4DATA DISCRETE, OBJECTIVE FACTS ABOUT EVENTS STRUCTURE RECORDS OF TRANSACTIONSTOO MUCH DATA CAN MAKE IT HARDER TO IDENTIFY AND MAKE SENSE OF THE DATA THAT MATTERS.DATA DESCRIBES ONLY A PART OF WHAT HAPPENED; IT PROVIDES NO MEANING, NO JUDDGEMENT OR INTERPRETATIONMODERN ORGANIZATIONS STORE DATA IN SOME SORT OF TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMCENTRALIZEDORDECENTRALICEDDATA MANAGEMENTSPEED, COST AND CAPACITYHow much does it cost to capture or retrieve a piece of data?How quickly can we get it into the system or call it up?How much will the system hold?RELEVANCE AND CLARITYDo we have access to it when we need it? Is it what we need? Can we make sense out of it?DATA IS THE RAW MATERIAL FOR DECISION MAKING, BUT IT CANNOT TELL YOU WHAT TO DO.
5INFORMATION IT IS A MESSAGE IT IS DATA ENDOWED WITH RELEVANCE AND PURPOSE. IT HAS MEANING.INFORM: “GIVE SHAPE TO”INFORMATION IS MEANT TO SHAPE THE PERSON WHO GETS IT, TO MAKE SOME DIFFERENCE IN HIS OUTLOOK OR INSIGHT.INFORMATIOINRECEIVEERSENDER
6INFORMATION IT MOVES AROUND ORGANIZATIONS THROUGH HARD NETWORKS: wires, satellite dishes, post offices, addresses, electronic mailboxes, delivery vansSOFT NETWORKS: it is less formal and visible. Ex. Someone handing you a note or a copy of article marked “FYI”
7INFORMATION DATA BECOMENS INFORMATION WHEN ITS CREATOR PROCESS BY: CONTEXTUALIZED: PURPOSECATEGORIZED: KEY COMPONENTS, UNITS OF ANALYSISCALCULATEDCORRECTEDCONDENSED: SUMMARIZE
8KNOWLEDGECOMPLEX CONCEPT, MANY PHILOSOFICAL & EPISTOMOLOGICAL DEFINITIONSWORKING DEFINITION, PRAGMATIC DESCRIPTIONKnowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information.In organizations, if often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and norms.Depending on how scientifist track it, knowledge can be seen asPROCESS: (ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING)STOCK: (KNOWLEDGE)SLIPPERY CONCEPTWhat this definition immediately makes clear is that knowledge is not neat or simple.It is a mixture of various elements;it is fluid as well as formally structured;it is intuitive and therefore hard to capture in workds or understand completely in logical terms.Knowledge exists wihtin people, part and parcel of human complexity and unpredctibility.
9KNOWLEDGEKnowledge derives from information as information derives from data, by this transformations.COMPARISON of this information to other situationsCONSEQUENCES of the information for decision and actionsCONNECTIONSCONVERSATION: What do other people think about this informationThese knowledeg-creating activities take place within and between humans.While we find data in records, and information in messages, we obtain knowledge from individuals or groups of knowers, or sometimes in organizational routines.It is delivered through structured media such as books and documents, and person-to-person.
10KNOWLEDGE - COMPONENTS EXPERIENCEKnowledge develops over time, through experience that includes what we absorb from courses, books, and mentors as well as informal learning.It provides a historical perspective from which to view and understand new situations and events.Knowlege born of experience recognizes familiar patterns and can make connections between what is happening now and before.GROUND TRUTHIt means knowing what really works and what doesn’t, on the ground, rather than from the heights of theory or generalization.Knowledge of the everyday, complex, often messy reality of work is generally more valuable than theories about it.COMPLEXITYKnowledge is not a rigid structure that excludes what doesn’t fit, it can deal with Certainty and clarity often come at the price of ignoring essential factors (Being both certain and wrong is a common occurrence).In a dynamic, competitive, changing environment, ullusions of accuracy are short-lived, they live to nonadaptive-actionFuzzy logic.JUDGMENTKnowlegde contains judgment. Not only can it judge new situations and information in light of what is already known, it judges and refines itself in response to new situations.RULES OF THUMB: HeuristicsThey are shortcuts to solutions to new problems that resemble problems previously solved. They are efficent guides to complex situations.AS veterans drivers of cars, rapidly accomplishing a series of complex actions without having to thing about them, as a beginner would The veteran driver develops an INTUITIVE sense of what to expect on the road.VALUES AND BELIEFSThey determine what the knower see, absorbs, and concludes from his observations.Ex. : Someone who values the bustle of urban life may find energy and variety in a crowded city street.Someone who prefers rural quiet may see only chaos and danger in the same scene.A publishing executive who values risk and change may see a new opportunity in the same on-line technology than a competitor views as a threat to traditional successful print products.
