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{ Germany s Great Depression (Unemployment) { Japan s Great Depression (Unemployment)

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Presentation on theme: "{ Germany s Great Depression (Unemployment) { Japan s Great Depression (Unemployment)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 { Germany s Great Depression (Unemployment)

3 { Japan s Great Depression (Unemployment)

4 { Great Britain s Great Depression (Unemployment)

5 { United States Great Depression (Unemployment)

6 5 Hoover FDR

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8 Roosevelt s 100 days was very successful….FDR and Congress went to work providing for direct relief, recovery and reform. Roosevelt s 100 days was very successful….FDR and Congress went to work providing for direct relief, recovery and reform. From March of 1933 to June of 1933, Roosevelt sent 15 proposals to Congress and all 15 were adopted From March of 1933 to June of 1933, Roosevelt sent 15 proposals to Congress and all 15 were adopted Congress and President tried anything reasonable to overcome the Great Depression. Congress and President tried anything reasonable to overcome the Great Depression. 100 days

9 NEW DEAL CARTOON Govt. programs which provided direct relief to suffering Americans through govt. spending……… Renew democracy Restore confidence in the banking Stimulate economy Put people back to work. Restore self confidence Relief: Relief: ease suffering of the needy Recovery: Recovery: begin economic growth Reform: Reform: help prevent future economic crises How? FDR s 3 R s Social Engineers Brain Trust

10 FDRs Advisers and Brain Trust Finance: BaruchPolitics: Howe Professors: Tugwell Interior: Ickes Labor: PerkinsAgriculture: WallaceTreasury: Morgenthau Jr.

11 10 Series of radio addresses by FDR Series of radio addresses by FDR 30 total between 1933 to total between 1933 to 1944 FDR used these to calm American people down. FDR used these to calm American people down. CLICK on the radio to link to hear the 1 st chat on the Bank Crisis CLICK on the radio to link to hear the 1 st chat on the Bank Crisis

12 People w/d $$; banks fail People w/d $$; banks fail Banking HolidayBanking Holiday Emergency Banking ReliefAct Emergency Banking ReliefAct Fireside Chat Fireside Chat Glass-Steagall Act Glass-Steagall Act Creates the FDIC Creates the FDIC Conservative Conservative An example of Recovery and Reform An example of Recovery and Reform The Banking Crisis

13 12 1.Relief Help people right away 2.Recovery Get the US out of the Depression 3.Reform Make sure another depression does not happen Goals of New Deal Program

14 13 New Deal: Relief Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA) Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA) Civil Works Administration (CWA) Civil Works Administration (CWA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Farm Credit Association (FCA) Farm Credit Association (FCA) Homeowners Loan Corporation (HOLC) Homeowners Loan Corporation (HOLC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

15 14 New Deal: Recovery Works Progress Administration (WPA) Works Progress Administration (WPA) National Recovery Administration (NRA) National Recovery Administration (NRA) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) National Youth Administration (NYA) National Youth Administration (NYA) Federal Housing Act (FHA) Federal Housing Act (FHA)

16 15 New Deal: Reform Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Wagner Act (NLRB) Wagner Act (NLRB) Social Security Social Security

17 AAA / 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act alphabet RECOVERY: Begin Economic Growth price drops over productionProtected farmers from price drops and over production.. Paid farmers US Govt. Paid farmers (subsidies) not to grow wheat, cotton, corn, hogs, rice, tobacco, dairy products AAA told farmers how much they should produce

18 {{ Yay! Rise in prices after : $2 billion 1935: $5 billion Boo! Favored large landowners Favored large landowners Tenants & sharecroppers kicked off land Tenants & sharecroppers kicked off land S. Court finds AAA unconstitutional in 1936 S. Court finds AAA unconstitutional in 1936 Modified in 1936 and 1938 Modified in 1936 and 1938 Mixed Results

19 NIRA / 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act alphabet RECOVERY: Begin Economic Growth Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.

20 Companies would cooperate Companies would cooperate Set limits on production Set limits on production Prices Prices Codes of fair competition Codes of fair competition In exchange, labor would get concessions In exchange, labor would get concessions Max hours Max hours Minimum wages Minimum wages Collective bargaining Collective bargaining NRA: The Ideal

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23 Codes poorly written Codes poorly written Huge bureaucracy Huge bureaucracy Large producers dominated code- writing process Large producers dominated code- writing process No enforcement mechanism to enforce Section 7(A) No enforcement mechanism to enforce Section 7(A) Production actually decreased Production actually decreased 1935: Supreme Court declares it unconstitutional 1935: Supreme Court declares it unconstitutional NRA: The Reality

24 TVA / 1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Federal government built a series of dams to prevent flooding and sold electricity. First public competition with private power industries. alphabet RECOVERY: Begin Economic Growth

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28 TVA MAP

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30 FERA / 1933 Federal Emergency Relief Act Distributed $500 million of direct aid to unemployed workers such as food, clothing and grants of money to cities. alphabet RELIEF: Ease Suffering of the Needy

