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Transition Metals (Ligands) Labs Dry Lab 5 Preface to Qualitative Analysis #34/35/36/37 Common Anions/Qualitiataive I/II/III #38 Transition Metal Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Transition Metals (Ligands) Labs Dry Lab 5 Preface to Qualitative Analysis #34/35/36/37 Common Anions/Qualitiataive I/II/III #38 Transition Metal Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transition Metals (Ligands) Labs Dry Lab 5 Preface to Qualitative Analysis #34/35/36/37 Common Anions/Qualitiataive I/II/III #38 Transition Metal Chemistry Chemical Equations Chapter 5, 13

2 Characteristics of Transition Metals Representative elements show similarities in groups, but changes occur within period as # valence electrons changes Chemical/physical properties of transition metal elements vary only slightly across period/ within given group Difference due to inner electrons being last electrons added –Inner d/f electrons cannot participate as easily in bonding as valence s and p electrons –Chemistry of transition elements not affected as greatly by gradual change in # electrons as representatives 1/21/20142

3 Hard, tough and strong (compared to IA) –Due to strong metallic atom-atom bonding Typical metallic characterisctics –1 st row-in general, electrical conductivity increases Ag best conductor of heat/electric current Cu close 2 nd High MP/BP –Bonding between atoms very strong –Only weakened at high Ts –Mercury liquid at room T (very low MP) High density –Due to strong bonding between atoms –1 st row-shows steady increase with exception of zinc 1/21/20143

4 Oxidation states –Variability due to similar energy in 4s/3d subshells Atom form ions of roughly same stability by losing different numbers of electrons +3 oxidation states more stable at beginning of series, but +2 oxidation states more stable toward end –Nickel, copper, zinc Only have s electrons available Requires too much energy to strip d electrons away Fewer oxidation states available –Vanadium, chromium, manganese Many common oxidation states from availability of s/d electrons –Some elements exhibit +4 state, and Mn even shows +5, +6, and +7 Transition metals usually exhibit their highest oxidation states in compounds with oxygen, fluorine, or chlorine –KMnO 4 and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 examples 1/21/20144

5 5 Atomic Radius –Representative elements decrease across period –Transition metals decrease only slightly across period Consistent w/increase in effective nuclear charge as atomic number increases –Greater the charge, smaller the atom All 1 st row transition elements have 4s orbitals as outermost occupied orbitals –Radius decreases, then increase after iron Ionization Energy –1 st IE of 1 st transition metal series remarkably similar, increasing very gradually from left to right –Slight increase over 1 st 5 elements then IE barely changes from Fe to Cu

6 1/21/20146 Effective nuclear charge experienced by outermost electrons depends on shielding provided by inner electrons –Nuclear charge increases from scandium to copper (electrons added to inner 3d subshell) –3d electrons shield 4s electrons from increasing nuclear charge for most part –Consequently 4s electrons of 1 st row transition elements feel only slightly increasing effective nuclear charge as atomic number increases, and atomic radii makes only gradual decrease

7 1/21/20147 Other properties, including chemical reactivity, show great differences –Less reactive than IA/IIA Do not react as quickly w/water or oxygen so they do not corrode as quickly Iron forms oxides that scale off, constantly exposing new metal to corrosion Others do not readily form oxides (noble metals- Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) –Greater strength than IA/IIA-used as alloys Some form oxides that adhere tightly to metallic surface (Cr, Ni, Co), protecting metal from further oxidation

8 1/21/20148 In forming ionic compounds w/nonmetals –More than one oxidation state is often found –Cations are often complex ions (transition metal ion is surrounded by certain # of ligands-molecules or ions that behave as Lewis bases) –Most compounds are colored, because transition metal ion in complex can absorb visible light of specific wavelengths –Many compounds paramagnetic (contain unpaired electrons)

9 1.Sc/Zn- scandium (ScCl 3 )/Zinc (ZnSO 4 ) salts are colorless/ not typical of transition metals 2.Ti - titanium(III) chloride, TiCl 3, is purple 3.Cr - chromium(III) sulfate, Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3, is dark green (chromate(VI) salts are yellow, dichromate(VI) salts are orange) 4.Mn – manganese - potassium(VII) permanganate, KMnO 4, is purple (manganese(II) salts-MnCl 2 -pale pink) 5.Iron(II) compounds usually light green/Iron(III) compounds orange/brown 6.Co - cobalt sulfate, CoSO 4, is pinkish 7.Ni - nickel chloride, NiCl 2, is green 8.Cu – most common copper compounds [copper(II) sulfate, CuSO 4 ] are blue in crystals/solution and sometimes green 9.V - vanadium(III) chloride, VCl 3, is green 9 1/21/2014

