10 Each Amino Acids Properties are Determined by it’s side group 1. Nonpolar amino acids have R groups that contain CH2 or CH32. Polar uncharged AA’s have R goups that contain oxygen or only H3. Charged AA’s have R goups that contain acids or bases ex HCL or NAOH4. Aromatic AA’s have R groups that contain an organic carbon ring5. Special Function AA’s Methionin- start codonproline- causes kinks, cysteine links chains together.
11 How to AA’s Make Proteins? They bind via peptide bonds forming polypeptides
12 Four Levels of Protein Structure Notice the Different Motifs of Secondary structureFour Levels of Protein Structure
13 5 types of bonds that contribute to protein shape 1. Hydrogen bonds- O-H2. Disulfide Bridges S-S3. Ionic Bonds- Based on Chare4. Vanderwalls- weak attraction5. Hydrophobic interactions
14 Chaperone proteins also help in protein folding
15 How Proteins Unfold When bonds are broken proteins will unfold Caused by:High TemperatureChange in pHEnzymes my cause denaturatuinDenaturation vs Dissacociaion- not the same thing!
16 Nucleic acids store and transfer genetic information DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid stores genetic infoRNA- ribonucleic acid important in transcription3 main differencesDNA is double stranded while RNA is single strandedDNA has deoxyribose as the sugar whereas RNA has riboseRNA has the nucleotide Uracil in place of Thymine
17 Structure of DNA Double stranded Has sugar phosphate backbone Nucleotides are bonded with hydrogen bondsDouble bond C-G, Single A-T
19 What came first?DNA is thought to have evolved from RNA in order to protect and preserve genetic information
20 Lipids Make Membranes and Store Energy Good for long term energy storage.Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make bilipid layered membrane
21 Good Fats vs Bad FatsSaturated- has max number of possible Hydrogen atoms- no double bonds ex butterUnsaturated- has double bonds ex veggie oilPolyunsaturated- has more than one double bond
22 Carbohydrates: Short term energy storage and building materials General Formula for a carbohydrate is CH2OMonosacharides- simple sugars ex, glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyriboseDisacharides- 2 monosacharides joined by a covalent bond- dex maltose ( glucose+glucose)Polysacharides- more than 2 monosacharides joined together.
23 Sugar IsomersAn isomer has the same empirical formula but different structural forms.
24 Transport Most of the sugar we eat are disacharides. Why? This allows for better transportLess of the important monosacharide is lost in transport when it is joined to another sugar. In our case we get the most glucose possible when it is paired with another sugar.
25 Storage Polysacharides Plants store energy in starchesAnimals store energy in glycogen
26 Structural Carbohydrates Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plantsChitin- found in the shells of many arthropodsThese types of carbohydrates are not easily digested.