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AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

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1 AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011
Coping with change, AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

2 Focus Questions What economic innovations came in the 1920s, and what was their effect on different social groups? What political and social ideas shaped the administrations of Presidents Harding and Coolidge? What developments underlay 1920s’ mass culture, and how did they affect American life and leisure? What social developments contributed to the cultural creativity and conflicts of the 1920s? How did Herbert Hoover’s social and political thought differ from that of Harding and Coolidge?

3 A New Economic Order THE EXCITING NEW WORLD OF ELECTRIC APPLIANCES In this 1920 ad, a bride contemplates the thrill of owning her very own electric washing machine. Pay only “a few dollars” down, the ad promised, and the balance “in convenient monthly sums.”

4 Booming Business, Ailing Agriculture
After recovering from 1920 depression, economy booms 3% unemployment Tremendous growth in nonfarm economy New consumer goods Automobile Ford Model A Production facilities worldwide High tariffs

5 FIGURE 23.1 ECONOMIC EXPANSION, 1920–1929 After a brief postwar downturn, the American economy surged in the 1920s. Fig. 23-1, p. 698

6 FIGURE 23.2 THE AUTOMOBILE AGE: PASSENGER CARS REGISTERED IN THE UNITED STATES, 1910–2006 From a plaything for the rich, the automobile emerged after 1920 as the basic mode of transportation for the masses. The number leveled off after 1990, as many people switched to sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks, which are not included in these statistics. Fig. 23-2, p. 699

“HONEY, WHERE DID YOU PARK THE CAR?” Hundreds of identical Fords jam Nantasket Beach near Boston on a Fourth of July in the early 1920s. p. 699

8 New Modes of Producing, Managing, and Selling
Assembly-line work “Fordization” Fordism worldwide Business consolidation Corporate giants dominate Chain stores Advertising and credit sales Targeting female consumers

9 A PLEASURE-MAD DECADE A 1925 railroad poster advertises the Lake Michigan beaches near Chicago.
23CO, p. 696

10 Struggling Labor Unions in a Business Age
Craft unions didn’t fit with mass-production Anti-union violence Strikes failed Racial discrimination in unions

11 Stand pat Politics in a Decade of Change

12 The Evolving Presidency: Scandals and Public-Relations Manipulation
Warren G. Harding elected in 1920 “normalcy” Notable cabinet selections Charles Evans Hughes (State), Andrew Mellon (Treasury), Herbert Hoover (Commerce) Harding dies of heart attack in 1923 Weak cabinet picks caught up in scandal “Teapot Dome” and Sec. of Interior Albert Fall Attorney General committed suicide

13 PRESIDENT HARDING WITH LADDIE, JUNE 1922 As politicians learned the arts of publicity, posed scenes like this became more common. p. 703

14 Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert B
Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall, allowed private companies to drill at an oil reserve called Teapot Dome in Wyoming, secretly, after receiving “loans” from oil company executives.

15 Calvin Coolidge “Silent Cal” Radio addresses
Description: Black and white image of President Coolidge shaking hands with Walter Johnson at Griffith Stadium; Buck Harris in back.

16 Republican Policy Making in a Pro-business Era
Supreme Court under Taft Overturned federal ban on child labor Aid for flooding rejected Farm supports rejected

17 THE 1927 MISSISSIPPI RIVER FLOOD A few of the 700,000 people displaced by the raging waters of the Mississippi await rescue, their partially submerged homes in the background. President Calvin Coolidge resisted calls for federal aid. p. 705

18 Independent Internationalism
Washington Naval Arms Conference Significant arms reductions Kellogg-Briand Pact Renounced aggression and outlawed war

19 Progressive Stirrings, Democratic Party Divisions
Rural prenatal and baby-care centers passed Federal Radio Commission established Election of 1924 Republicans nominate Coolidge Progressive Party nominates Robert La Follette in 1924 Democrats split and nominate John Davis Coolidge wins in landslide

20 Women and Politics in the 1920s: Achievements and Setbacks
Women’s Joint Congressional Committee created Call for constitutional amendment banning child labor rejected by states

21 Mass Society, Mass Culture
THREE YOUNG HISPANIC WOMEN OF TUCSON, ARIZONA In this posed photograph featuring an open touring car, these confi dent and fashionably dressed young women make their social aspirations clear.

