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Reformation AP notes. Church 1300-1577 Philip IV (the Fair) Philip IV (the Fair) 1296 excommunicated by Boniface VIII 1296 excommunicated by Boniface.

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Presentation on theme: "Reformation AP notes. Church 1300-1577 Philip IV (the Fair) Philip IV (the Fair) 1296 excommunicated by Boniface VIII 1296 excommunicated by Boniface."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reformation AP notes

2 Church 1300-1577 Philip IV (the Fair) Philip IV (the Fair) 1296 excommunicated by Boniface VIII 1296 excommunicated by Boniface VIII Engineered election of Clement V Engineered election of Clement V Began Avignon Papacy Began Avignon Papacy Babylonian Captivity Babylonian Captivity 1309-1377 1309-1377 Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope Clement V13051314 Pope Clement V13051314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope John XXII13161334 Pope John XXII13161334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Benedict XII13341342 Pope Benedict XII13341342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Clement VI13421352 Pope Clement VI13421352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Innocent VI13521362 Pope Innocent VI13521362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Urban V13621370 Pope Urban V13621370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 Pope Gregory XI13701378 Pope Gregory XI13701378

3 Great Schism 1378Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome 1378Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome April 8, 1378 Bartolommeo Prignano, later Urban VI, elected by Conclave of Cardinals April 8, 1378 Bartolommeo Prignano, later Urban VI, elected by Conclave of Cardinals Roman mob influenced the decision, even though he was morally the perfect candidate. Roman mob influenced the decision, even though he was morally the perfect candidate. His election caused his character to change becomes rough and extravagant His election caused his character to change becomes rough and extravagant

4 September 20, 1378: Growing dissatisfaction with Urban VI caused 13 members of the Sacred College to enter the Conclave at Fondi (Naples) September 20, 1378: Growing dissatisfaction with Urban VI caused 13 members of the Sacred College to enter the Conclave at Fondi (Naples) Pope Robert of Geneva was elected, who took the name of Clement VII and resided at Avignon. Pope Robert of Geneva was elected, who took the name of Clement VII and resided at Avignon. Two popes divided Europe: Italian and German states, England, and Flanders supported the Pope of Rome. Two popes divided Europe: Italian and German states, England, and Flanders supported the Pope of Rome. France, Spain, Scotland, and all the nations in the orbit of France were for the Pope of Avignon. France, Spain, Scotland, and all the nations in the orbit of France were for the Pope of Avignon. Boniface IX succeeded Urban VI at Rome, followed by Gregory XII Boniface IX succeeded Urban VI at Rome, followed by Gregory XII Benedict XIII was elected Pope after the death of Clement VII of Avignon. Benedict XIII was elected Pope after the death of Clement VII of Avignon.

5 1409--Council of Pisa--cardinals elected Pietro Cardinal Philarghi as Alexander V, adding a third claimant to the Papal Throne instead of two. 1409--Council of Pisa--cardinals elected Pietro Cardinal Philarghi as Alexander V, adding a third claimant to the Papal Throne instead of two. Many conferences, projects, discussions (often times violent), interventions of the civil powers, and catastrophes of all kinds followed. Many conferences, projects, discussions (often times violent), interventions of the civil powers, and catastrophes of all kinds followed. 1414--the Council of Constance--deposed all previous popes. On November 11 1417, the assembly elected Odo Colonna, who took the name of Martin V, thus ending the Great Schism. 1414--the Council of Constance--deposed all previous popes. On November 11 1417, the assembly elected Odo Colonna, who took the name of Martin V, thus ending the Great Schism.

6 Religious life Majority of religious life in villages Majority of religious life in villages Priests were peasants and poor Priests were peasants and poor Most priests were spiritually equal to their flock Most priests were spiritually equal to their flock Education not enforced: most could barely read or write Education not enforced: most could barely read or write

7 Religious Critics Focused on three areas of concern: Focused on three areas of concern: Clerical immorality Clerical immorality Clerical ignorance Clerical ignorance Clerical pluralism and absenteeism Clerical pluralism and absenteeism

8 Clerical Immorality Absolute celibacy accepted as church doctrine since 4 th century Absolute celibacy accepted as church doctrine since 4 th century Difficult to enforce Difficult to enforce Concubines Concubines Drunkenness Drunkenness Gambling Gambling Ostentation Ostentation

9 Absenteeism and Pluralism Many clerics held several benefices simultaneously, but rarely, if ever visited them Many clerics held several benefices simultaneously, but rarely, if ever visited them Did not perform spiritual responsibilities, but collected revenue; Money collected was sent to Rome to pay Italian priests salaries Did not perform spiritual responsibilities, but collected revenue; Money collected was sent to Rome to pay Italian priests salaries Government officials given high church offices, which then governed the church Government officials given high church offices, which then governed the church

