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Cells Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Leeuwenhoek.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Leeuwenhoek."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Cells could not be seen without a microscope before the 17 th century. Leeuwenhoek made the first microscope. Leeuwenhoek made the first microscope. Hooke named cells while looking at cork. Hooke named cells while looking at cork – Schleiden - plants are made of cells 1838 – Schleiden - plants are made of cells 1839 – Schwann – animals are made of cells and there is a cellular basis of all life – Schwann – animals are made of cells and there is a cellular basis of all life – Virchow – animal comes from animal and plant comes from plant 1855 – Virchow – animal comes from animal and plant comes from plant

2 Cell Theory 1.Cells are the basic units of life 2.All organisms are made of one or more cells 3.Cells arise from other cells

3 Cell Membrane Cell membrane – gate, controlling what comes in and out of the cells Phospholipid bilayer – phosphate head and two fatty acid tailsPhospholipid bilayer – phosphate head and two fatty acid tails Phosphate head – hydrophilic (water loving)Phosphate head – hydrophilic (water loving) Fatty tails – hydrophobic (water hating)Fatty tails – hydrophobic (water hating)

4 Cell Membrane (cont.) Many proteins embedded in the membrane Many proteins embedded in the membrane 1.Integral proteins - amphipathic 2.Peripheral proteins – loose connection 3.Carbohydrate side chains 4.Cholesterol – membrane fluidity

5 1.Recognition proteins – identify the cell 2.Channel proteins – let things in and out of the cell 3.Adhesion proteins – form junctions with other cells 4.Transport pumps – sodium/potassium pump 5.Receptor proteins – G-protein linked

6 Prokaryote Cell – Bacterial Cells

7 Animal Cell

8 Nucleus The control center – brain The control center – brain Nuclear envelope – covered in pores – send proteins out Nuclear envelope – covered in pores – send proteins out Contains DNA Contains DNA DNA coils into chromatin and chromatin condenses into chromosomes (blueprint) DNA coils into chromatin and chromatin condenses into chromosomes (blueprint)

9 Nucleolus Dark structure inside the nucleus Dark structure inside the nucleus Make ribosomes Make ribosomes Disappears during mitosis (cell division) Disappears during mitosis (cell division)

10 Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryotes – bacterial cells Prokaryotes – bacterial cells Do not have a nucleusDo not have a nucleus Have fewer partsHave fewer parts Have DNA and reproduceHave DNA and reproduce No membrane around organellesNo membrane around organelles Eukaryotes – plants, animals Eukaryotes – plants, animals Have a nucleusHave a nucleus Have more partsHave more parts Membrane bound organellesMembrane bound organelles

11 Cytoplasm Cytosol and organelles Cytosol and organelles Cytosol is mostly water Cytosol is mostly water Organelles – nucleus and other parts floating in cytosol Organelles – nucleus and other parts floating in cytosol

12 Organelles Ribosomes – On the rough endoplasmic reticulum and free in the cytoplasm Ribosomes – On the rough endoplasmic reticulum and free in the cytoplasm make proteins (manufacturer) make proteins (manufacturer) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum detoxification and making lipids and carbohydrates detoxification and making lipids and carbohydrates

13 Golgi and Lysosomes Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus stack of pancakes stack of pancakes Packages things and sends them out of the cell Packages things and sends them out of the cell Lysosome Lysosome digestion of food particles digestion of food particles contain enzymes contain enzymes

14 Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell Powerhouse of the cell ATP – energy is created ATP – energy is created

15 Cell Shape Cytoskeleton – internal framework in an animal cell that helps maintain cell shape. Cytoskeleton – internal framework in an animal cell that helps maintain cell shape. Microtubules – hollow tubes made of protein - help maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for transport throughout the cell. Microtubules – hollow tubes made of protein - help maintain cell shape and serve as tracks for transport throughout the cell. Cillia and Flagella are made of microtubules. Cillia and Flagella are made of microtubules. Microfilaments – smaller proteins that help maintain cell shape. Microfilaments – smaller proteins that help maintain cell shape.

16 Euglena

17 Paramecium

18 Plant Cells Plant cells have a cell wall – made of cellulose Plant cells have a cell wall – made of cellulose They also have chloroplasts – where photosynthesis occurs They also have chloroplasts – where photosynthesis occurs Chlorophyll – pigment that absorbs sunlight energy Chlorophyll – pigment that absorbs sunlight energy Vacuoles – large vacuole that stores water Vacuoles – large vacuole that stores water

19 Plant Cells

20 Cell Differences Know table on pg. 40 Know table on pg. 40


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