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What We Know About Teacher and Administrator Networks: Replicated Findings and Recent Extensions Kenneth A. Frank Michigan State University Min Sun University.

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Presentation on theme: "What We Know About Teacher and Administrator Networks: Replicated Findings and Recent Extensions Kenneth A. Frank Michigan State University Min Sun University."— Presentation transcript:

1 What We Know About Teacher and Administrator Networks: Replicated Findings and Recent Extensions Kenneth A. Frank Michigan State University Min Sun University of Washington Yun-jia Lo University of Michigan Beijing Normal August 2014

2 See: Frank, K. A "The Social Context of Schooling: Quantitative Methods". Review of Research in Education 23, chapter 5: Frank, K. A "The Social Context of Schooling: Quantitative Methods". Review of Research in Education 23, chapter 5: Social Network Theory and Educational Change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. The Emergence of Analysis of Teacher Networks Education: mostly students Coleman Organizational theory and collaborations Hallinan, Epstein Friedkin, Slater; Frank, Bidwell, Yasumoto Festinger; Krackhardt; Van-de Ven; Granovetter; Burt; Uzzi; Reagans and Zuckerman; Cross; Padgett, Contractor Add Health: Moody, Bearman, Stovel, Muller, Frank Penuel, Spillane, Daly, Moolenaar, Coburn, Sun, Youngs, Garrison, Zhao, Supovitz, Cole, Yoon, Jackson, Finnigan, Maroulis, McFarland Resnick, Bryk, Gamoran, Raudenbush, Porter

3 Work “Around” Networks Relationship to climate and culture of schools – Fuller & Izu; Rosenholtz, Simpson, Bidwell, Dreeben, McLaughlin & Talbert, Hannaway Relationship to leadership, implementation of leadership. Induction of junior teachers (not the full network)

4 Why are Teacher Networks Important? Networks Contribute to Complex Production Networks a good source of local knowledge – Necessary to adapt educational practices to local context (Kennedy, 2002, calls craft knowledge) – More efficient than individual experimentation Networks enable local coordination – Teachers conform to norms of network members Allows for coordinated practices (even if coerced Local knowledge (if made explicit) can be shared with others to improve school (Frank et al., 2011) Implication: networks less important for practices that do not have to be locally adapted or coordinated – E.g., scripted curricula; set protocols

5 The Workforce: School Teachers

6 Teaching as Complex Production Thompson;Woodward; Bidwell Curriculum Student Composition pedagogy Coordination Previous Training Assessments True in China?

7 Why do Networks Matter from the Individual Perspective: Teachers seek to fit into their schools and be effective (Frank, Kim, & Belman, 2010). – Lortie: teachers seek to be effective: need local knowledge to do so – Teachers need to fit into their local contexts: conform to local norms – Teachers impose norms on others to create conditions that support their practices: E.g., 3 rd grade teacher requests that the 2 nd grade teachers teach more phonics so 3 rd graders do better on tests, and can read to learn.

8 Perceptions of Efficacy Utility Teacher behaviorsStudent outcomes Other’s expectations Phonics Whole language Curriculum assessment Teacher Utility f(personal efficacy, fitting into social organization of school) True in China?

9 Starting to Learn about How Teachers Influence each other Typically, small to moderate effects: – 20%-40% as important as prior behavior (Frank et al., 2004; Sun et al, 2012; Frank & Penuel, 2012) Speed of diffusion/influence varies – Slow: trust, sense of efficacy – Medium: practices related to specific reforms – Fast: use of technology, specific new tools Depends on – Resources allocated – Common language for interaction Need experimentation, training – Shared contexts – Current state of practice and knowledge (e.g., Sun, M., Penuel, W., Frank, K.A., and Gallagher, A. 2013; Penuel et al., 2012; Coburn et al. 2012; Frank et al. 2011) – Quality of interactions (Coburn & Russell 2008; Coburn et al., 2012) – Perceived legitimacy of innovation – Roles and types of knowledge (e.g, Sun et al, 2013)

