Presentation on theme: "AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011 Coping with change,AP US HistoryEast High SchoolMr. PetersonSpring 2011
2 Focus QuestionsWhat economic innovations came in the 1920s, and what was their effect on different social groups?What political and social ideas shaped the administrations of Presidents Harding and Coolidge?What developments underlay 1920s’ mass culture, and how did they affect American life and leisure?What social developments contributed to the cultural creativity and conflicts of the 1920s?How did Herbert Hoover’s social and political thought differ from that of Harding and Coolidge?
3 A New Economic OrderTHE EXCITING NEW WORLD OF ELECTRIC APPLIANCES In this 1920 ad, a bride contemplates the thrill of owning her very own electric washing machine. Pay only “a few dollars” down, the ad promised, and the balance “in convenient monthly sums.”
4 Booming Business, Ailing Agriculture After recovering from 1920 depression, economy booms3% unemploymentTremendous growth in nonfarm economyNew consumer goodsAutomobileFord Model AProduction facilities worldwideHigh tariffs
5 FIGURE 23.1 ECONOMIC EXPANSION, 1920–1929 After a brief postwar downturn, the American economy surged in the 1920s.Fig. 23-1, p. 698
6 FIGURE 23.2 THE AUTOMOBILE AGE: PASSENGER CARS REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, 1910–2006 From a plaything for the rich, the automobile emerged after 1920 as the basic mode of transportation for the masses. The number leveled off after 1990, as many people switched to sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks, which are not included in these statistics.Fig. 23-2, p. 699
7 “HONEY, WHERE DID YOU PARK THE CAR “HONEY, WHERE DID YOU PARK THE CAR?” Hundreds of identical Fords jam Nantasket Beach near Boston on a Fourth of July in the early 1920s.p. 699
8 New Modes of Producing, Managing, and Selling Assembly-line work“Fordization”Fordism worldwideBusiness consolidationCorporate giants dominateChain storesAdvertising and credit salesTargeting female consumers
9 A PLEASURE-MAD DECADE A 1925 railroad poster advertises the Lake Michigan beaches near Chicago. 23CO, p. 696
10 Struggling Labor Unions in a Business Age Craft unions didn’t fit with mass-productionAnti-union violenceStrikes failedRacial discrimination in unions
12 The Evolving Presidency: Scandals and Public-Relations Manipulation Warren G. Harding elected in 1920“normalcy”Notable cabinet selectionsCharles Evans Hughes (State), Andrew Mellon (Treasury), Herbert Hoover (Commerce)Harding dies of heart attack in 1923Weak cabinet picks caught up in scandal“Teapot Dome” and Sec. of Interior Albert FallAttorney General committed suicide
13 PRESIDENT HARDING WITH LADDIE, JUNE 1922 As politicians learned the arts of publicity, posed scenes like this became more common.p. 703
14 Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert B Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall, allowed private companies to drill at an oil reserve called Teapot Dome in Wyoming, secretly, after receiving “loans” from oil company executives.
15 Calvin Coolidge “Silent Cal” Radio addresses Description: Black and white image of President Coolidge shaking hands with Walter Johnson at Griffith Stadium; Buck Harris in back.
16 Republican Policy Making in a Pro-business Era Supreme Court under TaftOverturned federal ban on child laborAid for flooding rejectedFarm supports rejected
17 THE 1927 MISSISSIPPI RIVER FLOOD A few of the 700,000 people displaced by the raging waters of the Mississippi await rescue, their partially submerged homes in the background. President Calvin Coolidge resisted calls for federal aid.p. 705
18 Independent Internationalism Washington Naval Arms ConferenceSignificant arms reductionsKellogg-Briand PactRenounced aggression and outlawed war
19 Progressive Stirrings, Democratic Party Divisions Rural prenatal and baby-care centers passedFederal Radio Commission establishedElection of 1924Republicans nominate CoolidgeProgressive Party nominates Robert La Follette in 1924Democrats split and nominate John DavisCoolidge wins in landslide
20 Women and Politics in the 1920s: Achievements and Setbacks Women’s Joint Congressional Committee createdCall for constitutional amendment banning child labor rejected by states
21 Mass Society, Mass Culture THREE YOUNG HISPANIC WOMEN OF TUCSON, ARIZONA In this posed photograph featuring an open touring car, these conﬁ dent and fashionably dressed young women make their social aspirations clear.
