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Introduction in the use of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) in clinical management in undergraduate physiotherapy programme. JENNIFER.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction in the use of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) in clinical management in undergraduate physiotherapy programme. JENNIFER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction in the use of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) in clinical management in undergraduate physiotherapy programme. JENNIFER JELSMA UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN 1 How do we decide what to do with our patients?

2 Introduction 2 One of the most difficult skills that a physiotherapy student has to learn is clinical reasoning. In order to meet the needs of a patient, the student needs to know what the needs are, analyse these needs and the problems that are causing them, choose and apply suitable techniques and then assess whether the intervention has been effective.

3 The process 3 Reprinted with permission of the American Physical Therapy Association. Figures may be used for educational purposes, research purposes, or personal use. Commercial use is prohibited Steiner WA, Ryser L, Huber E, et al. Use of the ICF model as a clinical problem-solving tool in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. Phys Ther 2002; 82: 1098-1107Use of the ICF model as a clinical problem-solving tool in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. The Rehab-CYCLE is a modified version of the Rehabilitation Cycle developed by Stucki and Sangha. 14 It guides the health care professional with a logical sequence of activities. Endpoints of this rehabilitation management system are successful problem solving or individual goals achieved. The Rehab-CYCLE involves identifying the patient’s problems and needs, relating the problems to relevant factors of the person and the environment, defining therapy goals, planning and implementing the interventions, and assessing the effects.

4 The Problem 4 Problem 2: How do we go about gathering this information and how do we go about analysing the information to decide on treatment goals and intervention? A useful manner to gather the information gained during the patient assessment is to use the ICF Problem 1: There is so much information that must be gathered some of it is not important and some ends up by being essential.

5 Objective of the module 5 At the conclusion of the module, the student should be able to:  Describe the rehabilitation cycle  Describe the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. (ICF)  Describe the process of patient assessment  Explain how the ICF philosophy can be used as a framework to collect and analyse patient data and to decide on treatment priorities.

6 The ICF 6 International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF)  Official classification of WHO  The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, known more commonly as ICF, is a classification of health and health-related domains. These domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives by means of two lists: a list of body functions and structure, and a list of domains of activity and participation. Since an individual’s functioning and disability occurs in a context, the ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.  The ICF is WHO's framework for measuring health and disability at both individual and population levels. The ICF was officially endorsed by all 191 WHO Member States in the Fifty-fourth World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001(resolution WHA 54.21). Unlike its predecessor, which was endorsed for field trail purposes only, the ICF was endorsed for use in Member States as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability. http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/ accessed 27/10/10  Official classification of American Physical Therapy Association  The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is part of the 'family' of international classifications developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The ICF classification system focuses on human functioning and provides a unified, standard language and framework that captures how people with a health condition function in their daily life rather than focusing on their diagnosis or the presence or absence of disease.  In June 2008, APTA joined the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, the American Therapeutic Recreation Association, and other international organizations in endorsing the ICF. With this endorsement, ICF language will be incorporated into all relevant association publications, documents, and communications through existing planned review and revision cycles.  Reprinted from International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Heath (ICF) with permission from the American Physical Therapy Association. Accessed at http://www.apta.org/ICF/ on 21/07/11.http://www.apta.org/ICF/

7 Why is it special?  It is a system of classification which helps users to identify the different aspects of a person’s condition that can impact on health and functioning. It can be used to gather information in a standardised manner through the use of codes. It is also possible to use the philosophical framework to gather information and plan treatment.

8 Breakdown of ICF Components of the ICF Impairments of body structure (e.g. eye) and function (e.g. seeing) Activity limitation (e.g. rolling, walking, dressing) Participation restrictions (e.g. limited access to education, transport) Environmental factors: (e.g. policies such as education policy for disabled children, physical environment, available aids, appliances

9 What causes disability? 1980 9 Impairments ImpairmentsDisease or ordisorder Disabilities Disabilities Handicaps

10 10 Interaction of Concepts ICF 2001 Health Condition ( disorder/disease ) Environmental Factors Personal Factors Body function&structure (Impairment ) Activities(Limitation)Participation(Restriction) Based on: World Health Organisation (WHO), 2001. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Geneva, pg 18. Accessed online: http://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdfhttp://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdf

11 ICF Components 11 Body Functions &Structures Activities&Participation Environmental Factors BarriersFacilitatorsFunctionsStructuresCapacityPerformance

