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AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS

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Presentation on theme: "AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS"— Presentation transcript:

1 AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS
JOSEPH FAIL, JR. Assistant: Cindy Blohm

2 Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
-Theodosius Dobzhansky Do you believe this? If you do, when should evolution be taught? How should it be taught?

3 What would Darwin do?

4 Naturalistic Evolution
U.S. Beliefs in Evolution Creationist View Theistic Evolution Naturalistic Evolution Group of adults God created man pretty much in his present form at one time within the last 10,000 years. Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process, including man's creation. Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life. God had no part in this process. Everyone 47% 40% 9% Men 39% 45% 11.5% Women 53% 36% 6.6% College graduates 25% 54% 16.5% No high school diploma 65% 23% 4.6% Income over $50,000 29% 50% 17% Income under $20,000 59% 28% 6.5% Caucasians 46% African-Americans 41% 4% Scientists 5% 55% Gallup Poll 1997

5 ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION GUIDE
Premise: ELEMENTARY STUDENTS ARE UNDERTAUGHT. Content and Teaching: BASIC, HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED. Format: 90 MINUTES, ONCE PER WEEK, 30 WEEKS. ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Develop and Publish Curriculum Develop and Publish Primer (100 page teacher text book) Train Teachers to Implement Curriculum “Practice-Teach” with One (4th grade) Class within the context of Curriculum ‘Geography’ Science: Biology with Evolution Earth and Physical Science Other Disciplines: Math, Language, Social Studies

6 National and State Standards
National Science Education Standards: “… an understanding of evolution is necessary in describing all aspects of ‘changes in the universe.’” North Carolina Standard Course of Study Grade Competency Goal (Select Evolution Related) Objectives : The learner will…build an understanding : Observe and describe how environmental of plant growth and adaptations conditions determine how well plants survive and grow. 1.05: Observe and discuss how bees pollinate flowers. : The learner will…build an understanding : Observe and record how animals of the same of animal behavior and adaptations kind differ in characteristics and discuss possible advantages and disadvantages of this variation. : The learner will…build an understanding : Determine the interaction of organisms of the interdependence of plants and animals within an ecosystem

7 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization
II.  Chemical Structure and Function III.  Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V.  Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution  (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

8 A Matrix of Evolution T I M E S P A C E L I F E
M A T T E R and E N E R G Y

9 Odum’s Ecological Organization Spectrum (Abridged)
I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization Odum’s Ecological Organization Spectrum (Abridged) Genes Cells Organisms Populations Communities ECOSYSTEM S Y S T E M S M A T T E R E N E R G Y

10 II. Chemical Structure and Function
Introduction to Atoms: Structure and Periodic Table Carbon and Covalent Bonds Molecules: Sugars, Fats, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

11 Atomic Structure: Carbon
6 Protons (+) 6 Neutrons Why are there two energy levels? Carbon’s atomic number is 6… What is it’s atomic weight? What is their significance? Electron (-)

12 Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonds
δ+ What is a molecule? How many atoms make up this molecule? What is a covalent bond? δ- H = Water

13 Molecular Structure: Sugar
H What do the lines between atoms represent? C C O H What information can you draw from the short-hand C6H12O6 ? What information does C6H12O6 leave out? C O H C O H C O H Why is sugar the molecule of biological energy storage? Where do we get the stored energy? C O H H Glucose C6H12O6

14 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization
II.  Chemical Structure and Function III.  Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V.  Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution  (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

15 III. Energy 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
Photosynthesis and Respiration

16 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Photosynthesis and Respiration
(Chl) P 6 CO2 + 6 H C6H12O6 + 6 O2 R Plants “trap” light. How do they store the energy of light? How does the stored light energy get to you? How does this formula represent the 1st law of Thermodynamics? (Teacher Note: What do students need to know to answer these questions?)

17 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: For every energy transfer, 90% of the energy is lost as waste heat
Why do we get hungry so often?

18 IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms
Cells: Structure and Function Organisms: Five Kingdoms

19 Cells: Structure and Function
Animal Plant Cell Wall Chloroplast Nucleus Vacuole Mitochondrion Cell Membrane What do these cells do? What are the functions of each organelle?

20 Organisms: Five Kingdoms
Animal Plant Fungi What are similarities among organisms of the same kingdom? What are differences between kingdoms? Protista Prokaryote (Monera)

21 Some Characteristics of the Five Kingdoms
Kingdom Nucleus? Cell Number Cell Wall? Energy Source Prokaryotes (Monera) Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia No Yes Single Single (Gen) Multicellular Yes No/Yes No Heterotrophic & Autotrophic Autotrophic

22 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization
II.  Chemical Structure and Function III.  Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V.  Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution 

23 V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer
DNA Structure and Function: Replication, Transcription, and Translation Meiosis and Gene Recombination Mendelian Genetics: Phenotypes and Genotypes Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross

24 Molecular Structure: DNA
What do the lines forming each angle represent?

25 Transcription and Translation
(An Illustration of the Mechanistic Nature of Biology)

26 Transcription, Translation, and Energy
Are transcription and translation necessary for respiration? Is respiration necessary for transcription and translation? Conclusion ?

27 DNA Structure and Function
How does this molecule relate to what we look like? . . . and what we do? How does this molecule relate to future generations?