22 Cities, Cars, Consumer Goods Urban majority in 1920 censusBy 1930, 40% of blacks live in citiesLaborsaving devices ease houseworkStore-bought clothes become the normGrowth of automobiles provides freedom of movement
23 FIGURE 23.3 THE URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 1900–2000 The urbanization of America in the twentieth century had profound political, economic, and social consequences.Fig. 23-3, p. 707
24 FIGURE 23.4 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN URBAN POPULATION, 1880–1960 (IN MILLIONS) The increase in America’s urban black population from under 1 million in 1880 to nearly 14 million by 1960 represents one of the great rural-urban migrations of modern history.Fig. 23-4, p. 707
25 Mass-Produced Entertainment Mass-circulation magazinesSaturday Evening Post and Reader’s DigestBook-of-the-Month ClubRadioKDKA in Pittsburgh reports Harding electionNBC and CBS createdAmos ‘n AndyMoviesThe Ten Commandments by Cecil B. De MilleThe Jazz Singer introduces synchronized soundMickey Mouse
26 RADIO: THE EARLY YEARS In 1925, to promote the Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus, radio station WJZ in New York City offered an hour-long broadcast of circus sounds, including the bellowing of Dolly, a two-year-old elephant.p. 710
27 RUDOLPH VALENTINO IN THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE
28 THE ROMANCE OF THE MOVIES The 1927 ﬁ lm Wings, starring twenty-two year old Clara Bow, told of two World War I flying aces in love with the same young woman. It won the first Academy Award for best picture.p. 711
29 Celebrity Culture Miss America Babe Ruth-“The Sultan of Swat” Jack Dempsey and Gene TunneyCharles LindberghThe Spirit of St. Louis
30 Baseball fans loved Babe Ruth because he was what some people called "larger than life. " Sports writer Paul Gallico wrote that Babe Ruth played ball in the same intense way that he lived his life. Gallico said that whenever Ruth hit a ball out of the baseball park the fans would become so excited that they were ready to break the seats. It was impossible to watch Ruth swing his bat without experiencing a strong emotion. In fact, in nineteen twenty, a man reportedly died of excitement while watching Babe Ruth hit a home run.
31 CHARLES A. LINDBERGH AND THE SPIRIT OF ST CHARLES A. LINDBERGH AND THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS In a celebrity-obsessed decade, Lindbergh rocketed to instant fame after his 1927 solo transatlantic ﬂight in a plane that was less than twenty-eight feet long.p. 712
33 The Jazz Age and the Postwar Crisis Media and literary creationNew types of behaviorDancing, drinking, partiesSigmund Freud and psychologyChanging “courtship”“the flapper”Shorter skirts, short hair, make-up, losing the petticoat
34 THE JAZZ AGE Rooted in New Orleans’ black culture, jazz gained broad popularity in the 1920s, especially among young cultural rebels, as caricatured in this 1926 magazine cover.p. 717
35 FRENCH TENNIS STAR SUZANNE LENGLEN AT ENGLAND’S WIMBLEDON STADIUM IN THE EARLY 1920S With her short tennis outfits and fondness for sipping brandy between sets, Lenglen offered one version of the international “New Woman” of the 1920s.p. 714
36 WOMEN ATHLETES AT THE 1928 OLYMPIC GAMES IN AMSTERDAM Runners from (l WOMEN ATHLETES AT THE 1928 OLYMPIC GAMES IN AMSTERDAM Runners from (l. to r.) Canada, the Netherlands, and New Zealand in the final lap of the 100-meter relay. The Canadian, Myrtle Cook, won the gold medal for her team. A Toronto ticker-tape parade honoring Canada’s female track-and-field team, dubbed “the Matchless Six,” drew an estimated 100,000 people.p. 715
37 Alienated Writers “The lost generation” Rejected old order H.L. Mencken and American MercuryErnest Hemingway-A Farewell to ArmsSinclair Lewis-Babbitt
