05), Jason Summerlott (‘06), Josh Vredevoogd (‘07), Ted Hopkins (‘07), Noah Schroeder (‘08), Daniel Trubey (‘09), Ansel Hillmer (‘09), Nathan Kellams (‘10), Tim Olson (‘11), Megan Kania (‘11), Ben Barber (‘12)

55 The Funding - US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded this work with over $3.5M. US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded this work with over $3.5M. A “renewal proposal” is submitted every three years that is peer-reviewed. A “renewal proposal” is submitted every three years that is peer-reviewed. We have had uninterrupted funding for over 25 years! We have had uninterrupted funding for over 25 years!

56 The Future (?) STAR & nEDM - long term commitments with potentially significant discoveries STAR & nEDM - long term commitments with potentially significant discoveries Many more VU students will have opportunities to work on world-class physics experiments in nuclear and particle physics Many more VU students will have opportunities to work on world-class physics experiments in nuclear and particle physics There is unforeseen new physics that will be discovered in your lifetime; stay tuned! There is unforeseen new physics that will be discovered in your lifetime; stay tuned!

57 Closing Reflections This has been a wonderful journey that has been, and continies to be full of surprises! This has been a wonderful journey that has been, and continies to be full of surprises! Along with the work of all my colleagues in the department we have helped -- Along with the work of all my colleagues in the department we have helped -- to do good science to educate some very fine students to educate some very fine students to spread the word: VU is an excellent university. to spread the word: VU is an excellent university. -- Thank you


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