Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies AP U.S. History
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism Catholic Church/Pope Leo – raising money, selling Indulgences – payments to reduce/cancel sin Martin Luther – started the Protestant Reformation Belief of Bible? Source of Gods word 95 Thesis – 1517 – statements on abuses of church
John Calvin – conversion experience – intense identifiable personal experience leads to a sanctified life King Henry 8 th – church? Made himself head of the church, led to some wanting total reform in church Edward Bloody Mary Elizabeth Protestant Catholic Protestant
The Pilgrims End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth Separatists – went to? Holland Left there b/c? Children too Dutch Charter – VA Company of London 1620 – New England Mayflower Compact – agreement to form a government and submit to the will of the majority First Winter – 44 of 102 survived Get help from – Squanto, Samoset. Next winter – better William Bradford – Governor 30 times
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth Non-separatists – sought to change the church from within City on a Hill – agreement to build a holy society that would be a model to everyone John Winthrop – 1 st Governor Economy based on? Fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding
Building the Bay Colony Franchise – adult males who belonged to the church Government – male property owners Who had real power? Religious leaders
Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth Quakers – persecution with fines, floggings, and banishments Anne Hutchison – sharp in theology, predestination, brought to trial for heresy. Banished, went to RI
Roger Williams – wanted clean break from church of England. Wanted Indians compensated for land. Banished
The Rhode Island Sewer/New England Spreads Out Offered complete freedom of? Religion!! Even for Jews and Catholics. No oaths, no compulsory attendance, no taxes to support state church. Hartford – CT – river where land was fertile Thomas Hooker – Fundamental Orders of Conn. – gave power to many people. New Haven Colony – Puritans wanting a closer church/state relationship. Merged with CT New Hampshire – separated from MA
Puritans vs. Indians Little resistance at first – diseases Pequot War – 1637 – English set fire to villages and shot Pequots King Phillips War – Metacom hit frontier settlements (52 towns), hundreds killed. Metacom captured and killed.
Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence New England Confederation – 4 colonies together for defense from Indians, French, and Dutch. Colonies did not like … - Ma ignored royal orders Crown – gave CT a sea-to-sea charter, revoked MAs charter
Dominion of New England – New England, NY, NJ. Bolster colonial defense. Enforce the English Navigation Laws – restrict trade with other countries
Edmund Andros – Head of Dominion. Very harsh – supported the Catholic Church, no town meetings, heavy taxes Glorious Revolution – William and Mary (daughter of James II) took the throne. Colonists chased Andros out!
Salutary Neglect – Navigation Acts were weakly enforced. **** Colonies were more prosperous when left alone****
Old Netherlands at New Netherlands Henry Hudson – English but sailed for the Dutch – Hudson River New Netherlands – multi-ethnic, rare, money, Iroquois New Amsterdam – New York City
Friction with… /Dutch Residues… Dutch allies with Iroquois New Sweden – Peter Stuyvesant Charles II – New York, Proprietary, Royal
Penns Holy Experiment Quakers – Religious Society of Friends Characteristics – no taxes to church, no paid clergy, spoke in church when moved, kept hats on, thee, thou, no oaths, refused military service Practiced religious tolerance, …rich mix of ethnic groups Exported – grain and other foodstuffs
Questions 1. Compare and contrast the New England and middle colonies in terms of motives for founding, religious and social composition, and political development. 2. What efforts were made to strengthen English control over the colonies in the 17 th century, and why did they generally fail?