10 Starting to Learn about How Teachers Choose with Whom to Interact Grade level and subject – Zhao and Frank; Spillane et al 2012 – Spillane Kim and Frank, Garrison Formal positions – Sun et al – Leaders can broker (Spillane and Kim, 2012; Penuel, Riel et al., 2009)) – Formal leaders (not administrators) can be central: Spillane et al., 2012; 2010 Larsen, Berebitsky et al (unpublished, to submit to AJE) Opportunities to interact, such as co-participation in professional development – Murphy et al (in progress). Spillane, Kim and Frank, (2012) Perceived value/legitimacy – Garrison, Frank et al., 2008, Coburn & Russell, 2008; Anagnostopoulos, et al., 2009 Perceived expertise – Coburn, Choi & Mata 2010; Frank & Zhao 2005; Penuel et al. 2009). – Math networks sparser in elementary schools (Hayton & Spillane (2008) – Relationship to organization (quasi-tie) can override dyadic relationships: Frank (2009)

11 By-products Effects of network on – Commitment to teaching: Jones, N., Youngs, P., and Frank, K.A.,.. – Distributed leadership: Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2001; Spillane & Kim, 2012; Supovitz, Sirinides & May, 2010 – Achievement? Moolenaar, Sleegers and Daly (2012). Use of networks to – Select classroom composition (Kim, Frank and Spillane, not published) – Gauge indirect (spillover) effect (Sun, Penuel, Frank, et al., 2013)

12 Networks within the Organization that Sits in a Larger Institutional Context NCLB accentuates existing factions as teachers conform to group norms (Frank, Penuel et al; 2012; Penuel. Sun et al., 2012) Teachers who became Board Certified provided more help to others (Frank, Sykes et al, 2008) Teachers choose to interact with those with higher value-added (Wilhelm et al AERA, 2014) District leaders’ interactions shaped by accountability pressures

13 Sanctions Resources (Programs, PD) Institutional Environment School (microfoundations) NCLB Pressures: Varying Initial Practices and Subgroups

14 Normative Pressure Pressure result from having a collegial tie (direct effect) with someone or from being part of the same subgroup (indirect effect) Individual teachers may be particularly responsive to pressure from subgroup members to the extent that: –They share a common context for teaching (Smylie, 1989; Kennedy, 2005) –High levels of trust exist among subgroup members(see Ingersoll, 2003)

15 NCLB Pressures Sanctions Resources (Programs, PD) Institutional Environment School TIME 1

16 NCLB Pressures Sanctions Resources (Programs, PD) Institutional Environment School TIME 2

17 Contribution to Research SNA provides a new set of tools for researchers to – Investigate the role of teacher and administrator networks in educational reform and school improvement. – Raise questions beyond conventional approaches – Specify and test hypothesis derived from behavioral theories from economics, sociology, and psychological with regard to individual choice, decision making, and actions

18 Guide for practice Organize for the successful implementation of ambitious educational reform – Sun et al. 2014; MIST project Design effective programs for supporting teachers and administrators (e.g, professional development) to – Leverage networks – Consider impact on networks Penuel et al and Cole & Weinbaum 2010; Frank et al., Consider network dynamics in governance of schools: – Frank, K.A “Constitution for Effective School Governance.” Commentary in Teacher’s College Record.

19 New Project: How Beginning Elementary Teachers' Social Networks Affect Ambitious Math Instruction in the Current Evaluation Climate Background: The Common Core mathematics standards call for U.S. elementary teachers to plan and enact ambitious mathematics instruction to help all students acquire procedural fluency and develop conceptual understanding. At the same time, classroom observation instruments and teacher value-added models (VAMs) are being used to evaluate teachers’ ability to plan and enact mathematics instruction as well as the effects of instruction on achievement. Critically, these two sets of institutional forces potentially conflict with one another. Major Questions. How will beginning elementary school teachers respond to increased and potentially conflicting expectations associated with the Common Core mathematics standards and current teacher evaluation demands? How is a beginning teacher’s planning of ambitious mathematics instruction affected by the knowledge of members of her school-based social network? How is a beginning teacher’s enactment of ambitious mathematics instruction affected by the knowledge of members of her school-based social network? How is a beginning teacher’s planning of ambitious mathematics instruction affected by norms regarding mathematics instruction in her school-based social network? How is a beginning teacher’s enactment of ambitious mathematics instruction affected by norms regarding mathematics instruction in her school-based social network?

