Presentation on theme: "Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1"— Presentation transcript:
1 Abby Bridge and Christie Leist AP Bio Period 1 Defense ProteinsAbby Bridge and Christie LeistAP Bio Period 1
2 What do they do?Helps your immune system fight off disease to keep you healthyHelpful in destroying and neutralizing harmful bodies that may enter your bodyProtect against the effects of certain injuries
3 What do they do? (Cont.)The immune system helps your body defend itself against foreign bodies such as:ContaminantsBacteriaDisease-causing microbes
4 How do they work?They are made of white blood cells and attach themselves to viruses and bacteria, making these harmful bodies inactiveAs long as the DNA is mutation free, the protein will form and function properly
5 Significance of Shape Determined by amino acid sequence 2 molecules interact at an active siteVital that shapes (lock and key enzyme and molecule) match b/c proteins combat foreign bodies by being told to do so from the lock and key turning
6 Defense Protein Production Secreted by cells that enter/develop in the body and are infected by foreign bodiesNearby cells “kick into gear”-produce defense proteins to counter act the virus and stop the reproductionMade in the immune system to protect our bodies!
7 If Production is Interrupted… Microbes enter bloodstream and infect other areas of the bodyIncreased susceptibility to infections and virusesLack of defense proteins results in lack of aid regarding fighting germsNothing stopping foreign bodies from multiplying
11 Evolution of this gene in history of life on Earth Not a vestigial traitProtein (similar proteins) present in many different organismsGene is necessary to life; stops excessive bleeding
12 Role in Living SystemsProduced by the liver and present in blood plasmaImportant for blood clot formation (coagulation)Helps stop bleedingConverted to fibrin which helps clot blood and seal woundsDoesn’t permit entrance to any foreign body
13 Possible Outcomes if Mutated/Absent? Mutations can lead to many similar conditionsI.E. Congenital abfibrinogenemia; causes excessive bleeding due to lack of fibrinogen in blood
14 Disorders associated with Fibrinogen Hypofibrinogenemia (type 1) results from mutations and effects fibrinogen concentrationDysfibrinogenemia (type 2) usually follows the a diagnosis of a prolonged thrombin time, low fibrinogen level, or liver diseaseNo clear symptoms to be detected by patient
15 Proposed Drug Heparin injections To decrease blood’s ability to clot Used in low dosesPreventative/unable to dissolve an existing clotTargets lack of blood flowPrevents heart issues that occur when fibrinogen can’t be circulated
16 If fibrinogen was conserved across organisms… Extract healthy fibrinogen protein from organismsInject into humansCreate an oral supplementObserve environmental conditions that put living things at risk for low fibrinogen levels
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