10 Bishops worked for their state and the church; the church paid for their services to the state. Bishops worked for their state and the church; the church paid for their services to the state. In most countries, members of the nobility held the highest church offices In most countries, members of the nobility held the highest church offices Most lived in splendor (not fishermen as Christs disciples had been) Most lived in splendor (not fishermen as Christs disciples had been) Popes lived like secular princes: Popes lived like secular princes: Pius II (1458-1464) loved stories, poetry Pius II (1458-1464) loved stories, poetry Sixtus IV (1471-1484) beautified Rome: Sistine Chapel, artists Sixtus IV (1471-1484) beautified Rome: Sistine Chapel, artists

11 Innocent VIII (1484-1492) lived in luxury and scandal: advanced material wealth of his own family Innocent VIII (1484-1492) lived in luxury and scandal: advanced material wealth of his own family Alexander VI (1492-1503) had mistress and children he publicly acknowledged Alexander VI (1492-1503) had mistress and children he publicly acknowledged Supported intrigue, promiscuity, poisonings; Supported intrigue, promiscuity, poisonings; The Borgia name was synonymous with moral corruption. The Borgia name was synonymous with moral corruption.

12 ! Attempts at Church Reform Attempts at Church Reform

13 Spain: Cardinal Francisco Jimenez Spain: Cardinal Francisco Jimenez 1495He and Queen Isabella worked to reform the Church in Spain. 1495He and Queen Isabella worked to reform the Church in Spain. In 1507 : made a cardinal and Grand Inquisitor; 1516 after death of Ferdinand, was a secular as well as the ecclesiastical ruler of Spain. In 1507 : made a cardinal and Grand Inquisitor; 1516 after death of Ferdinand, was a secular as well as the ecclesiastical ruler of Spain. Very strict: insisted on the friars reforming their lives and lead good lives; if they did not, he would take steps to see to it that the friary would be removed or suppressed. Very strict: insisted on the friars reforming their lives and lead good lives; if they did not, he would take steps to see to it that the friary would be removed or suppressed. Promoted education and especially the study of the Bible. Promoted education and especially the study of the Bible. Founded the University of Alcala to provide for clerical education. Founded the University of Alcala to provide for clerical education. He was responsible for polyglot edition of the Bible. He was responsible for polyglot edition of the Bible.

14 Holland: Holland: Brethren of the Common Life: lived in simplicity Brethren of the Common Life: lived in simplicity Fed hungry Fed hungry Clothed naked Clothed naked Visited sick Visited sick Taught in local schools Taught in local schools Religion was to be personal, inner experience Religion was to be personal, inner experience Thomas a Kempis: The Imitation of Christ Thomas a Kempis: The Imitation of Christ Christ is model Christ is model Perfection in simple life Perfection in simple life Centrality of scriptures in spiritual life Centrality of scriptures in spiritual life Movement seen in Netherlands, Central Germany, Rhineland Movement seen in Netherlands, Central Germany, Rhineland

15 Perception of Catholic Church Most people loyal to church Most people loyal to church Local saints honored Local saints honored Pilgrimages to great shrines Pilgrimages to great shrines Church received money in wills Church received money in wills Papacy wanted reforms: 1512-1517 Pope Julius II summoned Ecumenical Council Papacy wanted reforms: 1512-1517 Pope Julius II summoned Ecumenical Council Recommended higher education for clergy Recommended higher education for clergy Papacy responsible for bureaucratic corruption Papacy responsible for bureaucratic corruption Doctrinal reforms suggested Doctrinal reforms suggested Too many obstacles to this reform Too many obstacles to this reform

16 Martin Luther 1483-1564 b. Esleben Saxony 1483-1564 b. Esleben Saxony Second son of copper miner Second son of copper miner University of Erfurt University of Erfurt Masters of distinction by age 21 Masters of distinction by age 21 Studied to be lawyer, but thunderstorm changed his destiny Studied to be lawyer, but thunderstorm changed his destiny

17 1505: Luther enters monastery of Augustinian Friars 1505: Luther enters monastery of Augustinian Friars 1507: Ordained as a priest/earned doctorate of theology 1507: Ordained as a priest/earned doctorate of theology 1512-1546: Professor of the Scriptures at University of Wittenberg 1512-1546: Professor of the Scriptures at University of Wittenberg Luther was conscientious friar, but constantly worried about his abilities to meet Gods demands Luther was conscientious friar, but constantly worried about his abilities to meet Gods demands John Staupitz: Luthers confessor, suggested he study Gospels: St. Pauls letters: RevelationSalvation through FAITH in Christ, not external observances and penance John Staupitz: Luthers confessor, suggested he study Gospels: St. Pauls letters: RevelationSalvation through FAITH in Christ, not external observances and penance