20 Theoretical Processes

21 From Planning to Enacting EnactPlan Set appropriate learning goals Develop and/or modify tasks at appropriate levels of cognitive demand Anticipate students’ thinking Engage in instructional dialogue with students Focus dialogue on intended mathematical goals Correctly interpret students’ thinking

22 Example Lesson Plan Aligned with Common Core Curriculum, but teacher centered and not ambitious. Focus on skills may be for the test

23

24 Model to Estimate Uses IQA, MKT, MQI, just like MIST China

25 Infrastructure of Project Funded by WT Grant & National Science Foundation with some support from Michigan State PIs: Ken Frank, Peter Youngs, Kristen Bieda, Serena Salloum 5 years Currently employing 9 students & post-docs, will hire more in a year or two. Interested students should let me know.

26 Contact Info Ken Frank Professor Measurement and Quantitative Methods Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education And Professor of Fisheries and Wildlife Room 462 Erickson Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI phone: fax: https://www.msu.edu/user/k/e/kenfrank/web/index.htm

27 references The Social Organization of the School Jones, N., Youngs, P., and Frank, K.A., (conditionally accepted). “The Role of School-Based Colleagues in Shaping the Commitment of Novice Special and General Education Teachers.” Journal of Exceptional Children. Pogodzinski, B., Youngs, P., Frank, K.A., Belman, D "Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching."Elementary School Journal, Vol. 113 (2): pp Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A “Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.” Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A “Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.” American Educational Research Journal. Vol 49no Frank, K.A., Kim, C., and Belman, D “Utility Theory, Social Networks, and Teacher Decision Making.” Pages in Alan J. Daly editor. Social Network Theory and Educational Change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Penuel, W., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A Analyzing Teachers' Professional Interactions in a School as Social Capital: A Social Network Approach. Teachers College Record Vol 111 Number 1.Teachers College Record Frank, K.A Quasi-Ties: Directing Resources to Members of a Collective American Behavioral Scientist. 52: Frank, K.A. (2007).  Teacher Networks.  Pp , Volume 2 of the American High School: An Encyclopedia" edited by Kathryn Borman, Spencer Cahill, and Bridget Cotner. Westport Connecticut: Praeger. Figures EEPA Spillover Effects of PD Social Factors and Implementation of Innovations in Organizations Sun, M., Penuel, W., Frank, K.A., and Gallagher, A. Forthcoming. “Shaping Professional Development to Promote the Diffusion of Instructional Expertise among Teachers”. Education, Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Sun, Min., Frank, K.A., Penuel, W. and Kim, Chong Min. Forthcoming. “How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders”. Educational Administration Quarterly.Sun, Min., Frank, K.A., Penuel, W. and Kim, Chong Min. Forthcoming. “How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders”. Educational Administration Quarterly. Frank*, K.A., Penuel*, W.R., Sun, M. Kim, C., and Singleton, C “The Organization as a Filter of Institutional Diffusion. Teacher’s College Record. *Authors listed alphabetically – equal authorship. Volume 115(1).Frank*, K.A., Penuel*, W.R., Sun, M. Kim, C., and Singleton, C “The Organization as a Filter of Institutional Diffusion. Teacher’s College Record. *Authors listed alphabetically – equal authorship. Volume 115(1). Penuel, W.R., Sun, M., Frank, K.A., & Gallagher, H.A Using social network analysis to study how collegial interactions can augment teacher learning from external professional development.Penuel, W.R., Sun, M., Frank, K.A., & Gallagher, H.A Using social network analysis to study how collegial interactions can augment teacher learning from external professional development. American Journal of Education, 119(1), Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A “Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.” American Educational Research Journal. Vol 49 no Youngs, Peter, Frank, K.A., Thum, Y.M. and Mark Low. Forthcoming. “The Motivation of Teachers to Produce Human Capital and Conform to their Social Contexts” to be published in an edited volume, Laura Desimone and Andrew Porter editors.

