3I. Background on Nathaniel Hawthorne A. Born on July 4, 1804 in Salem, MassachusettsB. His father died of yellow fever when he was four years oldC. Hawthorne, his mother, and his sisters lived with his mother’s relatives after his father’s deathD. He graduated from Bowdoin College in Maine in 1825
4E. He returned to Salem where he struggled as a short story writer for 12 years F. In 1842, he married Sophia PeabodyG. He published The Scarlet Letter in 1850, which finally brought him recognition as an authorH. He died on May 16, 1864 in Plymouth, New Hampshire
5II. Hawthorne’s Literary Times A. Wrote during the Romantic Period1. return to nature2. belief in goodness of humanity3. rediscovery of artist as a supremely individual creator4. exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect
6Example of art from the Romantic Period The Lady of Shallot (1888)
7B. The Romantic Period lasted from 1830-1865 C. Literary contemporaries: Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Stowe, Poe, WhitmanD. The Scarlet Letter is considered a piece of American Romantic literature because it is set in a remote past (the Puritan era 200 years prior to Hawthorne’s time) and because it deals with the interior psychology of individual charactersE. Revolt against rationalism/logic
8III. Historical Commentary Puritans1. A religious group that migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in New England in the early 1600s2. Believed in a “pure” interpretation of the Bible which did not include some of the traditional practices of the Church of England
103. Religion and government were closely intertwined 4. Ministers counseled the magistrates in all affairs concerning the settlement and its citizens5. The Puritans had strict rules against theatre, religious music, sensuous poetry, and frivolous dress
116. Remember: The Puritans did not seek religious freedom for ALL; they still persecuted and banished individuals whose beliefs were different from their own
127. People were completely INTOLERANT of sin 7. People were completely INTOLERANT of sin. They believed that any sin committed in the community would cause God’s wrath to be visited on them. An illness or misfortune would show God’s disapproval.
138. Puritans looked for sins that had been committed in the community so that the sin could be brought out in the open and the members of the community could express their scorn for that sin.9. Puritan theology valued hard work. Idleness was an invitation to sin.
14IV. Themes A. Alienation B. Appearance versus reality C. Breaking society’s rulesD. Private versus public lifeE. Effects of revenge
15V. Religious Terms repentance: deep sorrow for a sin preternatural: out of the ordinary; supernaturalcontrition: sorrow for a sin, with a sincere desire to atone for it
16(religious terms, contd.) penance: punishment for a sinatonement: to make amends for a sinpenitence: the state of being regretful for sinning
17VI. Symbols A. the color black B. the forest C. the brook D. the rosebushE. Indians
18F. Hester’s clothingG. Pearl’s clothingH. Pearl’s nameI. the meteorJ. golden embroidery on the “A”
19VII. Style (paraphrase!) Hawthorne focuses his attention on the problem of evil and the NATURE OF SIN. He is not a moralist, but like a psychologist, he analyzes the inner world of the human mind and heart. In TSL, he analyzes the effects of ONE sin on the four main characters who are closely intertwined because of that sin.
20Essential QuestionWhat is a sin? Is a crime against civil law necessarily a crime against moral law? (Remember Antigone’s dilemma?)