11KNOWLEDGE Nonaka & Takeuchi: KNOWLEDGE, UNLIKE INFORMATION IS ABOUT BELIEFS AND COMMITMENT.THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE TO ORGANIZE, SELEC, LEARN AND JUDGE COMES FROM VALUES AND BELIEFS AS MUCH AS, AND PROBABLY MORE THAN, FROM INFORMATION AND LOGIC.
13KNOWLEDGE A CORPORATE ASSET CORPORATE SIZE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TACIT KNOWLEDGE VS. EXPLICIT K.
14KNOWLEDGE AS A CORPORATE ASSET Knowledge is not new.Studies have shown that managers get two-thirds of their information and knowledge from face-to-face meetings or phone converstations.Only one-third comes from documentsExplicitic recognizing knowledge as a corporate asset is new.INVEST, MANAGE, GET VALUE FROM ITKNOWLEDGE can provide a sustainable advantage. It generates new leves of quality, creativity or efficiency.Unlike material assets, which decrease as they are used, knowledge assets increase with use:Ideas breed ideas, and shared knowledge stays with the giver while it enriches the receiver.Only knowledge resources have unlimited potential for growthIn a world with physical limits, it is the discovery of big idea together with the discovery of millions of little ideas that makes persistent economic growth possible.Ideas are the cues that let us to combine limited physical resources in arrangements that are ever more valuable.
15CORPORATE SIZE AND KM In a small, localized company a manager probably knows who has the experience in a particular aspect of the business and can walk across the hall and talk to him.The maximum size of an organization in which people know one another well enough to have a reliable grasp of collective organizational knowledge is peopleThe stock of knowledge in a global enterprise with scattered offices and plants and a complex mix of products and functions is vast, but “How do you find what you need?COMPUTER NETWORKS AND KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGEThis new information technology is only the pipeline and storage system for knwoelde exchange, it can not guarantee or even promote knowledge generation or knowledge sharingCORPORATE CULTURE for knowledge sharingA CASE: BRIHIS PETROLEUM’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAMHow do yo you find what you needs?This was one of Chrysler’s motivations in formulating its “Engineering Books of Knowledge!: If there is no system in place to locate the most appropiate knowledge resources, employees make do with what is most easily available.New knowledge always begins with the individual.Making personal knowledge available to others is the central activit of the KM.It takes places continuously and at all levels of the organization.
16TACIT VS. EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE EXPLICIT K.: It is formal and systematic. For this reason, it can be easily communicated and shared, in product specificaions or a scientific formula or a computer program.TACIT K.: It is highly personal. It is hard to personalize and, therefore, difficult to communicate to others.“We can know more than we can tell”It is deeply rooted in action in an individual’s commitment to a specific context –a craft or profession, a particular technology or product market, or the activities of a work group or team.Constis partly of technical skills: informal, hard-to-pin skills captured in the term “know how”, but unable to articulate the scientific or technical principles behind what he knows.It has a cognitive dimension: Mental models, beliefs taked from granted, and therefore cannot easily articulaate them.This implicit models profoundly shape how we perceive the world around us.
18THE SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE FROM METAPHOR TO MODELFROM CHAOS TO CONCEPTNew knowledge always begins with the individualA researcher has an insight that leads to a new patentA middle manager’s intituitve sense ofr market trends becomes the catalyst for an importan new product conceptA shop-floor worker draws on years of experience to come with a new process innovationNew knowledge always begins with the individual.Making personal knowledge available to others is the central activit of the KM.It takes places continuously and at all levels of the organization.
19SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE INTERNALIZATION SOCIALIZATION ARTICULATION COLLECTIVEINDIVIDUALINTERNALIZATIONSOCIALIZATIONARTICULATIONCOMBINATIONTACIT KNOWLEDGEEXPLICITKNOWLEDGE
20SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE 4 fasic patterns for creating knowledge: From tacit to tacit: SOCIALIZATIONFrom explicit to explicit: ARTICULATIONFrom tacit to explicit: COMBINATIONFrom Explicit to tacit: INTERNALIZATION
21SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE FROM TACIT TO TACIT Sometimes, one individual shares tacit knowledge directly with another.SOCIALIZATION:The apprentice learns the master’s skills.Example: When an apprentice in an Hotel baker learn tacit skills through observation, imitation and practice.Because their knowledge never becomes explicit, it cannot easily be leveraged by the organization as a whole.
22SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE 2. FROM TACIT TO EXPLICIT ARTICULATION The individual is able to articulate the foundations of his tacit knowledgeEx: The apprentices translates these secrets into explicit knowledge that he can communicate to her team members and others at the company.
23SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE 3. FROM EXPLICIT TO EXPLICIT An individual can also combine discrete pieces of explicit knowledge into a new whole: COMBINATIONExample: The team standardizes this knowledge, putting it together in a new product, or into a manual.
24SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE 4. FROM EXPLICIT TO TACIT INTERNALIZATION As new explicit knowledge is shared through an organization, other employees begin to internalize it – that is, they use it to broaden, extend and reframe their own tacit knowledge.Example: Through the experience of creating a new product, the apprentices and his team members enrich their own tacit knowledge base. In particular, they come to understand in an extremely intuitive way that products like the home bread-making machine can provide genuine quality.
25SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE ARTICULATION COMBINATION SOCIALIZATION Articulation and Internalization are the critica steps in this spiral of knowledge. The reason is that both require the active involvement of the self –that is, personal commitment.The spiral starts all over again, but the next time at a higher level.INTERNALIZATION
26From Metaphor to ModelTo convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge means finding a way to express the inexpresible.Tool: the store of figurative language and symbolism that anybody cand draw from to articulate their intuitions and insights.METAPHORS: Distintive method of perceptionIt is a way for individuals grounded in different contexts and with different experiences to understand something intuitively through the use of imaginations and symbolsPeople put together what they know in new ways and begin to express what they know but can not yet say.Metaphors merges two different and distant areas of experience ito a single, inclusive image or symbol “Two ideas in one phrasse”ANALOGYWhereas metaphor is mostly driven by intuition and links images that a t first glance seem remote from each other,analogy is a more structured process of reconciling contradictions and making distinctions.Analogy is an intermediate step betweem pure imagination and logical thinking.MODELThe last step is to create a Model.In the model, contradictions get resolved and concepts become transferable throug consistent and systematic logic.ANALOGYBy clarifying how the two ideas in one phrase actually are alike and not alike, the contradictions incorporated into metaphors are harmonized by analogy .
27FROM CHAOS TO CONCEPTThe confusion created by the inevitable discrepancies in meaning that occur in any organization might seen like a problem.In fact, it can be a rich source of new knowledge –if a company knows how to manage it.The key to doing so is continuously challenging employees to reexamine what they take for granted.Ambiguity can prove extremely useful as a source of alternative meanings, a fresh way to think about things, a nes sense of direction.New knowledge is born in chaos.
28FROM CHAOS TO CONCEPT Orient this chaos: VISION AND PURPOSE What are we try to learn? What do we need to know? Where should we be going? Who are we?Vision of senior managersAs team leaders, middle managers are the intersection of the vertical and horizontal flows of information in the company.They serve as a bridge between the visionary ideals of the top and the often chaotic market reality of those of the front line of the businessMiddle managers syntesized the tacit knowledge of both frontline employees and senior executives, made it explicit, and incorporated it into new technologies and products.In this respect, they are the true “knowledge engineers” of the knowledge-creating company.
31KNOWLEDGE GENERATIONSPECIFIC ACTIVITIES AND INITIATIVES FIRMS UNDERTAKE TO INCREASE THEIR STOKC OF CORPORATE KNOWLEDGE:ACQUISITION:PURCHASE ANOTHER FIRM WITH THE KNOWLEDGEHIRE PEOPLE WITH THE KNOWLEDGE,RENTAL (SUPPORT AN UNIVERSITY)!!! RETAIN THE KNOWLEDGEDEDICATED RESOURCESSTABLISH UNITS OR GROUPS SPECIFICALLY FOR THE PURPOSER&D Dpt.FUSIONIt brings together people with different perspectives to work on a problemor project, forcing them to come up with a joint answer.It introduces complexity and even conflict to create new knowledge: CREATIVE CHAOSADAPTATION“Adapt or die”: Instill a sense of crisis before it existsThe crisis in the environment act as catalysts for knowledge generationEmployees who are willing and able to learn new things are vital to an adapting companyKNOWLEDGE NETWORKINGCommunities of knowers, brought together by common interests, usually talk together in person, on the telephone, and via and groupware to share expertise and solve problems together.When networks of this kind share enough knowledge in common to be able to communicate and colloborate effectively, their ongoing conversation often generates new knowledge within firms.
32KNOWLEDGE CODIFICATION & COORDINATION The aim of codification is to put organizational knowledge into a form that makes it accesible to those who need it (explicit, portable and easy to unerstand).The codification process for the richest tacit knowledge in organizations is generally limited to locating someone with the knowledge, pointing the seeker to it, and encouraging them to interact.MAP OF KNOWLEDGE goes beyond conventional department boundaries.That means that can lead to political tensions in the organizationEXPERT SYSTEMS represents an explicit attepmt to capture or imitate human knowledge by transferring it to a formalized rules-based system.But,even with advances in fuzzy logic, computers are not yet well suited to ambiguous and intuitive operations where the rules, if they exist at all, are much harder to define.EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE:Some knowledge that is quite complex and initially tacit can be externalized and embedded in a company’s products or services.