10 Electron Configuration Exceptions Electrons are removed from 4s orbital before they are taken out of 3d –Energies of 3d/4s orbitals are not as close together in ions of transition metals as in neutral atoms –In ions of transition elements, 3d orbitals are lower in energy than 4s orbitals –Therefore, electrons most easily lost are those in outermost principal energy level, the ns –Additional electrons may then be lost from (n – 1)d orbital 1/21/201410

11 1/21/201411

12 Complex Ions Ligands

13 Definitions: Coordination compound –Complex ion and counter ions –Are neutral Complex ion –Central transition metal with attached ligands –Has net charge (+/-) –Complex is set off in brackets that isolate it from the rest of compound –Ions outside brackets-free (uncomplexed) ions –Metal cation-central atom Counter ions –Anions/cations needed to balance charge so it has no net charge 1/21/201413

14 Ligand (complexing agent) –Neutral molecule or anion w/lone pair that can be used to form bond to central metal ion (Mono)Unidentate ligand –Can form one bond to metal ion –One donor atom present and can occupy only one site in coordination sphere Even if more than one pair of electrons available, if donation of one pair does not allow for proper positions to make additional bonds, other pairs dont bond –Halide ions, SCN- (thiocyanate ions), anions of weak acids 1/21/

15 1/21/ Bidentate ligand –2 donor atoms present and can occupy 2 or more coordination sites (2 bonds to metal ion) –Most common (diamines/anions of diprotic organic acids) (Multi)Polydentate ligand (tri/tetra/hexa) –Can form more than two bonds to metal ion –Appear to grasp metal between 2 or more donor atoms, called chelating agents (Greek claw)

16 1/21/ Bidentate/polydentate ligands-chelating ligands –Extra stable because two bonds must be broken to separate metal from ligand –EDTA 4 Excellent chelating ligand Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Has 6 pairs of electrons to donate –Molecule flexible enough to allow each of 6 pairs to form bonds with metal ion Important for chemical analysis of metal ions using simple titration methods, found in many cosmetics, drugs, foods as preservative by forming complexes with metal ions, acts as catalysts to promote oxidation

17 1/21/ Ligands: –Coordination sphere of metal-metal ions/ligands within brackets –Normally either negative ion/polar molecule –Must contain at least one lone pair of electrons that can serve as electron-pair donors or Lewis bases –Metal ions (particularly transition metal ions) have vacant valence orbitals which can serve as electron-pair acceptors or Lewis acids

18 1/21/ Part of ligand that bonds directly with metal- donor atom –[Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] N atoms and 1 Cl atom serve as donor atoms for Co Number of donor atoms surrounding central metal atom-coordination number of the metal –Above, there are 6 donor atoms, so Co has a coordination number of 6 –Coordination number of a metal is equal to twice its charge-there are many exceptions to this rule, but this can be helpful in completing an equation in reaction question on AP exam

19 Coordination number: –Number of bonds formed by metal ions to ligands in complex ions varies from 2-8 depending on size, charge, electron configuration of transition metal ion –Many metal ions have more than one –2 ligands give linear structure, 4-tetrahedral or square planar, 6-octahedral Typical Coordination #s for some common metal ions M + Coor. #sM 2+ Coor. #sM 3+ Coor. #s Cu + 2, 4 Mn 2+ 4, 6Sc 3+ 6 Ag + 2Fe 2+ 6Cr 3+ 6 Au + 2, 4Co 2+ 4, 6Co 3+ 6 Ni 2+ 4, 6Au 3+ 4 Cu 2+ 4, 6 Zn 2+ 4, 6 1/21/201419

20 Examples [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]Cl and K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] –Complex ion is shown enclosed in brackets –In the silver compound, Cl – is a free chloride ion, and in the iron compound each K + is a free potassium ion K + and Cl – ions are examples of counter ions which serve to balance or neutralize the charge of the complex ion –Coordination number of Pt 2+ in [Pt(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ is 4, and that of Co 2+ in [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ is 6. 1/21/201420

21 Common ligands Polar molecules: –AquoH 2 O –AmmineNH 3 –CarbonylCO NitrosylNO Neutral Molecules: –Methylamine CH 3 NH 2 –Ethylenediamine (en)H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 Anions: –Fluoro-/chloro-/bromo-/iodo-F - /Cl – /Br – /l – –CyanoCN – –HydroxoOH – –ThiosulfatoS 2 O 3 2- –CarbonatoCO 3 2- –OxalatoC 2 O /21/