12 Body Functions and Structures 12 Mental functionsStructures of the nervous system Sensory functions and painThe eye, ear and related structures Voice and speech functionsStructures involved in voice and speech Functions of the cardiovascular, haematological, immunological and respiratory systems Structures of the cardiovascular, immunological and respiratory systems Functions of the digestive, metabolic and endocrine systems Structures related to the digestive, metabolic and endocrine systems Genitourinary and reproductive functionsStructures related to the genitourinary and reproductive systems Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Structures related to movement Functions of the skin and related structuresSkin and related structures

13 13

14 14 Body Structures S240 Structure of external ear

15 15 S240 Structure of external ear s7302 Structure of hand

16 Activities and Participation 16 1 1Learning &Applying Knowledge 2General Tasks and Demands 3Communication 4Movement 5Self Care 6Domestic Life Areas 7Interpersonal Interactions 8Major Life Areas 9Community, Social & Civic Life

17 Environmental Factors 17 1. Products and technology 2. Natural environment and human-made changes to the environment 3. Support and relationships 4. Attitudes 5. Services, systems and policies

18 Can assist In identifying what is the most important area to concentrate intervention for the patient on that day It can assist in analysing the relationships between the different aspects to identify what are the causes and what are the effects of impairments and functional deficits It can be used to give an outline of all aspects of impairment and functioning that need to be assessed  How does the ICF assist in clinical reasoning ? Data Gathering Analysis Decision Making

19 Application of the ICF in the clinical setting 19

20 Assessment of children with neurological problems 20 DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS NAME: ASSESSED BY: DATE OF BIRTH: DATE OF ASSESSMENT: AGE: DIAGNOSIS: From folder: BIRTH HISTORY SUBSEQUENT HISTORY MEDICATION – type and what it is for SURGERY – date and type

21 Subjective - interview 21 SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT Impairments (only describe impairments relevant to the individual child) Mental function Sight, hearing Speech Feeding Pain Respiratory or cardiac function Continence Skin condition

22 Subjective - interview 22 Activities  Learning and applying knowledge  Communication  Self-care; dressing, bathing, brushing teeth  Physical activity (highest level of activity, duration or distance?) Participation  Domestic life (how he spends his day?)  Interpersonal relationships  Schooling, education  Community and social life  Environment  Appliances  Transport  Accessibility in home (type of house, no. of rooms, no. of people sleeping per room, available amenities, space move around) and other areas  Support of community and family involvement  Services (disability and child support grant)

23 Objective assessment 23 Start with activities; What is highest level of function? Work down. In each position, observe posture and quality of movement. Use objective measures such as the AIMS or the Gross Motor Function Measure Then examine Impairments as applicable Mental function Sight, hearing Speech Feeding Pain Respiratory or cardiac function Continence Skin condition TONE Describe tone in all affected muscle groups. ROM If full range of motion, document FROM. If range is limited, you must measure limitation with goniometer and record accurately. MUSCLE LENGTH AND STRENGTH :Note when muscle is shortened or weak

24 Use of the ICF Framework 24 This should be used:  To analyse the relationships between the different components so that,  main problems can be identified and underlying causes can be treated.

25 Steps 25 Once the data has been gathered, the thinking begins! Questions: What are the patient’s main problems? (These are usually activity limitations or participation restrictions, but not always. Pain or productive coughing are examples of impairments that could be the main problems) What are the underlying causes of these problems? (These are usually impairments, e.g. weak muscles, soft tissue damage, pain in the knee on walking) How can change in either impairments or activity limitations be measured?

26 26 Use of ICF Framework Health Condition ( disorder/disease ) Environmental Factors Personal Factors Body function&structure (Impairment ) Activities(Limitation)Participation(Restriction) Based on: World Health Organisation (WHO), 2001. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Geneva, pg 18. Accessed online: http://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdfhttp://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdf

27 Example use of conceptual framework Reprinted with permission of the American Physical Therapy Association. Figures may be used for educational purposes, research purposes, or personal use. Commercial use is prohibited. From: Physical Therapy, Volume 86, Number 9, September 2006. A collaborative model of service delivery for children with movement disorders: a framework for evidence-based decision making, by RJ Palisano.Physical Therapy, Volume 86, Number 9, September 2006. A collaborative model of service delivery for children with movement disorders: a framework for evidence-based decision making

