Viruses - $100 Give 2 characteristics of Viruses (pertaining to their structure). BACK 1.Have a protein capsid 2. Have nucleic acid genome
Viruses - $200 Viruses - $200 Why are viruses considered obligate parasites? BACK Cannot reproduce outside of a host cell
Viruses - $300 Viruses - $300 What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses? BACK It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
Viruses - $500 Viruses - $500 Why do RNA viruses have a higher rate of mutation? BACK Replication of their genomes doesnt involve the proofreading steps of DNA replication
Viruses - $1000 BACK Explain the steps of the lytic cycle.
Bacterial Applications - $100 BACK Formation of a cytoplasmic bridge or the transfer of male DNA What does bacterial mating involve?
Bacterial Applications - $200 BACK Transduction consists of DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus (phage). What is transduction?
Bacterial Applications - $300 A group of F+ bacteria is mixed with a group of F- bacteria. After several days, all of the bacteria are F+. This is an example of….. BACK Conjugation
Bacterial Applications - $500 What does an operon consist of? BACK Operator, Promoter and Genes they control
What must happen for a repressible operon to be transcribed? BACK Bacterial Applications - $1000 RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter and the repressor must be inactive.
Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression - $100 Unfolded chromatin looks like beads on a string, what do the beads represent? BACK Nucleosomes
Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression - $200 How do heterochromatin and euchromatin differ? BACK Heterochromatin is highly condensed and euchromatin is less compact. Heterochromatin is also inaccessible to transcription enzymes (and is normally not transcribed).
Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression - $300 What are the ways that genes can be turned on or off? (name 3) BACK DNA Methylation, Histone Acetylation, Transcription initiation, alternative RNA splicing, pre-translational control.
Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression - $500 Where would you expect to find the most methylation of DNA? BACK Inactivated mammalian X chromosomes (Barr Bodies)
Chromatin Structure & Gene Expression - $1000 What types of gene expression can lead to epigenetic inheritance? BACK Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, histone acetylation.
Biotech - $100 Approximately how much of the DNA in the human genome codes for proteins or functional RNA? BACK 2%
Biotech - $200 What is the enzymatic function of restriction enzymes? BACK To cleave nucleic acids at specific sites
Biotech - $300 Process that separates molecules by movement due to size and electrical charge. BACK Gel electrophoresis
Biotech - $500 What are some of the current applications of biotechnology? (Name 3) BACK Cleaning up toxic waste, manufacturing growth hormone, diagnosing diseases, gene therapy, forensics
Biotech - $1000 Give the steps of cloning genes (making recombinant DNA). BACK 1.Isolate cloning vector (plasmid) and gene. 2.Cut the plasmid DNA and gene DNA using a restriction enzyme. 3.DNA is inserted into the plasmid. Use ligase to seal sticky ends. 4.Plasmid must be inserted into the cell to be copied. 5.The cells are cloned. 6.The cells containing the clones are identified and isolated.
Genetic Base of Development - $100 BACK Cell division, cell differentiation, morphogenesis Name the three parts involved in embryonic development.
Genetic Base of Development - $200 BACK Morphogenesis Term from the physical process that gives rise to the shape of an organism.
Genetic Base of Development - $300 BACK What is the importance of apical meristems? They are the perpetual embryonic region of a plant that is responsible for growth and formation of new organs.
Genetic Base of Development - $500 BACK transcription What controls cell differentiation?
Genetic Base of Development - $1000 BACK Why was the cloning of Dolly a major scientific breakthrough? Showed adult cells of mammals could dedifferentiate.
Vocab - $100 Misfolded versions of normal brain protein are…. BACK prions
Vocab - $200 BACK Transformation Process by which external DNA is assimilated by a cell.
Vocab - $300 A lack of this nonprotein molecule would result in the inability of the cell to turn off genes. BACK corepressor
Vocab - $500 BACK Process that allows scientists to produce multiple copies of a targeted DNA segment. PCR.
Vocab - $1000 What does the term homeobox refer to? BACK Specific nucleotide sequence present in certain genes that regulate development.