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AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS JOSEPH FAIL, JR. Assistant: Cindy Blohm.

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Presentation on theme: "AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS JOSEPH FAIL, JR. Assistant: Cindy Blohm."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN EVOLUTION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS JOSEPH FAIL, JR. Assistant: Cindy Blohm

2 Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution - Theodosius Dobzhansky Do you believe this? If you do, when should evolution be taught? How should it be taught?

3 What would Darwin do?

4 Creationist ViewTheistic EvolutionNaturalistic Evolution Group of adults God created man pretty much in his present form at one time within the last 10,000 years. Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process, including man's creation. Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life. God had no part in this process. Everyone47%40%9% Men39%45%11.5% Women53%36%6.6% College graduates25%54%16.5% No high school diploma65%23%4.6% Income over $50,00029%50%17% Income under $20,00059%28%6.5% Caucasians46%40%9% African-Americans53%41%4% Scientists5%40%55% U.S. Beliefs in Evolution Gallup Poll 1997

5 ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Premise: ELEMENTARY STUDENTS ARE UNDERTAUGHT. Content and Teaching: BASIC, HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED. Format: 90 MINUTES, ONCE PER WEEK, 30 WEEKS. Curriculum ‘Geography’Science: Biology with Evolution Earth and Physical Science Other Disciplines: Math, Language, Social Studies within the context of ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Develop and Publish Curriculum Develop and Publish Primer (100 page teacher text book) Train Teachers to Implement Curriculum “Practice-Teach” with One (4th grade) Class

6 National and State Standards North Carolina Standard Course of Study Grade Competency Goal (Select Evolution Related) Objectives 3 1: The learner will…build an understanding 1.02: Observe and describe how environmental of plant growth and adaptations. conditions determine how well plants survive and grow. 1.05: Observe and discuss how bees pollinate flowers. 4 1: The learner will…build an understanding 1.02: Observe and record how animals of the same of animal behavior and adaptations. kind differ in characteristics and discuss possible advantages and disadvantages of this variation. 5 1: The learner will…build an understanding 1.05: Determine the interaction of organisms of the interdependence of plants and animals. within an ecosystem National Science Education Standards: “… an understanding of evolution is necessary in describing all aspects of ‘changes in the universe.’”

7 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization II. Chemical Structure and Function III. Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

8 S P A C E T I M E M A T T E R and E N E R G Y L I F E A Matrix of Evolution

9 Odum’s Ecological Organization Spectrum (Abridged) Genes Cells Organisms Populations Communities I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization ECOSYSTEMS Y S T E M S M A T T E R E N E R G Y

10 II. Chemical Structure and Function  Introduction to Atoms: Structure and Periodic Table  Carbon and Covalent Bonds  Molecules: Sugars, Fats, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

11 Atomic Structure: Carbon Electron (-) 6 Protons (+) 6 Neutrons Why are there two energy levels? Carbon’s atomic number is 6… What is it’s atomic weight? What is their significance?

12 Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonds δ+δ+ δ-δ- What is a covalent bond? What is a molecule? How many atoms make up this molecule? H 2 0 = Water

13 Molecular Structure: Sugar H H CO HH C O CO HH CO HH CO HH CO HH Why is sugar the molecule of biological energy storage? Where do we get the stored energy? GlucoseC 6 H 12 O 6 What do the lines between atoms represent? What information can you draw from the short-hand C 6 H 12 O 6 ? What information does C 6 H 12 O 6 leave out?

14 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization II. Chemical Structure and Function III. Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

15 III. Energy  1 st and 2 nd Laws of Thermodynamics  Photosynthesis and Respiration

16 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: Photosynthesis and Respiration 6 CO H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O O 2 P R (Chl) (Teacher Note: What do students need to know to answer these questions?) Plants “trap” light. How do they store the energy of light? How does the stored light energy get to you? How does this formula represent the 1 st law of Thermodynamics?