28 Example of the conceptual framework Reprinted with permission of the American Physical Therapy Association. Figures may be used for educational purposes, research purposes, or personal use. Commercial use is prohibited. From: Physical Therapy, Volume 86, Number 9, September 2006. A collaborative model of service delivery for children with movement disorders: a framework for evidence-based decision making, by RJ Palisano.From: Physical Therapy, Volume 86, Number 9, September 2006. A collaborative model of service delivery for children with movement disorders: a framework for evidence-based decision making

29 29 Example HEALTH CONDITION Fractured tib/femur - acute. Car accident.External fixation IMPAIRMENTSACTIVITY LIMITATIONPARTICIPATION RESTRICTION Pain in thigh Soft tissue damage Bed restUnable to look after infant at home Weak muscles – upper limbs quads and glutsCannot bridge to use bed pan Lost domestic work job due to accident Limited RoM of kneeCannot shift in bed SwellingCannot reach locker Sore under heelCannot come into sitting Productive coughNo balance in standing Anxious ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORSPERSONAL FACTORS Locker not close to bed No husband Overweight Supportive motherDepressed Ward has no parallel barsSmoker Home - one story and accessible to wheelchair and crutch walking Not yet applied to Road Accident Fund for compensation

30 Finally! Integrate all the data 30 PROBLEM LIST Document FUNCTIONAL problems Prioritise the most important problems and analyse completely, using the following table. FUNCTIONAL MISSING UNDERLYING INTERVENTION INDICATOR PROBLEMS COMPONENTS REASONS Usually Usually Usually activity or activity impairment participation restriction SHORT TERM AIMS Must be functional aims (likely to be achieved in the next few treatment sessions) LONG TERM AIM Think of ONE function you would like to improve in 6 months time. SOAP NOTES Includes daily updates on the Subjective, Objective, Analysis of Problems and treatment plan.

31 Image references Rehab-CYCLE. Reprinted with permission of the American Physical Therapy Association. Figures may be used for educational purposes, research purposes, or personal use. Commercial use is prohibited. Interaction of Concepts ICF 2001. Based on: World Health Organisation (WHO), 2001. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Geneva, pg 18. Accessed online: http://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdfhttp://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdf “A Senior Chief performs a lift” by Official U.S. Navy Imagery CC-BY-2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnavy/7879791142/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnavy/7879791142/ “Human Skeleton 4” by BarbieDePlastico CC-BY-NC-ND-3.0 http://barbiedeplastico.deviantart.com/art/Human-skeleton- 4-151850064http://barbiedeplastico.deviantart.com/art/Human-skeleton- 4-151850064 “Ciao Zio” by narice28 CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/49379577@N00/2200844241/http://www.flickr.com/photos/49379577@N00/2200844241/ “Soccer 20100525” by George Brett (ghbrett) CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/orpost/4646511748/http://www.flickr.com/photos/orpost/4646511748/ 31

32 Image references “Mobile Ejector Seat” by Arty Smokes CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/artysmokes/3525325848/http://www.flickr.com/photos/artysmokes/3525325848/ "Richard Dawkins and Spock" by ssoosay CC-BY-2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/76284765@N00/5152049387/http://www.flickr.com/photos/76284765@N00/5152049387/ Use of ICF Framework. Based on: World Health Organisation (WHO), 2001. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Geneva, pg 18. Accessed online: http://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdfhttp://www.disabilitaincifre.it/documenti/ICF_18.pdf Example use of conceptual framework. Reprinted with permission of the American Physical Therapy Association. Figures may be used for educational purposes, research purposes, or personal use. Commercial use is prohibited. From Physical Therapy, Volume 86, Number 9, September 2006. A collaborative model of service delivery for children with movement disorders: a framework for evidence-based decision making, by RJ Palisano. 32

33 Creative commons license Introduction in the use of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) in clinical management in undergraduate physiotherapy programme. by Prof. Jennifer Jelsma, Physiotherapy Division,Prof. Jennifer Jelsma, Physiotherapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Cape Town is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 South Africa License. Please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/za/http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/za/ for terms and conditions. All images created by external parties retain their original licenses (see Image references). Source work available at vula.uct.ac.zavula.uct.ac.za Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.healthedu.uct.ac.za or healthoer@uct.ac.zawww.healthedu.uct.ac.za healthoer@uct.ac.za 33

34 The End 34


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