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2 During this course we have come to realize that there is more to teaching English than just grammar and vocabulary. As part of our learning process we have understood that lexical chunks play a significant part in the English language. This is why there is a need to take into account lexical chunks and include them in our future teaching. We collected material which relates to "saving our planet" because this was the topic chosen by Oranim for education week this year. We found short texts on the internet and identified useful lexical chunks, then compiled a variety of exercises for teaching and practising them. We also think it's high time we took a stand to save our planet Earth. We highly recommend that you take a look at our poster. Maya Yosipovitch and the class in the course The Lexical Approach 1, 2008. Supervised by Helen Osimo

3 Practice exercise The following chunks all have something to do with communication between people. Match the following chunks in column A to their meanings in column B A B 1. let them know a) check 2. make sure b) spread information 3. have a word c) should 4. [are] supposed to d) inform them 5. spread the word e) have a short talk 6. make a difference f) cause change Tami Kaminsky Are your plastic bottles and cans getting thrown in the trash when you're at the baseball game or a park? These places are supposed to have recycling barrels, but don't. What can you do? The first thing you can do is bring the plastic bottle home and put it with your home recyclables. Just make sure it's empty. Encourage your friends and teammates to do the same. You and your parents can also have a word with the managers of the places that have no recycling bins and find out why they don't have them. Encourage them to put out some recycling barrels and let them know that you'll help spread the word that these barrels should be used for recyclables only. Yes, you and your friends can make a difference.

4 Some areas have far too much water and suffer from floods, like Bangladesh and the flood plains of the Mississippi in the United States. Other areas, like Africa and West Asia, suffer severe droughts. The problem of water shortage is most serious in Africa and West Asia. If water consumption continues at its present rate, by 2025 two out of three people will not have enough water for their basic needs. There are many other chunks with "out of "; Complete the sentences with the correct chunk: 1.Traveling to China alone is ___________. You must have a guide otherwise you will never be able to communicate. 2. When he spoke rudely it was so __________. He is usually very polite and kind.. 3. The car appeared __________ and ran down the guard! It happened so fast that we couldn't react immediately. 4. You must be __________ if you want to swim across the Mediterranean! You’re crazy. You'll never make it. out of your mind; out of the question; out of the blue; out of character; [go] out of [my] way; out of bounds Nura Salayneh

5 Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. There is pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities - not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced. Poorer water quality means water pollution. When Earth's population was much smaller, no one believed water pollution would ever present a problem. It was once popularly believed that the oceans were far too big to pollute. Today, with over 8 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits. Collocations for formal writing: In the article above we can see the formal collocations: "Present a problem" and "exceeded those limits". Here are other frequent collocations for formal writing: Present a problem Exceed limits Raise an issue Offer a solution Put a question Luba Lichterman

6 Think About What Your Family Buys?!! If you buy things that can be used again and again instead of buying disposable items that are used once and then thrown away, you will save precious natural resources. You'll also save energy used to make them, and you'll reduce the amount of landfill space we need when they are thrown away. You will also save when you buy things that will last, instead of breaking right away. Well-made items may cost a little more to begin with, but they are usually worth the money because they last for a long time, and you don't have to replace them. Exercise The following lexical phrases taken from the passage are all about TIME. Match the lexical phrase in column A with the example in column B. You may have to make grammatical changes. B Example sentenceA Lexical phrase Meaning A. Two years ago I bought an expensive coat and I am still wearing it. I think it ________________ because of its good quality. many times 1. again and again B. David has told his father ___________________ to stop smoking, but he doesn ’ t listen. immediatel y 2. right away C. The boss has asked me to bring him the papers ________________. He needs them immediately. first or most importantly 3. to begin with D. If you want to lose weight, _________ you need to eat nutritious food and start doing some exercise. endure 4.[last] for a long time Rawzan Khateeb