22 Naming complex ions Ligands named before central metal atom Anionic ligands names end in o –ide o chloride chloro –ate ato sulfate sulfato Neutral ligands named as molecule except –H 2 O aquo/NH 3 ammine/CO carbonyl # ligands in complex use Greek prefixes –di for 2/tri for 3/tetra for 4/penta for 5/hex for 6 –Prefixes bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, etc. used when other are already used 1/21/

23 Name of cationic complex ion ends in name of central metal ion w/oxidation state shown as Roman numeral in () at end of metals name Name of anionic complex ion ends in ate, sometimes Latin name used –chromium(II) chromate(II) –nickel(II) nickelate(II) –platinum(II) platinate(II) –Iron(II) ferrate(II) –Copper(I) cuprate(I) –Lead(II) plumbate(II) –silver=argentate –Gold(I) aurate(I) –Tin(IV) stannate(IV) 1/21/

24 Writing Formula of a Complex 1.Identify central metal ion 2.Identify charge on central metal ion in () 3.Identify ligands 4.Identify # ligands 5.Calculate total chare on ligands 6.Calculate charge on complex ion –Charge on metal ion + total charge on ligands 7.Ligands written first, then central metal ion 8.When more than one type of ligand present, name alphabetically (prefixes dont affect order) 1/21/

25 Name complex ion w/formula Fe(CN) 6 3- Anionic ligands have names ending in 'o' –CN - named as cyano # ligands in complex specified using Greek prefix –6 ligands = hexa hexacyano Oxidation state of central metal atom shown w/Roman numeral in parantheses at end of metal's name –Central metal ion is iron –Charge on iron: 3- = x + (6 x 1-) –3- = x -6 –x = 3+ –Central metal ion: iron (III) Complex ion is anion, therefore name will end in ferrate (III) Ligands named before central metal ion: –hexacyanoferrate (III) 1/21/201425

26 1/21/ Formula Ligand Name No. of Ligands and prefix Central Ion Name Complex Ion Name Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ammine2 di silver (I) (+1= x + 2(0), x = +1) diamminesilver (I) ion (complex is a cation) Ag(CN) 2 - cyano2 di silver (I) argentate (I) (-1= x + 2(-1), x = +1) dicyanoargentate (I) ion (complex is an anion) Cu(H 2 O) 6 2+ aquo6 hexa copper (II) (+2= x + 6(0), x = +2) hexaaquocopper (II) ion (complex is a cation) CuCl 4 2- chloro4 tetra copper (II) cuprate (II) (-2= x + 4(-1), x = +2) tetrachlorocuprate (II) ion (complex is an anion)

27 Write formula for complex ion tetraamminecopper (II) Identify central metal ion : copper, Cu Identify charge on central metal ion in (): 2+ Identify ligands: ammine = NH 3 (neutral species) Identify # ligands: tetra = 4 Calculate total charge on ligands = 4 x 0 = 0 Calculate charge on complex ion = charge on metal ion + total charge on ligands = = 2+ Write formula giving central metal ion first followed by ligands : Cu(NH 3 ) /21/201427

28 1/21/ Name Central Ion Formula Ligand Formula No. of Ligands Complex Ion Formula hexaaquocobalt (II) ion Co 2+ (charge in parentheses) H 2 O (aquo = H 2 O) hexa = 6 Co(H 2 O) 6 2+ (4 x 0 +2 = +2) tetrachlorocobaltate (II) ion (ate = anion) Co 2+ (charge in parentheses) Cl - (chloro = Cl - ) tetra = 4 CoCl 4 2- (4 x = -2) tetracarbonylnickel (II) ion Ni 2+ (charge in parentheses) CO (carbonyl = CO) tetra = 4 Ni(CO) 4 2+ (4 x = +2) tetracyanonickelate (II) ion (ate = anion) Ni 2+ (charge in parentheses) CN - (cyano = CN - ) tetra = 4 Ni(CN) 4 2- (4 x = -2)

29 K 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ] Name cation-potassium Name anion-potassium tetracyano Oxidation state of central atom- potassium tetracyanonickelate(II) 1/21/201429

30 [Co(NH 3 ) 2 (en) 2 ]Cl 2 Name ligands first in alphabetical order- diamminebis(ethylenediamine) Name central atom w/oxidation number- diamminebis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(II) Name anion- diamminebis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(II)chlori de 1/21/201430

