2Note on Historiography Whig History:History of the winners (today’s perspective)Inevitable technological progressInternalist History of TechnologySole focus on the technology rather than social forces shaping and shaped by the technologyTechnological determinism:Technology determines history orProgress is driven by technical innovation that follows an inevitable path
3Brad MeyersMeyers, B. A. (1998). A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology.ACM Interactions, 5(2),
6What is missing??“Internalist” history focuses on the functionality and development of technology but lacks recognition of the social and political context that shapes and is shaped by the technologiesUniversity researchMarket and Industry R&DPolitical forces
7The technologiesBut let’s look quickly at the key developments said to set the stage for the emergence of Human-Computer Interaction
8Innovator: Ivan Sutherland SketchPad PhD thesis at MITHierarchy - pictures & sub-picturesMaster picture with instances (i.e., OOP)IconsCopyingLight pen input deviceRecursive operations
9The Ubiquitous ASR 33 Teletype ASR: Automatic Send / ReceiveStore programs on punched paper tapeThe first direct human-computer interface experience for many in the 1960sAbout 10 characters per second bps
10The Ubiquitous Glass Teletype 24 x 80 charactersUp to 19,200 bpsBPS?Bits per secondConstruction: Monitor + detachable keyboardDisplay: x80 or 14x132 character cells, optional 24x132Character matrix: x9 with descendersScreen size: " diagonal (8" x 4.5" active display)Character set: Complete US ASCII (128 codes)Keys: keys in ANSI X typewriter layoutAuxiliary keypad: keys (digits, arrows, function keys)Visual indicators: LEDsInterface: RS-232/V.24, optional 20mA Current LoopFlow control: Xon/XoffCommunication Speeds: 75,110,150,300,600,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200 bpsDimensions: "x18"14.25" (monitor), 3.5"x18"x8" (keyboard)Minimum table depth: "Weight: poundsSource:
11About Doug Engelbart Invented the mouse 1962 Paper "Conceptual Model for Augmenting Human Intellect"Complexity of problems increasingNeed better ways of solving problemsPicture of Engelbart from bootstrap.orgPicture from
12Augmenting Human Intellect Advantages of chord keyboards?Disadvantages?Twiddler - combination keyboard and mouse fits into a pocketJason Hong / James Landay, UC Berkeley,
13Augmenting Human Intellect “At SRI in the 1960s we did some experimenting with a foot mouse. I found that it was workable, but my control wasn't very fine and my leg tended to cramp from the unusual posture and task.”
14Augmenting Human Intellect Early3-buttonmouseChordedKeyboard
15Augmenting Human Intellect First mouseFirst hypertextFirst word processingFirst 2D editing and windowsFirst document version controlFirst groupware (shared screen teleconferencing)First context-sensitive helpFirst distributed client-serverMany, many more!
16Early Personal Computers 1975 IBM 51001977 Radio Shack TRS-80Sept 1975 IBM's Entry Level Systems unit unveils the IBM 5100 Portable Computer. It is a briefcase-size minicomputer with BASIC, 16 KB RAM expandable to 64 KB, tape storage drive holding 204 KB per tape, keyboard, and built-in 5-inch screen. Price: US$ Weight: 55 pounds. Code name during development was Project Mercury.  [197.xi] [606.22] [ ] [ ] (Price over US$10,000 [203.10])
17Early Personal Computers 1997 Apple II1979 VisiCalc - “killer app” for Apple II1981 IBM XT/AT
18The dawn of the PC & GUI Xerox PARC Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)Established 1970Bob Taylor heads CSL - Computer Systems LabGoal: “The Paperless Office”Are we there yet?“Inventing the future”Researchers using their new creations as their own tools - bootstrapping
19Side note: “invent the future” “Don’t worry about what anybody else is going to do. The best way to predict the future is to invent it. Really smart people with reasonable funding can do just about anything that doesn’t violate too many of Newton’s Laws!”Is the Best Way to Predict the Future to Invent It? Or to Prevent It?Title of Alan Kay.s Keynote Address for CHI 98: April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, CA USA.Alan Kay, in an on Sept 17, 1998 to Peter W. LountThe origin of the quote came from an early meeting in 1971 of PARC, Palo Alto Research Center, folks and the Xerox planners. In a fit of passion I uttered the quote!I said that to the Xerox planners back in They were worrying about what the rest of the world was going to do and the statement was made to get them to understand that as long as we had some top technologists, we didn’t have to worry about what anybody else was going to do -- we could just do it ourselves. And we did.
