Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism species Population Community Ecosystem Organizing life
Experimental design free response Problem Hypothesis Materials/procedure Control setup/baseline Independent and dependent variables Constants & variables Qualitative & quantitative data Data interpretation Conclusion
Hypothesis Predictive May propose a method for testing the problem. Give a justification for the method of testing.
Properties of life Metabolism: chemical pathways that are regulated Cellular organization Homeostasis: maintaining stable internal environment through controlled chemical reactions or metabolism for life functions (pH, temperature, etc)
Properties of life Reproduction: capacity to develop from juvenile to adult stage with potential to replicate own DNA Asexual Sexual
Properties of life Response to stimulus: able to react to external or internal changes Many responses to stimulus are result of enzymatic proteins.
Chemical evolution of life production of small, reduced, carbon- containing compounds like formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide. simple compounds reacted in the ocean to form the mid-sized molecules called sugars, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases
Chemical evolution of life building block molecules linked together to form molecules found in cells (proteins and nucleic acids) single molecule acquired the ability to make a copies of itself Chemical evolution began to give way to biological evolution.
Covalent Sharing of electrons Stable Forms hydrocarbons
Polar covalent bonds Water molecule Leads to different water properties
Hydrogen bonds Weak individually Strength in multiple H- bonds Found between nucleotides
Properties of water Slightly positive and negative poles of water molecule form hydrogen bonds
Frozen water molecules less dense, ice floats
Water as ideal solvent
Water soluble protein Attracts water molecules
pH: water dissociation
pH scale Homeostatic control of pH (maintaining optimal pH levels) is necessary to sustain life. Ex: pH drop in blood = too much CO 2
Organic chemistry Alkanes: hydrocarbons with only single bonds between C and H Alkenes: hydrocarbons with double bonds between C and H Alkynes: hydrocarbons with triple bonds between C and H
Valence numbers Indicates the number of bonds that can be formed.
Carbon structural molecules
Isomers Molecules with the same molecular formula but different 3D configuration