31 Repaired bridges, built highways, constructed public buildings Repaired bridges, built highways, constructed public buildings W/I 30 days: 2.6 million men and women employed W/I 30 days: 2.6 million men and women employed 1934: 4 million 1934: 4 million Civil Works Administration (CWA):

32 CCC / 1933 to 1942 Civilian Conservation Corps Sent 3 million young men to work camps to build bridges, replant forests and other conservation tasks. Develop job skills and improve environment. Removed surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, provided money for families. alphabet RELIEF: Ease Suffering of the Needy

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37 HOLC / 1933 Home Owners Loan Corporation Prevented mortgage foreclosures. US Govt. bought up mortgages and refinanced them so that homeowners could pay their mortgages. alphabet RELIEF: Ease Suffering of the Needy

38 Regulated stock market and restricted margin buying, and frauds. alphabet REFORM: Prevent Another Depression SEC / 1933 Securities and Exchange Commission

39 100 days Criticisms of New Deal US government and President too powerful Violated laissez faire Supreme Court declared NIRA and AAA unconstitutional Critics: American Liberty League Father Charles Coughlin Dr. Francis Townsend Huey Long Deficit spending: Govt. spends $$$ to stimulate the economy and help people even if it means US Govt. goes into debt. Welfare state----Created a population of Americans who relied on the US Govt. to live

40 39 Liberty League FDR had gone TOO FAR with the New Deal. FDR had gone TOO FAR with the New Deal. Interfering with business and peoples lives. Interfering with business and peoples lives. Government was taking away freedoms from Americans. Government was taking away freedoms from Americans.

41 Economic systemEconomic system based on cooperation rather than competition government ownership Believes in government ownership of business and capital controls production distributionGovernment controls production and distribution of goods. laissez faire capitalismOpposite of laissez faire and capitalism

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43 international conspiracy of bankersBelieved an international conspiracy of bankers existed and FDR was influenced by them. nationalization of banks and utilities Socialism)He called for the nationalization of banks and utilities. (US Govt. controls banks, Socialism) Fascist; Anti-Semitic overtones. CatholicA Roman Catholic priest. Radio Priest in Detroit Michigan. Criticized FDR in weekly radio program. 10 million listeners. Criticized FDR s farm program

44 Spending all $200 would also be required to boost economic demand. Townsend Clubs created all over the nation. Social SecurityInfluenced FDR s creation of Social Security He wanted the government to help older citizens. Retired California Physician. $200 per month pensionSuggested a $200 per month pension for people over 60. Open jobs for the younger unemployed.

45 44 Senator Huey Long FDR was NOT doing enough for the poor. FDR was NOT doing enough for the poor. Long pushed his Share Our Wealth program. Long pushed his Share Our Wealth program. Take all income over $1,000,000 to give: Take all income over $1,000,000 to give: House House Car Car Annual Salary Annual Salary For all Americans For all Americans

46 { The Second New Deal & the Redefining of Liberalism

47 Emphasis on Emphasis on Social justice Social justice Social safety net Social safety net Use the power of the govt to guarantee economic security and welfare of old, disabled and unemployed Use the power of the govt to guarantee economic security and welfare of old, disabled and unemployed Welfare state Welfare state Second New Deal

48 Reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board. alphabet REFORM: Prevent Another Depression Wagner Act / 1935 National Labor Relations Act

49 1934: NIRA influence 1934: NIRA influence Industrial Unionism; anti-AFL Industrial Unionism; anti-AFL All workers in one industry should be in 1 union, regardless of skill All workers in one industry should be in 1 union, regardless of skill John Lewis: walks out of AFL John Lewis: walks out of AFL 1936: Congress of Industrial Organization s 1936: Congress of Industrial Organization s Women, blacks Women, blacks Textiles, laundries, tobacco Textiles, laundries, tobacco Labor Militancy

50 Sit Down Strikes Dec Dec GM Detroit plants GM Detroit plants By Feb 1937: 17 GM plants By Feb 1937: 17 GM plants Female supporters sent food/clothing Female supporters sent food/clothing Ignored police and court injunctions Ignored police and court injunctions Governor and federal govt refused to intervene Governor and federal govt refused to intervene GM relents; recognizes UAW GM relents; recognizes UAW

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52 Memorial Day Massacre 1937

53 1937: 4700 strikes 1937: 4700 strikes 80% settled in favor of unions 80% settled in favor of unions 8 million union members (1932: 3 million) 8 million union members (1932: 3 million) By 1941: 10 million included workers of Little Steel By 1941: 10 million included workers of Little Steel Unions win out

54 It provided retirement pensions, unemployment insurance, aid to blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children. alphabet REFORM: Prevent Another Depression SSA / 1935 Social Security Act SSA / 1935 Social Security Act

