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APUSH: Jacksonian Democracy

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1 APUSH: Jacksonian Democracy
Weber 217

2 Activator Chapter 10 reading test. Good luck you have 20 minutes

3 Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (30 minutes)
DBQ on Jacksonian Democracy Group reading (30 minutes) DBQ Jigsaw (30 minutes) DBQ Writing (30 minutes) Exit ticket (5 minutes)

4 DBQ: Jacksonian Democracy
To what extent was the Age of Jackson, , an age of triumphant nationalism, an economic evolution (Market Revolution), an age of social perfectionism, cultural romanticism, and at the same time, an era of divisive sectionalism.

5 Jacksonian Democracy DBQ
GROUP 1 A. Electoral map of 1828 B. Spoils system C. Life of Jackson D. Letter from Henry Clay. E. Newspaper from 1832. F. Veto of the Bank Bill GROUP 2 G. SC Nullification H. Jackson quote I. The Age of Jackson J. Jacksonian Era K. Jacksonian Era L. Map of trail of tears M. Picture of inaugeration N. Jacksonian Era

6 Jacksonian Democracy GROUP 3 O. Worcester vs. Georgia
P. Market Revolution Q. First Inaugural R. Farewell address S. Nullification proclamation T. Henry Clay speech GROUP 4 U. Contemporaries V. Inauguration W. Bridge court decision X. Webster Y. Rotation of office Z. Cherokee letter Facts and timeline

7 I. Triumph of democracy Elimination of property qualifications for voting Enfranchisement of wage-earning men Popular pressures behind Uneven pace of, state by state Dorr War

8 I. Triumph of democracy (cont’d)
Elements of democracy Mass participation in politics Liveliness of the public sphere Democracy as “habit of the heart” (Alexis de Tocqueville) Democracy as hallmark of American freedom Democratic ideal as radical departure in Western thought Boundaries of the political nation Inclusion of laboring white men, immigrants Exclusion of women, non-whites Shift in criteria from economic status to natural capacity

9 Triumph of democracy (cont’d)
Information revolution Manifestations Mass circulation of “penny press” Variety of popular publications “Alternative” newspapers Contributing factors New printing technologies Low postal rates Rise of political party organizations New style of journalism

10 Triumph of democracy (cont’d)
Women and public sphere Areas of involvement Areas of exclusion Racial democracy Growing equation of democracy and whiteness Rise of racist stereotypes Contraction of black rights

11 Nationalism and its discontents
The American System Underlying vision Enhancement of nation’s financial, transportation, and manufacturing sectors Active role of federal government Leading architects Henry Clay John C. Calhoun Precursors Congressional approval of National Road Gallatin plan for federal road and canal construction

12 Nationalism and its discontents (cont’d)
The American System 1815 blueprint National bank Tariff on imported manufactured goods “Internal improvements” (road and canals) Outcome Enactment of tariff Chartering of Second Bank of the United States (“Bank”) Veto of internal improvements

13 Nationalism and its discontents (cont’d)
Functions and mission of Bank Panic of 1819 Causes Post-war speculative fever Markets for American cotton and grain Land boom in West Easy credit from local banks and Bank Ebbing demand for American exports, land Material repercussions Mass bankruptcy Rising unemployment Political repercussions Growing popular distrust of banks State measures to protect debtors, challenge Bank McCulloch v. Maryland

14 Nationalism and its discontents (cont’d)
Missouri controversy Narrative Missouri quest for statehood Tallmadge proposal limiting slavery Stalemate First Missouri Compromise Dual admission of Missouri and Maine Prohibition of slavery above 36°30' Second Missouri Compromise Significance Sectional conflict amid “Era of Good Feelings” Harbinger of future crises over slavery

15 Nation, section, and party
Monroe Doctrine Background Latin American rebellions against Spanish colonial rule Establishment of independent Latin American nations Principles No further European colonization in Americas Noninterference by European powers in Latin American republics Noninvolvement of United States in European wars Motivations

16 Nation, section, and party (cont’d)
Election of 1824 Candidates and their constituencies Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams William H. Crawford Henry Clay 2. Outcome Attainment by Jackson of first place in popular vote Attainment by Adams of electoral vote majority (in House) Charges of “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay

17 Nation, section, and party (cont’d)
Presidency of Adams Background on Adams Vision for nation Domestic American System Activist national state Foreign Dynamic commerce around world U.S. hegemony in Western Hemisphere Achievements Acceleration of internal Increase in tariff

18 Nation, section, and party (cont’d)
Gathering Jacksonian challenge Themes Individual liberty States’ rights Limited government Mobilization of Democratic party Martin Van Buren’s approach to party politics Quest for revived Jeffersonian coalition Election of 1828 Old politics (Adams) vs. new politics (Jackson) Scurrilous campaigning Jackson’s victory Affirmation of a new American politics

19 Age of Jackson Contradictions of Andrew Jackson New mode of politics
Political contests as public spectacle, mass entertainment Politicians as popular heroes The party machine Source of jobs for constituents Mobilizer of voter turnout “Spoils system” National party conventions Party newspapers

20 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
The Democratic party Agenda and philosophy Concern over gulf between social classes Aversion to federal promotion of economic development, “special interests” Vision of broad access to self-regulating market Belief in limits on federal power Counterposing of “producing classes” and “non-producers” Individual morality as private concern

21 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
The Democratic party Bases of support Farmers remote from markets Urban workers Aspiring entrepreneurs Catholic and immigrants South and West

22 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
The Whig party Agenda and philosophy Receptiveness to hierarchy of social classes Federal promotion of economic development; “American System” Individual morality as public concern Bases of support Established businessmen and bankers Market-oriented farmers Large planters Evangelical Protestants Northeast

23 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Nullification crisis Growing concern of southern planters over national authority 1828 “tariff of abominations” Emergence of “nullification” threat South Carolina planter elite Vice President Calhoun “States’ rights” vs. “liberty and union” Climax and resolution 1832 tariff Repudiation by South Carolina Enactment of Force Bill by Congress Engineering of compromise by Clay

24 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Indian removal Ongoing displacement 1832 defeat of Black Hawk in Old Northwest (Illinois) 1820s expulsion of Indians from Missouri 1830 Indian Removal Act Provision for removal of “Five Civilized Tribes” from southern states Support from Jackson Implications Repudiation of Jeffersonian idea of assimilation Rebuff of Indian efforts to assimilate

25 IV. Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Indian removal 1830 Indian Removal Act Cherokee appeals to Congress, courts Mixed response from Supreme Court Johnson v. M’Intosh Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Worcester v. Georgia Jackson defiance of Supreme Court Trail of Tears

26 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Indian removal Responses of remaining southern tribes Widespread acquiescence, voluntary departure Resistance by Seminoles Leadership of Osceola Assistance from fugitive slaves Second Seminole War William Apess’s A Son of the Forest Receding of Indian presence east of the Mississippi

27 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Bank War Background Bank as controversial symbol of market revolution Nicholas Biddle and the Bank View of Bank as union of political authority and economic privilege Jackson vs. Bank 1832 bill extending Bank charter Veto by Jackson Significance Populist themes of veto message Affirmation of presidential power

28 Age of Jackson (cont’d)
Bank War Aftermath Sweeping reelection of Jackson Gradual death of Bank Shift of government funds to local banks Victory of “soft-money” over “hard-money” Jacksonians “Pet banks” Expansion of paper currency Speculative boom Decline in real wages

29 Post-Jackson era Panic of 1837 and subsequent depression Causes
Specie Circular Bank of England demand for repayment in gold or silver Economic downturn in Britain Material repercussions Business failures Farmers’ loss of land Urban unemployment Collapse of labor movement Defaults on state debts

30 Post-Jackson era Economic policy under Van Buren administration
Ascendancy of hard-money Democrats Shift of government funds from pet banks to Independent Treasury Split within Democratic party Election of 1840 Fragmenting of Democratic coalition Maturation of Whig party Adoption of Democratic party methods of organization Nomination of William Henry Harrison “Log Cabin” campaign Harrison’s defeat of Van Buren Death of Harrison

31 Post-Jackson era Presidency of John Tyler
Veto of Whig’s American System program Whig repudiation of Tyler Weakness of Tyler without party backing

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