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AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior

2 Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solute component(s) present in lesser quantity Solvent component present in greater quantity

3 A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable.

4 Liquid Solutions 1. molarity, M

5 2. mass %

6 3. mole fraction, ( A )

7 4. molality, m

8 Molar Soln Molal Soln

9 Ideal Solution P(A) 0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature

10 Properties of Ideal Solutions if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then P(A) (A)

11 or P(A) = (A). P(A) 0 [Raoults Law] VP Solution

12

13 for a solution where 2 components are volatile P(T) = P(A) + P(B) = (A). P(A) 0 + (B). P(B) 0

14

15 Ideal Solutions

16 Positive deviation Real Solutions Negative deviation

17 Properties of Ideal Solutions if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then P(A) (A)

18 Properties of Ideal Solutions 2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process

19 Properties of Ideal Solutions 3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process

20 Raoults Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

21 Solubility Factors like dissolves like

22

23 Polar H 2 O Non-polar I 2 Non-polar CCl 4 Polar H 2 O Non-polar I2 Non-polar CCl 4 Solvent Extraction

24 O // H 2 C-O-C-R | O | // H 2 C-O-C-R | O | // H 2 C-O-C-R a fat + 3 NaOH R = (CH 2 ) 16 CH 3

25 H 2 C-O-H | H 2 C-O-H | H 2 C-O-H O \\ + 3 R-C-O - Na + a soap

26 Surfactants Surface acting agents Surface acting agents Lowers surface tension Lowers surface tension Enables solvation Enables solvation Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents

27 Temperature

28 SOLIDSSOLIDS

29 GASESGASES

30 Pressure S g = k H P g Henrys Law

31

32

33 Colligative Properties

34 Property whose magnitude depends solely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles

35 Electrolyte solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current

36 Non-Electrolyte solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current

37 molality moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place

38 Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolytes

39 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering VP Lowering

40

41 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering A = solvent ; B = solute A + B = 1

42 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering A = solvent ; B = solute A + B = 1 A = 1 - B

43 but: P A = A P o A thus: P A = (1 - B ) P o A or: P A = P o A - B P o A

44 NOTE: the lowering of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent A is a function only of B (solute)

45 boiling point temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure

46 2. Boiling Point Elevation

47

48 T bp m

49 T bp = k bp m where k bp = a constant that is a function of the solvent

50 units on k bp ?

51

52 Freezing Water Freezing Solution 3. Freezing Point Depression

53 T fp m

54 T fp k fp m k fp = freezing point constant

55

56 k fp = k bp for the same solvent

57 OSMOSIS the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane

58 Examples Egg Rxn Microscopic Perspective Egg Explanation Macroscopic Perspective

59 4. Osmotic Pressure the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis

60

61

62 Reverse Osmosis

63 4. Osmotic Pressure = osmotic pressure V = n B R T

64 or = M B R T M B = Molarity of solute

65 Colligative Properties of Electrolytes

66 Must adjust for degree of dissociation

67

68 i = vant Hoff factor T bp = i k bp m T fp = i k fp m = i

69 Compound i NaCl MgSO 4 MgCl 2 FeCl 3

70 Compound i NaCl 1.9 MgSO MgCl FeCl 3 3.4

71


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