55 54 Social Security Act of 1935

56 55 Social Security Unemployment Insurance Old Age Pension Dependent Families + Disabled

57 Classical Liberalism (Conservatives) Classical Liberalism (Conservatives) Individual liberty is foundation of democracy Individual liberty is foundation of democracy Free market policies Free market policies Weak govt Weak govt New Deal Liberalism (Liberals) New Deal Liberalism (Liberals) To preserve individual liberty, govt must assist needy and guarantee basic welfare of ppl To preserve individual liberty, govt must assist needy and guarantee basic welfare of ppl New Deal Liberalism

58 Works Progress Administration

59 { Harry Hopkins Harry Hopkins 110K public buildings 110K public buildings 600 airports 600 airports 500K miles of roads 500K miles of roads 100K bridges 100K bridges 2.1 million workers 2.1 million workers WPA Federal Writers Project Federal Arts Project Federal Music Project Federal Arts Project National Youth Administration

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68 67 Court Packing…. The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional (NRA and AAA) The Supreme Court struck down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional (NRA and AAA) FDR wanted to increase the size of the court from 9 to 15. FDR wanted to increase the size of the court from 9 to 15. Would appoint justices who were pro-New Deal Would appoint justices who were pro-New Deal Minimum-wage law, Wagner Act and Social Security Act upheld Minimum-wage law, Wagner Act and Social Security Act upheld Hurt FDR w/ southern Democrats and conservatives Hurt FDR w/ southern Democrats and conservatives

69 68 FDR and the Supreme Court

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71 Keynesian Economics John Maynard Keynes (British) John Maynard Keynes (British) Govt intervention can smooth out high and lows of business cycle Govt intervention can smooth out high and lows of business cycle Deficit spending Deficit spending Manipulate interest rates and money supply Manipulate interest rates and money supply

72 Limits and Legacies of the New Deal

73 Remake American capitalism (not to be) Remake American capitalism (not to be) Federal govt now a mediator b/w competing interests Federal govt now a mediator b/w competing interests Govt to intervene when necessary Govt to intervene when necessary Help/limit the power of groups Help/limit the power of groups The Broker StateThe Broker State

74 Not hostile, but not much to advance them Not hostile, but not much to advance them Reinforced patterns of discrimination Reinforced patterns of discrimination Less pay, less skilled jobs Less pay, less skilled jobs Black CabinetBlack Cabinet FDR not willing to lose support of Southern Democrats FDR not willing to lose support of Southern Democrats African Americans & the New Deal

75 Not outright hostile but not much to advance them Not outright hostile but not much to advance them Symbolic gestures Symbolic gestures Reinforced gender norms Reinforced gender norms Women and the New Deal

76 {{ West Received more federal funding Received more federal funding Agricultural pgms Agricultural pgms Public works pgms Public works pgms Water and power Water and power South Least developed region of country Least developed region of country Didnt challenge prevailing racial norms Didnt challenge prevailing racial norms TVA TVA New Deal in the West and South

77 Didnt revive/reform economy Didnt revive/reform economy Didnt fully embrace govt spending for recovery Didnt fully embrace govt spending for recovery Didnt end the Depression Didnt end the Depression Didnt alter the distribution of power and wealth Didnt alter the distribution of power and wealth New Deal Failures

78 Helped elevate new groups Helped elevate new groups Contributed to economic development of the West and South Contributed to economic development of the West and South Increased regulatory functions of the federal govt Increased regulatory functions of the federal govt Created the basis of the federal welfare state Created the basis of the federal welfare state New Deal Impact on Economy

79 FDR enhanced the power of federal govt FDR enhanced the power of federal govt Presidency became the preeminent center of authority Presidency became the preeminent center of authority Democratic Party domination Democratic Party domination American people had greater expectations of govt American people had greater expectations of govt New Deal and American Politics

80 Response to critics (Dr.Townsend and Huey Long), it provided pensions, unemployment insurance, aid to blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children. alphabet REFORM: Prevent Another Depression SSA / 1935 Social Security Act SSA / 1935 Social Security Act

81 Socialism Green Party Communism Democrat Independent Reform Republican KKK LEFT CENTERRIGHT Anarchy Radical Liberal Moderate Conservative Reactionary Fascist No Govt Dictator New Deal left and right The New Deal walked a tightrope between the extreme positions of the left and right. Critics Critics would claim it was unconstitutional, socialism, anti-laissez faire and went too far to the left. Others New Deal Others would claim the New Deal didn t go far enough to the left……

82 Successes of New Deal 100 days NEW DEAL55%….. 37% AMERICANS IN 1939 WHO WANTED THE NEW DEAL TO CONTINUE WAS 55%….. 37% REGARDED IT AS A BAD INFLUENCE AND WANTED A NEW PRESIDENT…………... Stimulated the economy Put people back to work…. Improved morale and self-confidence of the people US Govt s. role changes and became directly involved in helping people WWII ended the Great Depression not FDR s New Deal


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