28 Mendelian Genetics: Monohybrid Cross
Distinguish between phenotypes and genotypes. How does pink happen? If the F2 generation were 3 Red:1 White, what could you say about inheritance?

29 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization
II.  Chemical Structure and Function III.  Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V.  Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution  (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

30 VI. Ecology Light: The Energetic Basis of Life
Electromagnetic Spectrum Englemann’s Experiment Nutrient Cycles: Role of Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria Organisms and Environment Interactions: Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity Human Population Growth Curve Time: Daily, Seasonal, Successional

31 Light: The Energetic Basis of Life Englemann’s Experiment
How does this diagram illustrate what plants do with light? Why are plants green? High Energy Low Energy How does this experiment illustrate how ecosystems work? how Earth works?

32 Exponential Population Growth
What could prevent a population from unlimited growth? Why does a K1 and K2 exist?

33 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection DNA and Mutation Review Relationship of DNA to Evolution Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation The Geography of Speciation Co-evolution vs. Competition Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity Human Evolution Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories 

34 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences
Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Mayr 1977

35 (Review) DNA Molecule – ‘Hard Inheritance’
Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers In what way is DNA the basis for variation?

36 (Review) Mutation : Sickle-Cell Anemia
Sickle cells hold less oxygen than normal cells. How could such a harmful mutation persist in a population? Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers How does this example illustrate Fact 5?

37 (Review) Inheritance: Sickle-Cell
= normal gene = sickle mutation Genotype Phenotype no yes yes yes (but lethal) Malaria resistance? Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers How does the sickle-cell trait persist? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer this question?)

38 Geography and Genetic Variation: Sickle-Cell Disease and Malaria
How would deforestation affect the prevalence of the sickle cell trait? Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace

39 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection DNA and Mutation Review Relationship of DNA to Evolution Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation The Geography of Speciation Co-evolution vs. Competition Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity Human Evolution Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories 

40 Exponential Population Growth
Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace What could prevent a population from undergoing unlimited growth? How does K affect populations?

41 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences
Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Mayr 1977

42 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection DNA and Mutation Review Relationship of DNA to Evolution Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation The Geography of Speciation Co-evolution vs. Competition Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity Human Evolution Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories 

43 Variation and Selection: Lederberg Experiment
Can you explain this experiment? How is the one colony able to survive the toxic environment? How and when did the adaptation arise? Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Volpe 1985

44 Geography and Variation: Galapagos Turtles
How / Why do you think the turtle subspecies arose in the different volcanic craters spread out across the island? Could these varieties become separate species? How or how not? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer these questions?) Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Volpe 1985

45 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection DNA and Mutation Review Relationship of DNA to Evolution Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation The Geography of Speciation Co-evolution vs. Competition Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity Human Evolution Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories 

46 Competition and Co-evolution
The graphs show the populations of 2 species of Paramecium (Protista) alone and together. What explanations can you give to explain why the ‘alone’ populations level off? How do the graphs illustrate the effects of competition? Allee et al. 1949 How does this photograph illustrate co-evolution? What is the energy source that drives these organisms’ co-evolution? Are there evolutionary consequences of being too attractive or not attractive enough?

47 Common Origin: Galapagos Finches
What abiotic or biotic factors have influenced the evolution of beak size and shape? How do the facts and inferences of evolution by natural selection shape this story? How does common origin relate to Homo sapiens? Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Volpe 1985

48 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences
Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Mayr 1977

49 HIV in Humans (Could HIV be a factor in human evolution, i. e
HIV in Humans (Could HIV be a factor in human evolution, i.e. a cause for change in gene frequency?) What is a virus? What makes HIV different from a cell? How could we stop HIV from making copies of itself? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer these questions?)

50 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences
Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Mayr 1977 Fact 6? Changes in Environment Is there a piece of the puzzle missing? Is this important? Where would it come into play?

51 Pollution, Variation, and Adaptation: The Peppered Moth
What is the relationship between natural selection and the environment? How do humans affect evolution by natural selection? Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace

52 Pollution and Heritability: Developmental Deformities
Volpe 1985 What would make these mutations heritable? What might cause these variations in phenotype? Volpe 1985 Do these phenomena fit in the process of evolution by natural selection? Why or why not?

53 Human Imprints and Global CO2 Levels
What is the change in CO2 in the last 50 years? How might increased CO2 levels affect life processes? What biological variations might be selected for or against with increased CO2 levels? How might changes in CO2 levels affect evolutionary events? Do these phenomena fit in the process of evolution by natural selection? Why or why not?

54 Ecosystem Earth: Where have we been? Where are we going?

55 To Do’s (Ideas) This outline on NESCent Web Site Curriculum paper: American Biology Teacher (In prep) Primer – 100 pages, Teacher and student guide: How to publish? Teacher Workshop – How to arrange? Classroom to ‘Experiment with?’ (Durham Elementary Science Director – ‘No’) Ideas?

56 Heredity I am the family face; Flesh perishes, I live on,
Projecting trait and trace Through time to times anon, And leaping from place to place Over oblivion.  The years-heired feature that can In curve and voice and eye Despise the human span Of durance – that is I; The eternal thing in man, That heeds no call to die.  Thomas Hardy, in Moments of Vision

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