Failure of Capabilities Government agencies sometimes display a tendency to match capabilities to mission by defining away the hardest part of their job. They are often passive, accepting what is viewed as given…. [They believe] that efforts to identify and fix glaring vulnerabilities … would be too costly, too controversial or too disruptive.
Failure of Policy The road to 9/11 … illustrates how the large, unwieldy U.S. government tended to underestimate a threat that grew ever greater…. But the major policy agencies of the government did not meet the threat.
Failure of Leadership The agencies are like a set of specialists in a hospital, each ordering tests, looking for symptoms, and prescribing medications. What is missing is the attending physician.
Failure of Imagination Imagination is not a gift usually associated with bureaucracies…. It is therefore crucial to find a way of routinizing … the exercise of imagination.
Our future progress and prosperity depend on our ability to equal, if not surpass, other nations in the enlargement and advance of science, industry, and commerce. To [research] we must turn as one of the most powerful aids in the accomplishment of such a result. -- Charles Duell, 1899