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Anatomy and Physiology

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1 Anatomy and Physiology
Second Semester Review

2 Nervous System Truth and Baloney:
The 3 main functions of the nervous system are sensory, integration and motor output. Truth

3 Which is not an organ of the nervous system?
Brain Spinal cord Spinal column Spinal nerves c.

4 Is the organ part of the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system?
Brain CNS Spinal Cord CNS Nerves PNS

5 Which of the following is not a component of nervous tissue?
Neurons Neuroglial cells Astrocytes Goblet cells d.

6 Which of the following would be a cause of brain tumors?
Over reproduction of neurons Over reproduction of neuroglial cells Under reproduction of both neurons and neuroglial cells Both A and B are correct B.

7 Word Bank: Axon, Axon terminal, Cell body, Dendrite, Myelin sheath, Node of ranvier, Nucleus, and Schwann cell.

8 The electrochemical changes that occur along a nerve fiber are known as a nerve impulse.

9 Put the steps of a nerve impulse in order.
Sodium ions diffuse inward depolarizing the membrane 2 Threshold stimulus is received. Potassium ions diffuse outward repolarizing the membrane. 5 The resulting action potential causes a current. 1 A nerve fiber maintains resting potential.

10 A neurotransmitter is a hormone that transports impulses across a synapse.
Baloney: chemical A junction is a gap between neurons. Baloney: synapse

11 The synaptic junction WORD BANK Axon Dendrite Mitochondria
Neurotransmitter Receptor site Synaptic gap Synaptic vesicle

12 The spinal cord connects the brain to organs.
Baloney: peripheral nerves A nerve pathway is the series of neurons an impulse travels through. Truth Reflexes protect our body from injury. True


14 Match each structure to its function.
Cerebrum Controls involuntary actions Cerebellum Interprets thoughts Brain Stem Coordinates movements

15 Does the situation apply to the parasympathetic (P) or sympathetic (S) nervous system? Fight or Flight S Rest and Digest P

16 Endocrine system Endocrine glands a. are made of epithelial tissue
b. secrete hormones c. are stimulated by the nervous system d. all of the above d.

17 A hormone a. is a secreted chemical b. is received by receptors on postsynaptic neurons c. always acts quickly d. all of the above a.

18 The part of the brain that regulates the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus The gland that controls many other glands. Pituitary A gland housing immune cells until old age. Thymus A gland involved in digestion in the small intestine. Pancreas A gland involved in the fight and flight response. Adrenal

19 Comparing the endocrine and nervous system
Nervous or Endocrine? Fast acting Hormones May last in system for days Neurotransmitters Target cells Nervous Endocrine

20 Somatic and Special Senses
A stimulus is anything that causes a response. True Sensory receptors produce stimuli False: receive

21 Which of the following are examples of sensory adaptation?
Not noticing a bad smell after a period of time. Yes- senses tune out the smell to be aware of other odors in the area Your eyes dilating after entering a dark room No- this is a reflex Shutting out the sound of the air blower when someone in the class is speaking. Yes

22 Match each type of receptor with its stimulus.
Pain receptor changes in temperature Chemoreceptor changes in light Thermoreceptor tissue damage Mechanoreceptor changes in pressure Photoreceptor changes in chemical concentration

23 Which is not a somatic sense?
Pressure Odor Temperature Pain b.

24 Name the special senses.
Sight Hearing Taste Smell


26 Blood and Cardiovascular
A function of the cardiovascular system is to transport wastes. True: also nutrient, gases and fluids The cardiovascular system is involved in temperature regulation. True.

27 Which is not a cellular component of blood?
Red blood cell White blood cell Blood plasma Platelets c. Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood Which component of blood helps clot the blood when you get a cut? d. platelets

28 The main function of white blood cells is to transport oxygen.
Baloney: Red blood cells

29 Using blood as a diagnostic tool
If you are anemic which type of blood cell count will be low- red or white? Red Are blood cell counts quantitative or qualitative? Quantitative

30 How are blood type determined?
Antibodies on red blood cells tell us our blood type. Baloney: Antigens The pH factor determines if we have + or – blood type. Baloney: Rh factor

31 Blood transfusions What blood type is the universal donor? O- What blood type is the universal recipient? AB+


33 Venule Artery Capillary Vein 2 Arteriole
Trace the path of blood through the blood vessels beginning at the heart Venule Artery Capillary Vein 2 Arteriole

34 ( Arteries / Capillaries ) are a good site for gas exchange because they have thin permeable walls.
( Arteries / Veins ) have thick walls that withstand the high pressure of blood as it is pumped from the heart. Which is a more worrisome blood pressure? 140/ 100 100/60

35 What is the name of this graph?
EKG Which pattern is normal?

36 Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Which of the following is not part of the lymphatic system? a. Lymph b. Lymph junctions c. Lymph nodes d. Lymph vessels b.