17 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: For every energy transfer, 90% of the energy is lost as waste heat Why do we get hungry so often?

18 IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms  Cells: Structure and Function  Organisms: Five Kingdoms

19 Cells: Structure and Function AnimalPlant Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Vacuole Cell Membrane Cell Wall What are the functions of each organelle? What do these cells do?

20 Organisms: Five Kingdoms Prokaryote (Monera) Protista Animal Plant Fungi What are similarities among organisms of the same kingdom? What are differences between kingdoms?

21 Some Characteristics of the Five Kingdoms Kingdom Nucleus? Cell Number Cell Wall? Energy Source Heterotrophic & Autotrophic Heterotrophic & Autotrophic Heterotrophic Autotrophic Heterotrophic Prokaryotes (Monera) Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia No Yes Single Single (Gen) Multicellular Yes No/Yes Yes No

22 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization II. Chemical Structure and Function III. Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution

23 V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer  DNA Structure and Function: Replication, Transcription, and Translation  Meiosis and Gene Recombination  Mendelian Genetics: Phenotypes and Genotypes Monohybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross

24 Molecular Structure: DNA What do the lines forming each angle represent?

25 Transcription and Translation (An Illustration of the Mechanistic Nature of Biology)

26 Transcription, Translation, and Energy Is respiration necessary for transcription and translation? Are transcription and translation necessary for respiration? Conclusion... ? Transcription Translation

27 DNA Structure and Function How does this molecule relate to what we look like? How does this molecule relate to future generations? and what we do?

28 Mendelian Genetics: Monohybrid Cross How does pink happen? Distinguish between phenotypes and genotypes. If the F 2 generation were 3 Red:1 White, what could you say about inheritance?

29 Curriculum Units I. Overview of Biological Levels-of-Organization II. Chemical Structure and Function III. Energy IV. Biology: Cells and Organisms V. Biology: Information Storage and Transfer VI. Ecology VII. Evolution (HEIRARCHICAL, SIMPLE, LOGICAL, INTUITIVE, STORYLIKE, AND CONNECTED)

30 VI. Ecology  Light: The Energetic Basis of Life Electromagnetic Spectrum Englemann’s Experiment  Nutrient Cycles: Role of Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria  Organisms and Environment Interactions: Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity Human Population Growth Curve  Time: Daily, Seasonal, Successional

31 Light: The Energetic Basis of Life Englemann’s Experiment How does this diagram illustrate what plants do with light? How does this experiment illustrate how ecosystems work?... how Earth works? Why are plants green? High Energy Low Energy

32 Exponential Population Growth What could prevent a population from unlimited growth? Why does a K 1 and K 2 exist?

33 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection  DNA and Mutation Review  Relationship of DNA to Evolution  Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review  Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation  The Geography of Speciation  Co-evolution vs. Competition  Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity  Human Evolution  Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories

34 Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Mayr 1977 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences

35 (Review) DNA Molecule – ‘Hard Inheritance’ In what way is DNA the basis for variation? Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers

36 Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers (Review) Mutation : Sickle-Cell Anemia Sickle cells hold less oxygen than normal cells. How could such a harmful mutation persist in a population? How does this example illustrate Fact 5?

37 (Review) Inheritance: Sickle-Cell Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers How does the sickle-cell trait persist? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer this question?) = normal gene= sickle mutation no yes yesyes (but lethal)Malaria resistance? Genotype Phenotype

38 Geography and Genetic Variation: Sickle-Cell Disease and Malaria How would deforestation affect the prevalence of the sickle cell trait? Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace

39 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection  DNA and Mutation Review  Relationship of DNA to Evolution  Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review  Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation  The Geography of Speciation  Co-evolution vs. Competition  Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity  Human Evolution  Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories

40 Exponential Population Growth What could prevent a population from undergoing unlimited growth? Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation How does K affect populations? Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace

41 Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Mayr 1977 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences

42 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection  DNA and Mutation Review  Relationship of DNA to Evolution  Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review  Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation  The Geography of Speciation  Co-evolution vs. Competition  Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity  Human Evolution  Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories

43 Variation and Selection: Lederberg Experiment How is the one colony able to survive the toxic environment? How and when did the adaptation arise? Can you explain this experiment? Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Volpe 1985

44 Geography and Variation: Galapagos Turtles How / Why do you think the turtle subspecies arose in the different volcanic craters spread out across the island? Volpe 1985 Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Could these varieties become separate species? How or how not? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer these questions?) Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers

45 VII. Evolution  Introduction: The Mechanism of Evolution by Natural Selection  DNA and Mutation Review  Relationship of DNA to Evolution  Population Exponential Growth and Carrying Capacity - Review  Environment, Variation, Selection, and Adaptation  The Geography of Speciation  Co-evolution vs. Competition  Common Origin, Speciation and Diversity  Human Evolution  Pollution, Evolution, and the Future: Global Warming and Other Stories

46 Competition and Co-evolution The graphs show the populations of 2 species of Paramecium (Protista) alone and together. What explanations can you give to explain why the ‘alone’ populations level off? How do the graphs illustrate the effects of competition? How does this photograph illustrate co-evolution? Allee et al Are there evolutionary consequences of being too attractive... or not attractive enough? What is the energy source that drives these organisms’ co-evolution?

47 Common Origin: Galapagos Finches Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace What abiotic or biotic factors have influenced the evolution of beak size and shape? How do the facts and inferences of evolution by natural selection shape this story? Volpe 1985 How does common origin relate to Homo sapiens?

48 Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 3 Through Many Generations i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Mayr 1977 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences

49 HIV in Humans (Could HIV be a factor in human evolution, i.e. a cause for change in gene frequency?) What makes HIV different from a cell? How could we stop HIV from making copies of itself? What is a virus? (Teacher Note: What does a student need to know to answer these questions?)

50 Fact 1 Potential Exponential Increase of Populations Observation Inference 1 Struggle for Existence Among Individuals Malthus Fact 2 Populations Are Steady State Observation Fact 3 Limitation of Resources Malthus & Observation Inference 3 Through Many Generation s i.e. Evolution Darwin & Wallace Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 4 Uniqueness of Individuals Observation & Farmers Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers Mayr 1977 Evolution by Natural Selection: Facts and Inferences Fact 6? Changes in Environment Is there a piece of the puzzle missing? Is this important? Where would it come into play?

51 Pollution, Variation, and Adaptation: The Peppered Moth What is the relationship between natural selection and the environment? How do humans affect evolution by natural selection? Inference 2 Differential Survival i.e. Natural Selection Darwin & Wallace Fact 5 Heritability of Much Individual Variation Observation & Farmers

52 What would make these mutations heritable? What might cause these variations in phenotype? Pollution and Heritability: Developmental Deformities Do these phenomena fit in the process of evolution by natural selection? Why or why not? Volpe 1985

53 Human Imprints and Global CO 2 Levels How might increased CO 2 levels affect life processes? How might changes in CO 2 levels affect evolutionary events? What biological variations might be selected for or against with increased CO 2 levels? What is the change in CO 2 in the last 50 years? Do these phenomena fit in the process of evolution by natural selection? Why or why not?

54 Ecosystem Earth: Where have we been? Where are we going?

55 To Do’s (Ideas) This outline on NESCent Web Site Curriculum paper: American Biology Teacher (In prep) Primer – 100 pages, Teacher and student guide: How to publish? Teacher Workshop – How to arrange? Classroom to ‘Experiment with?’ (Durham Elementary Science Director – ‘No’) Ideas?

56 Heredity I am the family face; Flesh perishes, I live on, Projecting trait and trace Through time to times anon, And leaping from place to place Over oblivion. The years-heired feature that can In curve and voice and eye Despise the human span Of durance – that is I; The eternal thing in man, That heeds no call to die. Thomas Hardy, in Moments of Vision

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