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Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1

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1 Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1
Defense Proteins Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1

2 What do they do? Helps your immune system fight off disease to keep you healthy Helpful in destroying and neutralizing harmful bodies that may enter your body Protect against the effects of certain injuries

3 What do they do? (Cont.) The immune system helps your body defend itself against foreign bodies such as: Contaminants Bacteria Disease-causing microbes

4 How do they work? They are made of white blood cells and attach themselves to viruses and bacteria, making these harmful bodies inactive As long as the DNA is mutation free, the protein will form and function properly

5 Significance of Shape Determined by amino acid sequence
2 molecules interact at an active site Vital that shapes (lock and key  enzyme and molecule) match b/c proteins combat foreign bodies by being told to do so from the lock and key turning

6 Defense Protein Production
Secreted by cells that enter/develop in the body and are infected by foreign bodies Nearby cells “kick into gear”-produce defense proteins to counter act the virus and stop the reproduction Made in the immune system to protect our bodies!

7 If Production is Interrupted…
Microbes enter bloodstream and infect other areas of the body Increased susceptibility to infections and viruses Lack of defense proteins results in lack of aid regarding fighting germs Nothing stopping foreign bodies from multiplying

8 Fibrinogen Amino Acid Sequence:
mqngagasrt stiflngnre rplnvfcdme tdgggwlvfq rrmdgqtdfw rdwedyahgf gnisgefwlg nealhsltqa gdysirvdlr agdeavfaqy dsfhvdsaae yyrlhlegyh gtagdsmsyh sgsvfsardr dpnsllisca vsyrgawwyr nchyanlngl ygstvdhqgv swyhwkgfef svpftemklr prnfrspagg g

9 Top 5 Matches Fibrinogen is a conserved gene
Tenascin-x; Mus Musculus-91% Tenascin-x; Cricetulus Griseus- 91% Predicted: Tenascin-x like; Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Paplo Anubic- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Nomascus Leucogenys- 98%

10 Top 5 Matches (cont.)

11 Evolution of this gene in history of life on Earth
Not a vestigial trait Protein (similar proteins) present in many different organisms Gene is necessary to life; stops excessive bleeding

12 Role in Living Systems Produced by the liver and present in blood plasma Important for blood clot formation (coagulation) Helps stop bleeding Converted to fibrin which helps clot blood and seal wounds Doesn’t permit entrance to any foreign body

13 Possible Outcomes if Mutated/Absent?
Mutations can lead to many similar conditions I.E. Congenital abfibrinogenemia; causes excessive bleeding due to lack of fibrinogen in blood

14 Disorders associated with Fibrinogen
Hypofibrinogenemia (type 1) results from mutations and effects fibrinogen concentration Dysfibrinogenemia (type 2) usually follows the a diagnosis of a prolonged thrombin time, low fibrinogen level, or liver disease No clear symptoms to be detected by patient

15 Proposed Drug Heparin injections To decrease blood’s ability to clot
Used in low doses Preventative/unable to dissolve an existing clot Targets lack of blood flow Prevents heart issues that occur when fibrinogen can’t be circulated

16 If fibrinogen was conserved across organisms…
Extract healthy fibrinogen protein from organisms Inject into humans Create an oral supplement Observe environmental conditions that put living things at risk for low fibrinogen levels

17 Sources https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/sitnflash_wp/2010/02/issue65/


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