7 Until the Earth ’ s protective atmosphere was formed, there was no life except in the sea. Now big cities, cars and factories pollute the air so much, we may soon be better off back there! GEO-2000 tells us there has been some improvement, but it is not fast enough. Our planet is becoming choked with poisonous gases mostly from our daily activities like driving cars, warming our houses and running power stations. The problem is the worst in Latin America and Asia. In cities like Seoul and Mexico City, the air is so bad, some people wear face masks to filter the air they breathe. In cities like Beirut and Damascus, dust storms make it even worse! And pollution doesn ’ t need a passport. Pollution from factories and power stations in Europe, North America and Russia ends up in the Arctic region. Enas Khateeb [be] better off and [make] it worse are variable lexical chunks. Here are more variable chunks with best and better: [make] the best of [it]; [you] had better+V1; [this] has seen better days; [be] better off; [make] it worse Practice exercise Complete the following sentences with lexical chunks from the box. 1. It is known that benzene cars cause pollution so we will _____________ riding the bicycle. 2. Using microwave ovens and mobile phones is not good for the environment but leaving them on for a long time ______________.. 3. You should ______________this chance to work in that company even if it is not exactly what you are looking for. It could benefit you a lot in the future. 4. You ____________ get married this summer before your brother moves to live in England, so he can attend your wedding party. 5. This sofa ________________; it looks so dirty and spoiled and we want to throw it away.

8 How old is the Earth? The Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old! In honor of our planet, former U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson decided we needed a special day to celebrate and learn how to care for our environment. He wrote letters to many schools to help spread the word about the day he planned because he knew kids like you would help. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held. Many environmental laws were passed, and people all over the country made promises to protect the environment. Exercise: spot the error: In each of the following sentences there is one error; can you find it? 1* We decided to throw a party for our grandmother in honor to her 50 th birthday. 2* In order to spread a word about our wedding we sent the invitations two months early. 3* Suzy did a promise to her father – to be home by 21:00, but she didn't keep it. 4* I never believed I could ever take care for a baby, but now I see it comes to me quite naturally. 5* If you really want to make the difference in your life, you must start eating healthier food. Since then, Earth Day has spread around the world and people are working together to create cleaner air and energy to take care of Mother Nature. Learn how you, your family and friends can start making a difference too! Sagit Blas

9 Recycling is one of the best ways for you to have. a positive impact on the world in which we live What can we do? 1. No space for waste. Our landfill sites are filling up fast. By 2010, almost all landfills in the UK will be full. Reduce financial expenditure in the economy; 2. Reduce financial expenditure in the economy; making products from raw materials costs much more than if they were made from recycled products. Preserve natural resources for future generations; 3. Preserve natural resources for future generations; recycling reduces the need for raw materials. It also uses less energy, therefore preserves natural resources for the future. Exercise: Complete the following sentences with the missing part of the collocation. 1) In every country there are ________ sites, which the governments and environmental organizations work to preserve. 2) Nowadays, in some cities in Israel the municipalities have located bins for ________ products, such as old clothes and toys. 3) We need to take care of our environment for our future ________, so that they will be able live in a healthier world. 4) We can save a great deal of money if we will stop using raw ________ and start using recycled products. 5) We must work to save our natural _________, because they are extremely important for our planet and for our own lives. Shiran Dzibli

10 Reduce, reuse, and recycle, in that order. The most important thing is to have less to dispose of in the first place: Don't buy disposables, buy food with less packaging. In most cases, this will save you a ton of money too, since whole foods tend to cost less and be healthier than packaged food. We all want to save the planet. Hopefully, if everyone can do just a little bit, we can all work together to make a difference. Exercise: Choose the correct meaning for the lexical chunks in the text from the following options. 1. Dispose of: (a) throw away (b) rely on (c) be aware of (d) throw up 2. In the first place: (a) the winning place (b) from the start (c) at the end (d) in the best place 3. In most cases: (a) usually (b) rarely (c) sometimes (d) often 4. Tend to cost: (a) will cost (b) usually cost (c) must cost (d) never cost 5. Just a little bit: (a) a small amount (b) a great effort (c) a small bite (d) a little hope 6. Make a difference: (a) work differently (b) to change things (c) make different things (d) destroy nature Wala'a Eyadat =


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