18 Events Leading to 95 Theses Archbishop Albert held three benefices: Archbishop Albert held three benefices: Magdeburg Magdeburg Halberstadt Halberstadt Mainz Mainz Papal dispensation needed to hold three offices simultaneously: Pope Leo X, building St. Peters Basilica, needed money Papal dispensation needed to hold three offices simultaneously: Pope Leo X, building St. Peters Basilica, needed money Albert borrows money from Fuggar family (wealthy bankers in Augsburg) to pay for the papal dispensation Albert borrows money from Fuggar family (wealthy bankers in Augsburg) to pay for the papal dispensation Pope Leo X authorizes Albert to sell indulgences within his duchy to pay off debt Pope Leo X authorizes Albert to sell indulgences within his duchy to pay off debt People streamed across border from Saxony to Jutenborg and Thuringia to buy indulgences People streamed across border from Saxony to Jutenborg and Thuringia to buy indulgences

19 Indulgences Doctrine rested on three principles: Doctrine rested on three principles: God is merciful but just God is merciful but just Christ and the saints established a Treasury of Merits (with all of the good works and miracles done on earth) and the church can draw upon these as needed Christ and the saints established a Treasury of Merits (with all of the good works and miracles done on earth) and the church can draw upon these as needed Church has the authority to grant sinners the spiritual benefits of those merits Church has the authority to grant sinners the spiritual benefits of those merits

20 Originally, indulgence was for remission of temporal (priest imposed) penalty for sin Originally, indulgence was for remission of temporal (priest imposed) penalty for sin Later, people believed in total remission for sin, either earthly or in purgatory. Later, people believed in total remission for sin, either earthly or in purgatory. Albert hired Dominican Friar John Tetzel to sell indulgences Albert hired Dominican Friar John Tetzel to sell indulgences Tetzel was business tycoon Tetzel was business tycoon Advertising blitz to sell indulgences: Advertising blitz to sell indulgences: Slogans: As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs Slogans: As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs

21 Tetzel very successful Tetzel very successful Indulgences bought for living and deceased; Indulgences bought for living and deceased; Created Chart with prices for forgiveness of certain sins Created Chart with prices for forgiveness of certain sins (Church had no official doctrine on indulgences, so Luther wanted to discuss the subject critically (Church had no official doctrine on indulgences, so Luther wanted to discuss the subject critically Posted a letter to the Archbishop Albert called 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences Posted a letter to the Archbishop Albert called 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences

22 95 Theses Indulgences undermined seriousness of sacrament of penance Competed with preaching of the Gospel Downplayed importance of charity in Christian life

23 By 1517, 95 Theses translated into German and published By 1517, 95 Theses translated into German and published Luther rejected salvation through good works Luther rejected salvation through good works Some theses challenged popes authority to grant indulgences Some theses challenged popes authority to grant indulgences Others criticized papal wealth Others criticized papal wealth Luther said there was no Biblical basis for indulgences Luther said there was no Biblical basis for indulgences His opponents said: to deny the legality of indulgences=denying the authority of the pope who authorized them His opponents said: to deny the legality of indulgences=denying the authority of the pope who authorized them

24 Where did Authority lie in the Christian Church? 1518-1519, Luther studies history of papacy 1518-1519, Luther studies history of papacy 1519: Luther and Catholic debater John Eck met at Leipzig 1519: Luther and Catholic debater John Eck met at Leipzig Luther denied authority of pope and infallibility of the General Council Luther denied authority of pope and infallibility of the General Council Luther claimed Council of Constance wrong in its condemnation of Jan Hus Luther claimed Council of Constance wrong in its condemnation of Jan Hus

25 Papal Response Letter from pope sent to Luther Letter from pope sent to Luther Condemned some of Luthers propositions Condemned some of Luthers propositions Ordered his books to be burned Ordered his books to be burned Gives him two months to recant or be excommunicated Gives him two months to recant or be excommunicated LUTHER BURNS THE LETTER PUBLICLY LUTHER BURNS THE LETTER PUBLICLY Jan 3, 1521: Luthers excommunication to become final: more than religion: Germany in revolt Jan 3, 1521: Luthers excommunication to become final: more than religion: Germany in revolt

26 Charles V 21 years old 21 years old First Diet (assembly of the Estates of the Empire called at Worms First Diet (assembly of the Estates of the Empire called at Worms Luther ordered to recant Luther ordered to recant He does not He does not Charles V declares Luther an outlaw Charles V declares Luther an outlaw Duke Frederick of Saxony protects Luther Duke Frederick of Saxony protects Luther

27 Luther at Diet of Worms


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