37 Lymphatic structures WORD BANK Lymph node Lymph vessel
Right lymphatic duct Spleen Thoracic duct Thymus Tonsils

38 Lymph comes from a. Tissue fluids b. Organ fluids c. Digestive fluids d. Reproductive fluids a.

39 Which is not true about lymph nodes.
a. They filter lymph b. Serve as production site for antibodies c. Remove phagocytized material d. Produce red blood cells d.

40 Specific defenses against disease include species resistance, mechanical barriers, fever and inflammation. Baloney: Nonspecific defenses The immune system can attack foreign invaders. True

41 (Before birth / After birth ) the body determines what is self and non-self.
Macrophages attack cells which display (antibodies / antigens ) that are non-self. Once macrophages enter the lymph system, ( Killer T-cells / Helper T-cells ) are activated. Helper T-cells call out B cells to produce ( histamines / antibodies ) that inhibit the spread of the infection. Killer T-cells ( destroy / isolate ) the infection. Suppressor T-cells control ( killer T-cells / the infection ). Some B-cell and Killer T-cells become (suppressor T-cell/ memory cells).

42 An example of natural immunity is a vaccine.
Baloney: acquired Allergies are normal responses to foreign invaders. Baloney: abnormal Epinephrine is used to treat severe allergic reactions. True

43 Respiratory system Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system? Take in carbon dioxide and remove oxygen Warm and moisturize the air Filter particles Speech a. Take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide

44 Respiratory System Nose Pharynx Larynx Epiglottis Trachea Bronchi
Alveoli Lungs Small clusters involved in gas exchange Branched airways leading to alveoli Blocks material from entering trachea Throat Soft, spongy organs Where air enters the body Houses the vocal cords Windpipe- filters incoming air


46 Ventilation Which of the following would not be associated with inhalation? Diaphragm The medulla oblongata The pons The pectoralis minor muscles The medulla

47 Exhalation Muscles of exhalation relax due to elastic recoil. True Chemoreceptors keep alveoli from completely collapsing after an exhalation. Baloney: Surfactant

48 What will happen to breathing rate in each of the following situations?
Fight or flight? Increase Hyperventilation in fresh air? Decrease An out of shape person climbing stairs?


50 Digestive System The purpose of the digestive system is to mechanically and chemically break down food for the purpose of absorption. True Digestion is aided by enzymes.

51 The biochemical broken down in the mouth?
Carbohydrates The biochemical broken down in the stomach? Proteins The biochemical broken down in the small intestine? Lipids


53 Urinary System The kidneys filter blood to remove ( wastes / nutrients ) The vas deferens and urethra are tubes in the male that transport ( urine / sperm ). The renal corpuscle and renal tubule are found in the ( bladder / kidney ).

54 The renal corpuscle ( filters / selectively reabsorbs ). The function of the urinary system is to maintain ( homeostasis / hematopoiesis ).


56 Which blood vessel is bringing unfiltered blood into the nephron?
12- This is the afferent arteriole Structure 1 is the site of filtration. What is the name of this structure? Glomerulus What is the name given to the substances filtered from the blood and found in structure 3? Filtrate Together structures 1 and 3 are called the? Renal corpuscle Nephron

57 Nephron After the blood is filtered, the proper quantities of substances needed to maintain homeostasis are added back into the blood. What is this step called? Reabsorption What substances are being reabsorbed back into the blood in this picture? Na+, H2O, K+ The last step is called secretion. Where is secretion taking place? Along the distal convoluted tubule What product enters the collecting duct? Urine

58 Reproductive System You can live without your reproductive system.
True The primary sex organ of the male is the penis. Baloney: testes The primary sex organ of the female is the ovary.

59 The menstrual cycle prepares the woman’s body for fertilization.
True Fertilization occurs when a sperm penetrates an egg. A woman is considered pregnant once an embryo implants itself in the fallopian tubes. Baloney: uterus


61 4 3 2 1 6 5 7 8

62 Keep Studying!!!! This is not a complete study guide. Review other power points. Review old tests. Eat and sleep well.

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