28 References II Frank, K.A., Zhao, Y., Penuel, W.R., Ellefson, N.C., and Porter, S Focus, Fiddle and Friends: Sources of Knowledge to Perform the Complex Task of Teaching. Sociology of Education, Vol 84(2): Frank, K.A., Zhao, Y., Penuel, W.R., Ellefson, N.C., and Porter, S Focus, Fiddle and Friends: Sources of Knowledge to Perform the Complex Task of Teaching. Sociology of Education, Vol 84(2): Penuel, W. R., Frank, K.A., Sun, M., and Kim, C Teachers’ Social capital and the Implementation of Schoolwide Reforms. Forthcoming. Chapter 9 in Sean Kelly, Editor. Understanding Teacher Effects. New York: Teachers’ College Press. Youngs, P., Frank, K.A., and Pogodzinski, B The Role of Mentors and Colleagues in Beginning Elementary and Middle School Teachers’ Language Arts Instruction. Chapter 8 in Sean Kelly, Editor. Understanding Teacher Effects. New York: Teachers’ College Press. Penuel, W.R., Frank, K.A., and Krause, A Between Leaders and Teachers: Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the Effects of Distributed Leadership. Pages in Alan J. Daly editor. Social Network Theory and Educational Change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Joshi, A., & Frank, K. A The alignment of the informal and formal supports for school reform: Implications for improving teaching in schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), Educational Administration Quarterly Penuel, W., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A Analyzing Teachers' Professional Interactions in a School as Social Capital: A Social Network Approach. Teachers College Record Vol 111 Number 1. Penuel, W., Riel, M., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A Analyzing Teachers' Professional Interactions in a School as Social Capital: A Social Network Approach. Teachers College Record Vol 111 Number 1. Zhao, Y., Lei, J., & Frank. K Theoretical Innovation and Empirical Testing: Research Design in Educational Technology. In Li, F. L. (ed). Research Methods in Computers for Education (jisuanji jiaoyu yanjiu fangfa). Beijing, China: Beijing Normal University Press. Zhao, Yong, Lei, Jing and K.A. Frank “The Social Life of Technology: An Ecological Analysis of Technology Diffusion in Schools. Pedagogies. Vol. 1 (2): Zhao, Yong, Lei, Jing and K.A. Frank “The Social Life of Technology: An Ecological Analysis of Technology Diffusion in Schools. Pedagogies. Vol. 1 (2): Zhao, Y., Frank, K., & Ellefson, N. (2006). Fostering Meaningful Teaching and Learning with Technology pages in Floden R. & Ashburn, E. (Eds.). Meaningful Learning Using Technology What Educators Need to Know and Do. Teachers College Press. Frank, K. A., Zhao, Y., and Borman (2004). Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations within Organizations: Application to the Implementation of Computer Technology in Schools." Sociology of Education, 77: Frank, K. A., Zhao, Y., and Borman (2004). Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations within Organizations: Application to the Implementation of Computer Technology in Schools." Sociology of Education, 77: Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as a Meso-Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10, pages Book honoring Charles Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sage publications. Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as a Meso-Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10, pages Book honoring Charles Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sage publications. Zhao, Y. and Frank, K. A., (2003). "An Ecological Analysis of Factors Affecting Technology Use in Schools." American Educational Research Journal, 40(4): National Board Certified Teachers Cannata, M. McCrory, R. Sykes, G. Anagnostopoulos, D., Frank, K.A Exploring the Influence of National Board Certified Teachers in Their Schools and Beyond. Educational Administration Quarterly 46(4) 463–490. Cannata, M. McCrory, R. Sykes, G. Anagnostopoulos, D., Frank, K.A Exploring the Influence of National Board Certified Teachers in Their Schools and Beyond. Educational Administration Quarterly 46(4) 463–490. Frank, K.A., Gary Sykes, Dorothea Anagnostopoulos, Marisa Cannata, Linda Chard, Ann Krause, Raven McCrory Extended Influence: National Board Certified Teachers as Help Providers. Education, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis. Vol 30(1): Frank, K.A., Gary Sykes, Dorothea Anagnostopoulos, Marisa Cannata, Linda Chard, Ann Krause, Raven McCrory Extended Influence: National Board Certified Teachers as Help Providers. Education, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis. Vol 30(1): Anagnostopoulos, D., Sykes, G., McCrory, R., Cannata, M., Frank, K.A. In Press. “Distinction, or Duty? The Meaning of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards for Teachers' Work and Collegial Relations. American Journal of Education.American Journal of Education

