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60% multiple choice 40% free response

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Presentation on theme: "60% multiple choice 40% free response"— Presentation transcript:

1 60% multiple choice 40% free response
AP Biology Exam Review 60% multiple choice 40% free response

2 Organizing life Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs
Systems Organism species Population Community Ecosystem

3 Experimental design free response
Problem Hypothesis Materials/procedure Control setup/baseline Independent and dependent variables Constants & variables Qualitative & quantitative data Data interpretation Conclusion


5 Hypothesis Predictive May propose a method for testing the problem.
Give a justification for the method of testing.

6 Properties of life Metabolism: chemical pathways that are regulated
Cellular organization Homeostasis: maintaining stable internal environment through controlled chemical reactions or metabolism for life functions (pH, temperature, etc)

7 Properties of life Reproduction: capacity to develop from juvenile to adult stage with potential to replicate own DNA Asexual Sexual

8 Properties of life Response to stimulus: able to react to external or internal changes Many responses to stimulus are result of enzymatic proteins.

9 Chemical evolution of life
production of small, reduced, carbon-containing compounds like formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. simple compounds reacted in the ocean to form the mid-sized molecules called sugars, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases

10 Chemical evolution of life
building block molecules linked together to form molecules found in cells (proteins and nucleic acids) single molecule acquired the ability to make a copies of itself Chemical evolution began to give way to biological evolution.

11 Covalent Sharing of electrons Stable Forms hydrocarbons

12 Polar covalent bonds Water molecule
Leads to different water properties

13 Ionic bonds

14 Hydrogen bonds Weak individually Strength in multiple H-bonds
Found between nucleotides

15 Chemical reactions

16 Properties of water Slightly positive and negative “poles” of water molecule form hydrogen bonds

17 Frozen water molecules less dense, ice floats

18 Water as ideal solvent

19 Water as ideal solvent Water soluble protein Attracts water molecules

20 pH: water dissociation

21 pH scale Homeostatic control of pH (maintaining optimal pH levels) is necessary to sustain life. Ex: pH drop in blood = too much CO2

22 Organic chemistry Alkanes: hydrocarbons with only single bonds between C and H Alkenes: hydrocarbons with double bonds between C and H Alkynes: hydrocarbons with triple bonds between C and H


24 Valence numbers Indicates the number of bonds that can be formed.

25 Carbon structural molecules

26 Isomers Molecules with the same molecular formula but different 3D configuration

27 Functional groups Alcohol* Aldehyde Amine* Carboxylic acid* Ester
Ether Ketone Methyl Phosphate*

28 Polymers Most organic polymers form through dehydration synthesis.
Most break apart by hydrolysis.

29 Monosaccharides Single building block of sugars (carbohydrate)
a-glucose, b-glucose, fructose

30 Disaccharides

31 Polysaccharides

32 Polysaccharides Starch: plant and algae storage, product of photosynthesis (a-glucose) Cellulose: structural polymer, product of photosynthesis (b-glucose)



35 Chitin carbohydrate with an additional amine functional group that makes this molecule tough and water resistant exoskeletons of many insects fungal cell wall

36 Lipids Ester linkage Why is this a saturated fat?

37 Lipids Energy storage Insoluble in water C and H

38 Saturated vs. Unsaturated

39 Lipids: What is this structure?

40 Lipids What are these structures?
What proof is there that one of these structures makes up membranes?

41 Lipids: What is this structure?

42 Proteins: amino acid monomers

43 Proteins: amino acid monomers

44 Proteins Primary conformation: peptide bonds between amino acids
Forms peptide chains

45 Proteins Primary structure or conformation
Notice the amino and the carboxyl terminus (ends)

46 Proteins Secondary structure: hydrogen bonds between peptide chains

47 Proteins Tertiary structure: R-group interactions, depends upon properties of R group

48 Proteins: Quaternary structure


50 Protein denaturation What can denature proteins?

51 How cells “fix” denatured proteins

52 Nucleic acids Nucleic acids are built from monomers of nucleotides.
Nucleotides are adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, uracil. Ex: DNA, RNA, ATP, and GTP


54 Nucleic acid DNA structure
Notice the different types of bonds involved in the making of DNA

55 DNA model Each nucleotide is made from deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base. DNA is double stranded.

56 Cells – 10% of test Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Membranes
Subcellular organizations Cell cycle and its regulation

57 Cell size Viruses not cells
Bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplast all about the same size (evidence for endosymbiotic theory)

58 Cell fractionation

59 Prokaryotic cell

60 Surface to volume ratio
Governs size

61 Membrane

62 Eukaryotic – animal cell

63 Eukaryotic – plant cell

64 Freeze fracture Showing the “mosaic” of fluid mosaic model
Singer and Nicholson Danielli proposed alternative model (protein-membrane-protein)

65 Membrane fluidity

66 Membrane structure

67 Diffusion: entropy

68 Osmotic balance Guard cells, excretory system, transpiration, translocation

69 Osmotic balance

70 Sodium-potassium pump

71 Transport Passive vs. active transport Passive: osmosis
Active transport: establishing proton gradient of electron transport chain

72 Proton pump: auxin transport, electron transport chain

73 Cotransport Translocation (phloem source to sink)

74 Cell cycle

75 Mitosis lab 500 cells = interphase = 50% 100 cells = prophase = 10%
150 cells = metaphase = 15% 150 cells = anaphase = 15% 100 cells = telophase = 10%

76 Mitosis

77 Mitosis

78 Binary fission Asexual reproduction in prokaryotic cells
Other examples of asexual reproduction: budding, regeneration, vegetative propagation

79 Cell cycle control Requires various checkpoints and Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase) protein to detect levels of cyclin

80 Density Density dependent cellular growth vs. density independent cancerous growth

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