31 [CoI(NH 3 ) 5 ]Cl 2 pentaammineiodocobalt(III) chloride [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4 tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate [CrCl(en) 2 (H 2 O)]Cl 2 aquachlorobis(ethylenediamine)chromium(III) chloride (NH 4 ) 2 [CdCl 4 ] ammonium tetrachlorocadmate(II) Na[Rh(EDTA)] sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetatorhodate(III) [Pd(en) 2 ][CrCl 4 (NH 3 ) 2 ] bis(ethylenediamine)palladium(II)diamminetetrachlorochr omate(III) K 3 [Fe(ox)(ONO) 4 ] potassium tetranitritooxalatoferrate(III) 1/21/201431

32 Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + diamminesilver(I) [RuCl5(H 2 O)] 2- aquapentachlororuthenate(III) [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4- hexacyanoferrate(II) Na 4 [Ni(C 2 O 4 ) 3 ] sodium tris(oxalato)nickelate(II) (NH 4 ) 2 [CuBr 4 ] ammonium tetrabromocuprate(II) [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl](NO 3 ) 2 pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) nitrate [Co(H 2 O) 6 ]I 3 hexaaquacobalt(III) iodide K 2 [PtCl 4 ] potassium tetrachloroplatinate(II) 1/21/201432

33 Potassium hexafluorocobaltate (III) K 3 [CoF 6 ] tetraamminechloronitrocobalt(III) chloride [CoClNO 2 (NH 3 ) 4 ]Cl tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II) sulfate [Ni(en) 3 ]SO 4 tetramminedichloroplatinum(IV) tetrachloroplatinate(II) [PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 4 ][PtCl 4 ] tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(II) nitrate [Co(en) 3 ](NO 3 ) 2 cobalt(II) hexanitrocobaltate(III) Co 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ] 2 ammineaquadicarbonyldicyanoiron(III) [Fe(CN) 2 (NH 3 )(H 2 O)(CO) 2 ] + 1/21/201433

34 Sodium tetracyanoosmium(III) Na[Os(CN) 4 ] Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel(II) tetraoxomanganate(II) [Ni(en) 3 ] 3 [MnO 4 ] Hexaamminezinc(II) tris(oxalato)chromate(III) [Zn(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3 [Cr(ox) 3 ] 2 tris(oxalato)vanadate(II) [V(ox) 3 ] 4- sodium dihydroxodinitritomercurate(II) Na 2 [Hg(OH) 2 (ONO) 2 ] ammonium tetrabromoaurate(II) (NH 4 ) 2 [AuBr 4 ] Potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetatoferrate(II) K 2 [Fe(EDTA)] diaquabis(ethylenediamine)iridium(III) chloride [Ir(H 2 O) 2 (en) 2 ]Cl 3 1/21/201434

35 In complexation reactions, Lewis bases have many names Ligands, complexing agents, chelates, sequestering agents Most ligands have one pair of electrons to donate (ammonia) Some have two pairs of elections and some up to six pairs –Ligands that provide more than one electron pair in forming a complex must be large, flexible molecules so that each pair of electrons can be oriented properly to form a bond 1/21/201435

36 1/21/ Complexation reactions can be written generally as –M n+ + xL m- ML x n-mx where M n+ is a metal ion with a charge of +n and L m- is a liquid with a charge of –m –Ag tends to accept two electron pairs –Cu accepts four electron pairs –Other metal ions tend to accept six electron pairs in complexes –This information allows us to accurately write most complexation reactions once the number of electron pairs that a ligand can donate has been determined

37 1/21/ Complex Ion Formula No. of Ligands Coordination Number Shape Ag(NH 3 ) linear CuCl linear Cr(NH 3 ) octahedral Fe(CN) octahedral Shapes (Geometry) of Some Complex Ions Coordination number = # ligands = 2 linear Coordination number = # ligands = 4 tetrahedral or square-planar Coordination number = # ligands = 6 octahedral (octahedral geometry is most common for transition metal complexes)

38 Homework: Read , pp Q pp , #21a, 22a, 24, 30, 32, 34, 46 Do 1 additional problem and 1 challenge problem Submit quizzes by to me-some you wont be able to do, so skip them: hl/ace/launch_ace.html?folder_path=/chemistry/book_content/ _zumdahl/ace&layer=act&src=ch21_ace1.xml hl/ace/launch_ace.html?folder_path=/chemistry/book_content/ _zumdahl/ace&layer=act&src=ch21_ace2.xml hl/ace/launch_ace.html?folder_path=/chemistry/book_content/ _zumdahl/ace&layer=act&src=ch21_ace3.xml 1/21/201438

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