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Defense Proteins Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Defense Proteins Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Defense Proteins Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1

2 What do they do? Helps your immune system fight off disease to keep you healthy Helps your immune system fight off disease to keep you healthy Helpful in destroying and neutralizing harmful bodies that may enter your body Helpful in destroying and neutralizing harmful bodies that may enter your body Protect against the effects of certain injuries Protect against the effects of certain injuries

3 What do they do? (Cont.) The immune system helps your body defend itself against foreign bodies such as: The immune system helps your body defend itself against foreign bodies such as: Contaminants Contaminants Bacteria Bacteria Disease-causing microbes Disease-causing microbes

4 How do they work? They are made of white blood cells and attach themselves to viruses and bacteria, making these harmful bodies inactive They are made of white blood cells and attach themselves to viruses and bacteria, making these harmful bodies inactive As long as the DNA is mutation free, the protein will form and function properly As long as the DNA is mutation free, the protein will form and function properly

5 Significance of Shape Determined by amino acid sequence Determined by amino acid sequence 2 molecules interact at an active site 2 molecules interact at an active site Vital that shapes (lock and key enzyme and molecule) match b/c proteins combat foreign bodies by being told to do so from the lock and key turning Vital that shapes (lock and key enzyme and molecule) match b/c proteins combat foreign bodies by being told to do so from the lock and key turning

6 Defense Protein Production Secreted by cells that enter/develop in the body and are infected by foreign bodies Secreted by cells that enter/develop in the body and are infected by foreign bodies Nearby cells kick into gear-produce defense proteins to counter act the virus and stop the reproduction Nearby cells kick into gear-produce defense proteins to counter act the virus and stop the reproduction Made in the immune system to protect our bodies! Made in the immune system to protect our bodies!

7 If Production is Interrupted… Microbes enter bloodstream and infect other areas of the body Microbes enter bloodstream and infect other areas of the body Increased susceptibility to infections and viruses Increased susceptibility to infections and viruses Lack of defense proteins results in lack of aid regarding fighting germs Lack of defense proteins results in lack of aid regarding fighting germs Nothing stopping foreign bodies from multiplying Nothing stopping foreign bodies from multiplying

8 Fibrinogen Amino Acid Sequence: Amino Acid Sequence: mqngagasrt stiflngnre rplnvfcdme tdgggwlvfq rrmdgqtdfw rdwedyahgf gnisgefwlg nealhsltqa gdysirvdlr agdeavfaqy dsfhvdsaae yyrlhlegyh gtagdsmsyh sgsvfsardr dpnsllisca vsyrgawwyr nchyanlngl ygstvdhqgv swyhwkgfef svpftemklr prnfrspagg g

9 Top 5 Matches Fibrinogen is a conserved gene Fibrinogen is a conserved gene Tenascin-x; Mus Musculus-91% Tenascin-x; Mus Musculus-91% Tenascin-x; Cricetulus Griseus- 91% Tenascin-x; Cricetulus Griseus- 91% Predicted: Tenascin-x like; Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x like; Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Paplo Anubic- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Paplo Anubic- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Nomascus Leucogenys- 98% Predicted: Tenascin-x; Nomascus Leucogenys- 98%

10 Top 5 Matches (cont.)

11 Evolution of this gene in history of life on Earth Not a vestigial trait Not a vestigial trait Protein (similar proteins) present in many different organisms Protein (similar proteins) present in many different organisms Gene is necessary to life; stops excessive bleeding Gene is necessary to life; stops excessive bleeding

12 Role in Living Systems Produced by the liver and present in blood plasma Produced by the liver and present in blood plasma Important for blood clot formation (coagulation) Important for blood clot formation (coagulation) Helps stop bleeding Helps stop bleeding Converted to fibrin which helps clot blood and seal wounds Converted to fibrin which helps clot blood and seal wounds Doesnt permit entrance to any foreign body Doesnt permit entrance to any foreign body

13 Possible Outcomes if Mutated/Absent? Mutations can lead to many similar conditions Mutations can lead to many similar conditions I.E. Congenital abfibrinogenemia; causes excessive bleeding due to lack of fibrinogen in blood I.E. Congenital abfibrinogenemia; causes excessive bleeding due to lack of fibrinogen in blood

14 Disorders associated with Fibrinogen Hypofibrinogenemia (type 1) results from mutations and effects fibrinogen concentration Hypofibrinogenemia (type 1) results from mutations and effects fibrinogen concentration Dysfibrinogenemia (type 2) usually follows the a diagnosis of a prolonged thrombin time, low fibrinogen level, or liver disease Dysfibrinogenemia (type 2) usually follows the a diagnosis of a prolonged thrombin time, low fibrinogen level, or liver disease No clear symptoms to be detected by patient No clear symptoms to be detected by patient

15 Proposed Drug Heparin injections Heparin injections To decrease bloods ability to clot To decrease bloods ability to clot Used in low doses Used in low doses Preventative/unable to dissolve an existing clot Preventative/unable to dissolve an existing clot Targets lack of blood flow Targets lack of blood flow Prevents heart issues that occur when fibrinogen cant be circulated Prevents heart issues that occur when fibrinogen cant be circulated

16 If fibrinogen was conserved across organisms… Extract healthy fibrinogen protein from organisms Extract healthy fibrinogen protein from organisms Inject into humans Inject into humans Create an oral supplement Create an oral supplement Observe environmental conditions that put living things at risk for low fibrinogen levels Observe environmental conditions that put living things at risk for low fibrinogen levels

17 Sources http://www.course-notes.org/Biology/Outlines/Chapter_43_The_Immune_System http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/199723-medication http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR601931 http://www.uptodate.com/contents/disorders-of-fibrinogen http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/960677-overview http://www.chemeddl.org/resources/TSTS/Gellman/Gellmanpg5- 8/Protein%20Receptors.html http://www.chemeddl.org/resources/TSTS/Gellman/Gellmanpg5- 8/Protein%20Receptors.html http://www.course-notes.org/Biology/Outlines/Chapter_43_The_Immune_System https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/sitnflash_wp/2010/02/issue65/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/520931-eight-types-of-protein-and-their- function/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/520931-eight-types-of-protein-and-their- function/ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/role-of-proteins-in-living-organisms.html http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/the-immune-system.html http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/biology-terms/protein-info.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003650.htm http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/FGA


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