22 Cities, Cars, Consumer Goods
Urban majority in 1920 census By 1930, 40% of blacks live in cities Laborsaving devices ease housework Store-bought clothes become the norm Growth of automobiles provides freedom of movement

23 FIGURE 23.3 THE URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 1900–2000 The urbanization of America in the twentieth century had profound political, economic, and social consequences. Fig. 23-3, p. 707

24 FIGURE 23.4 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN URBAN POPULATION, 1880–1960 (IN MILLIONS) The increase in America’s urban black population from under 1 million in 1880 to nearly 14 million by 1960 represents one of the great rural-urban migrations of modern history. Fig. 23-4, p. 707

25 Mass-Produced Entertainment
Mass-circulation magazines Saturday Evening Post and Reader’s Digest Book-of-the-Month Club Radio KDKA in Pittsburgh reports Harding election NBC and CBS created Amos ‘n Andy Movies The Ten Commandments by Cecil B. De Mille The Jazz Singer introduces synchronized sound Mickey Mouse

26 RADIO: THE EARLY YEARS In 1925, to promote the Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus, radio station WJZ in New York City offered an hour-long broadcast of circus sounds, including the bellowing of Dolly, a two-year-old elephant. p. 710


28 THE ROMANCE OF THE MOVIES The 1927 fi lm Wings, starring twenty-two year old Clara Bow, told of two World War I flying aces in love with the same young woman. It won the first Academy Award for best picture. p. 711

29 Celebrity Culture Miss America Babe Ruth-“The Sultan of Swat”
Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney Charles Lindbergh The Spirit of St. Louis

30 Baseball fans loved Babe Ruth because he was what some people called "larger than life. " Sports writer Paul Gallico wrote that Babe Ruth played ball in the same intense way that he lived his life. Gallico said that whenever Ruth hit a ball out of the baseball park the fans would become so excited that they were ready to break the seats. It was impossible to watch Ruth swing his bat without experiencing a strong emotion. In fact, in nineteen twenty, a man reportedly died of excitement while watching Babe Ruth hit a home run.

CHARLES A. LINDBERGH AND THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS In a celebrity-obsessed decade, Lindbergh rocketed to instant fame after his 1927 solo transatlantic flight in a plane that was less than twenty-eight feet long. p. 712

32 Cultural Ferment and Creativity

33 The Jazz Age and the Postwar Crisis
Media and literary creation New types of behavior Dancing, drinking, parties Sigmund Freud and psychology Changing “courtship” “the flapper” Shorter skirts, short hair, make-up, losing the petticoat

34 THE JAZZ AGE Rooted in New Orleans’ black culture, jazz gained broad popularity in the 1920s, especially among young cultural rebels, as caricatured in this 1926 magazine cover. p. 717

35 FRENCH TENNIS STAR SUZANNE LENGLEN AT ENGLAND’S WIMBLEDON STADIUM IN THE EARLY 1920S With her short tennis outfits and fondness for sipping brandy between sets, Lenglen offered one version of the international “New Woman” of the 1920s. p. 714

WOMEN ATHLETES AT THE 1928 OLYMPIC GAMES IN AMSTERDAM Runners from (l. to r.) Canada, the Netherlands, and New Zealand in the final lap of the 100-meter relay. The Canadian, Myrtle Cook, won the gold medal for her team. A Toronto ticker-tape parade honoring Canada’s female track-and-field team, dubbed “the Matchless Six,” drew an estimated 100,000 people. p. 715

37 Alienated Writers “The lost generation” Rejected old order
H.L. Mencken and American Mercury Ernest Hemingway-A Farewell to Arms Sinclair Lewis-Babbitt