20Alan KayDynabook - Notebook sized computer loaded with multimedia and can store everythingPersonal computingDesktop interfaceOverlapping windows
21PARC Hardware Milestones Laser printer 1971Alto personal computer 1973808 x 606 raster bitmapped display3-button mouse, keyboardEthernet 1973Merges printing, display and networkingReal-time windowing operations (BitBlt) 1973
22PARC Software Milestones Bravo WYSIWYG text editor/formatter 1974Gypsy text editor with GUI and modeless cut and paste editing 1975Draw drawing program 1975Superpaint paint program
23Xerox StarFirst commercial PC designed for “business professionals”desktop metaphorpointingWYSIWYGhigh degree of consistency and simplicityFirst system based on formal usability engineeringPaper prototyping and analysisUsability testing and iterative refinement
26Apple Lisa - 1982 Based on ideas of Star More personal rather than office toolStill $$$ - $10K to $12KFailure
27Apple Macintosh - 1984 Aggressive pricing Good interface guidelines $2500Good interface guidelinesThird party applicationsGreat graphics, laser printer
28Direct Manipulation‘82 Shneiderman described appeal of rapidly-developing graphically-based interactionobject visibilityincremental action and rapid feedbackreversibility encourages explorationreplace language with actionsyntactic correctness of all actionsWYSIWYG, Apple Mac
29Metaphor Use involves problem-solving or learning to some extent Relating computing to real-world activity is effective learning mechanismFile management on office desktopFinancial analysis as spreadsheetsThe tension between literalism & magicEject disk or CD on Mac by dragging to trash can
30Person-to-Person Communications Enabled by several technologiesEthernet and TCP/IP protocolPersonal computerTelephone network and modemsAnd by killer-app software, Instant Messaging, Chat, Bulletin BoardsCSCW - conferencing, shared white boardsNot quite yet a killer-appMicro-sociological phenomenon are central to successes (and failures)
31CSCW Computer-Supported Cooperative Work No longer single user/single systemMicro-social aspects are crucialas prominent success but other groupware still not widely used
32HypertextThink of information not as linear flow but as interconnected nodesBush’s MEMEX gave the idea in 1945Nelson coined term in 1965Engelbart’s NLS did it in 1965WWW in ’93 was the real launch
33Speech / Agents Actions do not always speak louder than words Interface as mediator or agentLanguageHow good does it need to be?“Tricks”, vocabulary, domainsHow “human” do we want it to be?(HAL, Bob, PaperClip)
34Ubiquitous ComputingPerson is no longer user of single device but occupant of computationally-rich environment"Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives.” - Marki Weiser, circa 1988
39Note on Historiography Whig History:History of the winners (today’s perspective)Inevitable technological progressInternalist History of TechnologySole focus on the technology rather than social forces shaping and shaped by the technologyTechnological determinism:Technology determines history orProgress is driven by technical innovation that follows an inevitable path
40What’s the point? What’s the point(s) of last discussion? What’s the point(s) of Chapter 1 of ID?What’s the connection?
41Study of THE USER (experience) Rather than the machine
42The context of emergence of HCI Why (when) did USERS become so important in computing?When did masses start using important computer systems?Safety critical?AerospaceAstronauts highly trained and very few, infrequentPilots are MANY and frequentAir Traffic controllersAirline booking agents (distributed, complex, big money)
43Consumers (entertainment) GamingJoystick, TV (Pong), Arcades (Pac Man)
44(Public) Education The pocket calculator TI 30 (1977) Display is 8 digits, red LED.Four function, memory, scientific functions.Integrated circuit - Texas Instruments TMC0981.
45Cold WarDecentralization of communication and resources in case of nuclear attackAdvanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 1960sNSFNet (1980s)Commercial
46HCI The early field and science Early HCI emerged out of human factors engineeringFocus on sensory-motor operations describing interactions of people and computers such as hand movement and similar physical behaviors.
47Fitts Law 1954 Field of Experimental Psychology Model of psychomotor behaviorPredicts how fast or accurate a human can aim and move an appendage (like a hand) in a line from rest to a specified target some distance away.Fitts found that movement time (MT) was a logarithmic function of distance (A) for a given target size or width (W) and, similarly, movement time was a logarithmic function of target size for a given distance. The law is given by the equation below:MT = a + b log 2 (2 A/W) , where a and b are regression coefficients.
48Fitts Law applied to HCI By the late 1970s, early HCI researchers were applying Fitts law to model human interactions with input mechanisms.Card, S. K., English, W. K., & Burr, B. J. (1978). Evaluation of Mouse, Rate-controlled Isometric Joystick, Step Keys, and Text Keys for Text Selection on a CRT. Ergonomics, 21,Early use of Fitts to describe how well subjects could use input devices (joystick and mouse) to select text on a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display
49The Emerging Field of HCI mid 1980sHCI researchers had begun to campaign for the acceptance as a legitimate “science”complete withresearch agendadistinct methods and goals
50HCI as a “science” Newell 1985 Plenary address of the major HCI conference hosted by the Association for Computing Machinery, CHI ’85 ConferenceHCI model:Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS)extended cognitive psychology orientations to research on HCI
51Focus on usersPragmatism is a better philosophical basis for understanding (and studying) HCI than the rationalism that guide conventional and traditional thinking.
52Naïve conventional model of information flow (rationalist) Human-Computer Interaction Information flows from person to computer, to person, and so on….
53From rationalism to pragmatism The rationalist attitudes concentrate on logic and theory rather than attention to the needs of computer users.Understanding technology as it is situated in the organization of social activities Pragmatism:knowledge and technology is socially situated.Scientific theories and logic are tools used in a certain social practice.Interface I/O metaphors guide usersDesktop, folders, menus,
54John Gould (1988) "How to Design Usable Systems" focus on the needs of users from the very start of the project.four simple principles:early and continuous focus on usersearly and continual testingiterative design as result of testingintegrated design, all elements develop constantly and in coordination