33KNOWLEDGE TRANSFERSpontaneous, unstructured knowledge transfer is vital to a firm’s success.Although the term “KM” implies formalizzed transfer,one of its essential elements is developing specific strategies to encourages such spontaneous exchanges.METHODS FOR KNOWLEDGE SHARING should suit the organizational (and national) cultureTRANSFER= TRANSMISSION+ABSORPTION
34KNOWLEDGE USE KNOWING IS NOT THE SAME AS DOING. Transmission and Absorption have no useful valueif the knowlede does not lead to some change in behavior,or the development of some idea that leads to new behaviorResistance to change is powerful, even in the face of indisputable objective evidence that a particular change makes sense.It is fearly common for someone to understand and absorb new knowledge but not put it into use for variety of reasons.Not respecting or trusting the source of the knowledge is an important one.Pride, stubbonrnnes, lack of time, lack of opportunity, a fear of taking risks (in a company that punishes mistakes) are others.
35CKO:Chief Knowledge Officers CLO Chief Learning Officers Director of Intellectual Capital Senior Management Roles on the level of Chief Information Officers, heads of the human resource organization and other funcitional and business unit leaders.ResponsibilitiesBuilding a knowledge culture: education, incentive programs and management exampleCreating a knowledge management infrastructureWorkstations,networks, dabases, search engines,deskt-publishing tools, Web-based intranetHuman resources issuesDeveolopment and maintenancce of knowledge bases in different functions and departments.Making it all pay off economicallyFigures and stories, about how knowledge sharing increase sales, are the weapons to justify budgetIntellectual capital report
36NASA KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CKO Ex.: NASA:NASA’s Knowledge ImperativeBy Ed Hoffman“Like all large, knowledge-intensive organizations, NASA faces continuous challenges identifying, capturing, and sharing what it knows effectively.Knowledge is the coin of the realm at NASA. Need to understand something about engine cutoff sensors, the physiological impact of extended stays in low-Earth orbit, or how to drive a rover on Mars? That kind of specialized expertise.”… I will remain the director of the Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership as I assume the responsibilities of serving as NASA’s first CKO. This is a logical extension of the knowledge services the Academy began providing over a decade ago. I look forward to engaging deeply with the community of dedicated professionals that gathered in February to ensure that our technical workforce has the knowledge it needs to achieve mission success. As always, please feel free to contact me if you would like to share thoughts or ideas”
37KNOWLEGE BROKER oadHP_March2012.pdf Knowledge brokers: bridging the gap: data-information-knowledge- competence-intermediary activity that takes place between and within the spheres of science, policy and civil society in order to bridge the research‐to‐practice gapThey are not inside the organization as CKO, they are intermiediaries.Brokerage rolesThe roles of individuals/groups/organisation performing KB could be quite divergent. Withreference to a knowledge broker typology framework (Gould & Fernandez ) the brokers’roles could be categorised as ‘representatives’, ‘gatekeepers’, ‘liaison brokers’, ‘coordinators’, or‘itinerant brokers’ – according to which domain they belong to.In the ‘co‐ordinator’ framework all the actors including the broker and the source of knowledgeare in the same group.In the ‘itinerant broker’ type the broker mediates between actors in the same group, but thebroker is not part of this group.The ‘gatekeeper’ screen external knowledge to distribute it within their own group.‘Representative’ role is given if a group delegates the brokering role of external knowledge tosomeone in the group.‘Liaison’ is when they knowledge is brokered across different groups, neither of which thebrokers are members of.oadHP_March2012.pdf
38The Rise of the Knowledge Broker “Knowledge brokers are people or organizations that move knowledge around and create connections between researchers and their various audiences. This commentary reviews some of the literature on knowledge brokering and lays out some thoughts on how to analyze and theorize this practice. Discussing the invisibility and interstitiality of knowledge brokers, the author argues that social scientists need to analyze more thoroughly their practices, the brokering devices they use, and the benefits and drawbacks of their double peripherality. The author also argues that knowledge brokers do not only move knowledge, but they also produce a new kind of knowledge: brokered knowledge.” (Meyer,M, 2010)
39INNOVATION Innovation Invent + Commercialization Commercialization: patent, technology->Knowledge BrokersOpen innovation:the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation and to expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively”. (Chesbrought 2003)Geographical Clusters
40CLUSTERS – open innovation FIRMS & LOCATIONGEOGRAPHICALLY CONCENTRATED NETWORKS WHERE NEW KNOWLEDGE IS CREATED AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING DEVELOPEDEx:
41TECHNOLOGY, PATENT MARKET – Protection explicit knowledge “Just as it is often said that patent information is a gold mine of technology, it would be helpful if people wanting to use patents hada map of what is where”Law for Intellectual property –history
42THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATENTION. Suggestions?Ideas? Questions?