38 F. SCOTT FITZGERALD AND HIS WIFE ZELDA While Fitzgerald chronicled the 1920s in his fiction, he and Zelda lived the high life in New York, Paris, and the French Riviera. p. 713

39 The Harlem Renaissance
Poet Langston Hughes-The Weary Blues Composer William Grant-Afro American Symphony Artists Aaron Douglas and Augusta Savage Novelist Claude McKay-Home to Harlem Harlem jazz clubs attracted blacks and whites Jazz spreads throughout country and Europe


41 A Society in Conflict

42 Needed Workers/Unwelcome Aliens
Hispanic newcomers, immigration soars Farm workers sustained California citrus industry Labor needed

43 FROM GROVE TO CONSUMER: THE CALIFORNIA CITRUS INDUSTRY IN THE 1920S The photo shows Mexican workers at a citrus grove in Southern California’s Orange County. The idealized scene of a mother and child with Valencia oranges is from a crate label used by an Orange County citrus grower. p. 719

44 FROM GROVE TO CONSUMER: THE CALIFORNIA CITRUS INDUSTRY IN THE 1920S The photo shows Mexican workers at a citrus grove in Southern California’s Orange County. The idealized scene of a mother and child with Valencia oranges is from a crate label used by an Orange County citrus grower. p. 719

45 Nativism, Anti-radicalism, and the Sacco-Vanzetti Case
Anti-Semitic propaganda in Henry Ford’s Dearborn Independent Immigrant radicals Sacco and Vanzetti convicted of murder and executed


47 Fundamentalism and the Scopes Trial
Tennessee outlawed teaching of evolution ACLU recruits challenger of law Substitute teacher John Scopes tried Defense attorney Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan assists prosecution and defends fundamentalist biblical account of creation


49 The Ku Klux Klan Rise of new Klan in 1920s
“100 percent Americanism” Anti-black, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, ant-immigrant Derides lost purity of America Spreads from South throughout country Controls much of government in Oklahoma and Oregon Collapses when Indiana Grand Dragon accused of raping his secretary and he commits suicide

THE KU KLUX KLAN IN WASHINGTON, D.C. In a brazen display of power, the Ku Klux Klan organized a march in the nation’s capital in By this time, the Klan was already in decline. p. 721

51 KKK on Ferris wheel. Courtesy Cañon City Public Library Local History Collection

52 The Garvey Movement Marcus Garvey
Universal Negro Improvement Association Urges black economic solidarity Urges blacks to go “back to Africa,” to “Motherland” Criticized by most black leaders, including W.E.B. Du Bois and NAACP

53 A UNIA PARADE IN NEW YORK’S HARLEM, 1924 Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association attracted many African-Americans in the 1920s. The banner reads: “THE NEW NEGRO HAS NO FEAR.” p. 722


55 Prohibition: Cultures in Conflict
Prohibition loses support and is repealed in 1933, 21st Amendment Drinkers, rum runners, moonshiners become bolder Organized crime rises Speakeasies bring Capone $60 million “drys” vs. “wets” 1928 election sees prohibition as major issue

56 Hoover at the Helm THE POLITICAL USES OF THE NEW MEDIA Exploiting the latest in film technology, the 1928 Republican presidential campaign used sound motion pictures to promote Herbert Hoover’s candidacy.

57 The Election of 1928 Democrats nominate Catholic Al Smith
Republicans choose Herbert Hoover Distrusted by many conservatives Hoover wins in a landslide

58 MAP 23.1 THE ELECTION OF 1928 Although Hoover won every state but Massachusetts and six Deep South states, Smith’s 1928 vote in the Midwestern farm belt and the nation’s largest cities showed signifi cant gains over 1924. Map 23-1, p. 725

59 Table 23-1, p. 725

60 Herbert Hoover’s Social Thought
“The Great Engineer” More of an activist than Harding and Coolidge Believed in “rational economic development Support “voluntarism” for businesses to support welfare capitalism Built Boulder (Hoover) Dam Created a Federal Farm Board


62 p. 726

63 AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011
Coping with change, AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

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