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The Chemical Building Blocks of Life

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Presentation on theme: "The Chemical Building Blocks of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life
Chapter 3

2 Why Carbon Carbon is the main building molecule of all things on earth because it is able to bond up to 4 different molecules or compounds

3 Prefixes Chemicals named based on number of carbons and types of bonds.

4

5 Macromolecules are complex assemblies of molecules

6 Polymers: long molecular built by linking together smaller units.

7 How do we break bonds?

8 Functions of Proteins Function Class Examples Enzyme Catalysis Enzymes
Proteases Defense Cell surface antigens Antibodies Transport Circulating transporters + membrane transporters Hemoglobin,myoglobin NA/K Pump Support Fibers Collagen, elastin Motion Muscle Myosin, Actin Regulation Hormones Insulin Storage Ion Binding Ferritin

9 Amino Acids: The building blocks of proteins

10 Each Amino Acids Properties are Determined by it’s side group
1. Nonpolar amino acids have R groups that contain CH2 or CH3 2. Polar uncharged AA’s have R goups that contain oxygen or only H 3. Charged AA’s have R goups that contain acids or bases ex HCL or NAOH 4. Aromatic AA’s have R groups that contain an organic carbon ring 5. Special Function AA’s Methionin- start codon proline- causes kinks, cysteine links chains together.

11 How to AA’s Make Proteins?
They bind via peptide bonds forming polypeptides

12 Four Levels of Protein Structure
Notice the Different Motifs of Secondary structure Four Levels of Protein Structure

13 5 types of bonds that contribute to protein shape
1. Hydrogen bonds- O-H 2. Disulfide Bridges S-S 3. Ionic Bonds- Based on Chare 4. Vanderwalls- weak attraction 5. Hydrophobic interactions

14 Chaperone proteins also help in protein folding

15 How Proteins Unfold When bonds are broken proteins will unfold
Caused by: High Temperature Change in pH Enzymes my cause denaturatuin Denaturation vs Dissacociaion- not the same thing!

16 Nucleic acids store and transfer genetic information
DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid stores genetic info RNA- ribonucleic acid important in transcription 3 main differences DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded DNA has deoxyribose as the sugar whereas RNA has ribose RNA has the nucleotide Uracil in place of Thymine

17 Structure of DNA Double stranded Has sugar phosphate backbone
Nucleotides are bonded with hydrogen bonds Double bond C-G, Single A-T

18 Purines and Pyrimidines

19 What came first? DNA is thought to have evolved from RNA in order to protect and preserve genetic information

20 Lipids Make Membranes and Store Energy
Good for long term energy storage. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make bilipid layered membrane

21 Good Fats vs Bad Fats Saturated- has max number of possible Hydrogen atoms- no double bonds ex butter Unsaturated- has double bonds ex veggie oil Polyunsaturated- has more than one double bond

22 Carbohydrates: Short term energy storage and building materials
General Formula for a carbohydrate is CH2O Monosacharides- simple sugars ex, glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose Disacharides- 2 monosacharides joined by a covalent bond- dex maltose ( glucose+glucose) Polysacharides- more than 2 monosacharides joined together.

23 Sugar Isomers An isomer has the same empirical formula but different structural forms.

24 Transport Most of the sugar we eat are disacharides. Why?
This allows for better transport Less of the important monosacharide is lost in transport when it is joined to another sugar. In our case we get the most glucose possible when it is paired with another sugar.

25 Storage Polysacharides
Plants store energy in starches Animals store energy in glycogen

26 Structural Carbohydrates
Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants Chitin- found in the shells of many arthropods These types of carbohydrates are not easily digested.


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