29 Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R. R. & Diamond, J. B. (2001). Investigating school leader­ship practice: A distributed perspective. Educational Researcher, 30, 23–27. Spillane, J. P. & Kim, C. M. (2012). An exploratory analysis of formal school leaders’ positioning in instructional advice and information networks in elementary schools. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 73–102. An exploratory analysis of formal school leaders’ positioning in instructional advice and information networks in elementary schools Spillane, J., Kim, C. M. & Frank, K. A. (2012). Instructional advice and information providing and receiving behavior in elementary schools: Exploring tie formation as a building block in social capital development. American Educational Research Journal, 49(6), 1112–1145. Steglich, C., Snijders, T. A. B. & Pearson, M. (2010). Dynamic networks and behavior: Separating selection from influence. Sociological Methodology, 40, 329–393 Sun, M. (2011). The use of multilevel item response theory modeling to estimate professional interactions among teachers [in Exploring how school intro-organizational mechanisms mediate the effects of external interactions on improving teaching and learning]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Michigan State University; May Chapter 4, p Sun, M., Frank, K. A., Penuel, W. & Kim, C. M. (2013). How external institutions penetrate schools through formal and informal leaders. Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(4), 610–644. Sun, M., Penuel, W., Frank, K. A., Gallagher, A. & Youngs, P. (2013). Shaping professional development to promote the diffusion of instructional expertise among teachers. Education, Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(3), 344–369. Supovitz, J. A., Sirinides, P. & May, H. (2010). How principals and peers influence teaching and learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46, 31–56. I cannot find this source and therefore cannot correct it. I added it is unpublished doctoral dissertation. Penuel, W. R., Sun, M., Frank, K. A. & Gallagher, H. A. (2012). Using social network analysis to study how collegial interactions can augment teacher learning from external professional development. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 103–136. Coburn, C. E., Russell, J. L., Kaufman, J. & Stein, M. K. (2012). Supporting sustainability: Teachers’ advice networks and ambitious instructional reform. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 137– 182. Coburn, C. E., Choi, L. & Mata, W. (2010). I would go to her because her mind is math: Network formation in the context of mathematics reform. In A. J. Daly (Ed.), Social network theory and educational change (pp. 33–50). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Press. Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Krause, A. & Frank, K. A. (2009). Analyzing teachers' professional interactions in a school as social capital: A social network approach. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 124– 163. Garrison Wilhelm, A., Chen, I., Frank, K.A. & Smith, R. (2014). Understanding Mathematics Teachers’ Advice-Seeking Networks. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Philadelphia, PA. Moolenaar, Nienke M., Peter JC Sleegers, and Alan J. Daly. "Teaming up: Linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and student achievement." Teaching and Teacher Education 28, no. 2 (2012): Spillane, J. P., & Kim, C. M. (2012). An exploratory analysis of formal school leaders’ positioning in instructional advice and information networks in elementary schools. American Journal of Education, 119(1): Larsen, Christine, Berebitsky, Dan., Frank, Kenneth ; Cobb, Paul A ; Henrick, Erin Craig ; Factors that affect school actors’ centrality. Hayton, P., & Spillane, J. P. (2008). Professional community or communities? School subject matter and elementary school teachers' work environments. In J. MacBeath & Y. C. Cheng (Eds.), Leadership for learning: International perspectives (pp ). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Spillane, J. P., Healey, K., & Kim, C. M. (2010). Leading and managing instruction: Using social network analysis to explore formal and informal aspects of the elementary school organization. In A. J. Daly (Ed.), Social network theory and educational change (pp ). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Cole, R., Weinbaum, E “Changes in Attitude: Peer Influence in High School Reform” In A. J. Daly (Ed.), Social network theory and educational change (pp ). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Penuel, W. R., Sun, M., Frank, K. A., & Gallagher, H. A. (2012). Using social network analysis to study how collegial interactions can augment teacher learning from external professional development. American Journal of Education, 119 (1), Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Joshi, A., & Frank, K. A., (2010). The alignment of the informal and formal supports for school reform: Implications for improving teaching in schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), Daly, A. J., & Finnigan, K. (In Press). The Ebb and Flow of Social Network Ties between District Leaders Under High Stakes Accountability. American Education Research Journal.


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