38 F. SCOTT FITZGERALD AND HIS WIFE ZELDA While Fitzgerald chronicled the 1920s in his ﬁction, he and Zelda lived the high life in New York, Paris, and the French Riviera.p. 713
39 The Harlem Renaissance Poet Langston Hughes-The Weary BluesComposer William Grant-Afro American SymphonyArtists Aaron Douglas and Augusta SavageNovelist Claude McKay-Home to HarlemHarlem jazz clubs attracted blacks and whitesJazz spreads throughout country and Europe
43 FROM GROVE TO CONSUMER: THE CALIFORNIA CITRUS INDUSTRY IN THE 1920S The photo shows Mexican workers at a citrus grove in Southern California’s Orange County. The idealized scene of a mother and child with Valencia oranges is from a crate label used by an Orange County citrus grower.p. 719
44 FROM GROVE TO CONSUMER: THE CALIFORNIA CITRUS INDUSTRY IN THE 1920S The photo shows Mexican workers at a citrus grove in Southern California’s Orange County. The idealized scene of a mother and child with Valencia oranges is from a crate label used by an Orange County citrus grower.p. 719
45 Nativism, Anti-radicalism, and the Sacco-Vanzetti Case Anti-Semitic propaganda in Henry Ford’s Dearborn IndependentImmigrant radicals Sacco and Vanzetti convicted of murder and executed
47 Fundamentalism and the Scopes Trial Tennessee outlawed teaching of evolutionACLU recruits challenger of lawSubstitute teacher John Scopes triedDefense attorney Clarence DarrowWilliam Jennings Bryan assists prosecution and defends fundamentalist biblical account of creation
49 The Ku Klux Klan Rise of new Klan in 1920s “100 percent Americanism”Anti-black, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, ant-immigrantDerides lost purity of AmericaSpreads from South throughout countryControls much of government in Oklahoma and OregonCollapses when Indiana Grand Dragon accused of raping his secretary and he commits suicide
50 THE KU KLUX KLAN IN WASHINGTON, D. C THE KU KLUX KLAN IN WASHINGTON, D.C. In a brazen display of power, the Ku Klux Klan organized a march in the nation’s capital in By this time, the Klan was already in decline.p. 721
51 KKK on Ferris wheel. Courtesy Cañon City Public Library Local History Collection
52 The Garvey Movement Marcus Garvey Universal Negro Improvement AssociationUrges black economic solidarityUrges blacks to go “back to Africa,” to “Motherland”Criticized by most black leaders, including W.E.B. Du Bois and NAACP
53 A UNIA PARADE IN NEW YORK’S HARLEM, 1924 Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association attracted many African-Americans in the 1920s. The banner reads: “THE NEW NEGRO HAS NO FEAR.”p. 722
55 Prohibition: Cultures in Conflict Prohibition loses support and is repealed in 1933, 21st AmendmentDrinkers, rum runners, moonshiners become bolderOrganized crime risesSpeakeasies bring Capone $60 million“drys” vs. “wets”1928 election sees prohibition as major issue
56 Hoover at the HelmTHE POLITICAL USES OF THE NEW MEDIA Exploiting the latest in ﬁlm technology, the 1928 Republican presidential campaign used sound motion pictures to promote Herbert Hoover’s candidacy.
57 The Election of 1928 Democrats nominate Catholic Al Smith Republicans choose Herbert HooverDistrusted by many conservativesHoover wins in a landslide
58 MAP 23.1 THE ELECTION OF 1928 Although Hoover won every state but Massachusetts and six Deep South states, Smith’s 1928 vote in the Midwestern farm belt and the nation’s largest cities showed signiﬁ cant gains over 1924.Map 23-1, p. 725
60 Herbert Hoover’s Social Thought “The Great Engineer”More of an activist than Harding and CoolidgeBelieved in “rational economic developmentSupport “voluntarism” for businesses to support welfare capitalismBuilt Boulder (Hoover) DamCreated a Federal Farm Board
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