2 Enduring Understanding Students will understand thatartworks do encapsulate thethemes of identity andrelationships in a variety ofways
3 Essential Questions Overarching Questions What is an identity? How can relationships within a family or society be shaped?How artists form identity or relationships with their art?Topical QuestionsHow does abstraction enhance the theme of identity and relationships?
4 Essential Questions Overarching Questions What is an identity ? How do artists form identityor relationships with their art?Topical QuestionsHow can art be an extensionof nature?
6 Who Moore was born on the 30 July 1898 in Castleford, Yorkshire. He started learning pottery with Alice Gostick, his art teacher on 1911.He became a student teacher on 1915.He taught in Castleford from 1916.Moore was recruited in 1917 by the army.He returned to Castleford in 1919 and continued his pottery lessons with Gostick. In the same year, he enrolled into Leeds School of Art.
7 WhoMoore met his lifetime friend Barbara Hepworth in 1921 at Leeds. He also won a scholarship to Royal College of Arts (RCA) in London.He visited Paris in 1922 to see the work of Cézanne.He started teaching at RCA in 1924.He quitted RCA in 1931due to an article which caused a public scandal. Soon after, he was employed by Chelsea College of Art to set up the sculpture department.His only child Mary Moore was born in 1946.In 1965, he bought a house near the Carrara marble quarries of Italy.He died at the age of 88 in the year 1986.
8 When (1898- 1986) < 1898: The opening of British Museum in 1759. 1914: World War I.: Barbara Hepworth. Moore and Hepworth share many similarities in their sculptures.1920s: The emergence of Surrealism.1939: World War 1I.1940: The London Blitz. German air force bombed London for 12 hours on 7 Sept. Such intense air-raid continued for several months.
9 WhereEnglandThe Russian artists, Naum Gabo (1890 – 1977) and Antoine Pevsner (1886 – 1962) issued a “constructivist manifesto” that calls for distancing from traditional sculpture methods such as stone carving and exploring space with new forms and materials. They were living at England.The 1930s was fraught with economic depression and political tension.
11 What Subject Matter- Figurative Sculptures of the human body, head and shoulders are common in the European artistic tradition and non-European art.His individual figures- the female forms include reclining females and seated women.They are either nude or draped. He saw a connection between the draperies to landscape, comparing them to the folds of the hills and the valleys or “the crinkled skin of the earth”.His figures in groups are mother and child together or family groups with the presence of the father.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
12 WhatThemeNature Inspired Figures- “convey the human figure as a form of landscape” (Fath, 1996).Landscape as a creative source (be it within the sculpture itself or the site).The human landscape- linking landscape with the human body.Thus, it is a metaphor for landscape. An idea that was very new at that time.Some of his post-war (WWII) works resemble “helmeted heads” (Wallis, 2002).Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
13 WhatThemeThe massive carnage of WWII has made him respond to the conflict with helmet heads that are both “menacing and protective” (Wallis, 2002).Internal/External Forms, composed of two shapes, one enclosing the other. They look like giant versions of his helmet heads.These figures resembled the hollow trees bordering Moore’s estate at Hertfordshire.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
14 Green gneiss stone, ? x ? x 28 cm Elements of CubismMother and Child, 1922Green gneiss stone, ? x ? x 28 cmHead and Shoulders , 1927
15 Influenced from Primitive Art Mask, 1928Green gneiss stone, 21.2 x 19 x 8.7 cmTate Gallery, UKMask, 1929Cast concrete, 20 x 18 x 13 cmTate Gallery, UK
16 Constructivist Approach Bird Basket, 1939Lignum vitae and string, 42 cm long
17 The Moore Danowski Trust Reclining FiguresReclining Woman, 1927Cast concrete, x x cmThe Moore Danowski Trust
18 Reclining Figures This is his first commissioned work West Wind,Portland stone, 244 cm longLondon Transport HQ, St James Park Underground Station
19 Brown Horton stone, 85 cm long Reclining FiguresReclining Figure, 1929Brown Horton stone, 85 cm long
20 Reclining Figures This is one of Moore’s first figure that undulates like a landscape.Recumbent Figure, 1938Green Horton stone, 88.9 x x 73.7 cmTate Gallery, UK
21 Plaster and string, 105.4 x 227.3 x 89.2 cm Reclining FiguresReclining Figure, 1951Plaster and string, x x 89.2 cmTate Gallery, UK
22 Reclining Figures This is one of Moore’s first figure that undulates like a landscape.Draped Reclining Figure,Bronze, x x 91.4 cmThe Henry Moore Foundation
23 Reclining Figure: Festival, 1951 Reclining FiguresReclining Figure: Festival, 1951Stoneware 45 x 22 x 15 cm
24 Seated Woman: Thin Neck, 1961 Seated FiguresSeated Woman: Thin Neck, 1961Bronze x 81.3 x cmTate Gallery, UK
25 Mother and Child Mother and Child , 1953 Bronze, 53 x 27 x 34.5cm Tate Gallery, UK
26 Henry Moore Foundation Mother and Child , 1967Marble, cm longHenry Moore Foundation
27 Family Groups Family Group, 1944 Terracotta, 15 x 12.6 x 7.6 cm Tate London, UK
28 Family Groups Family Group, 1949 Bronze, 154 x 118 x 70 cm Tate London, UK
29 Relationship Front View Back View Over Mother’s Head, 1990 Bronze, 103 x 40 x 38 cmOver Mother’s Head, 1990Bronze, 103 x 40 x 38 cm
30 Didrichsen Art Museum, Helsinki, Finland This sculpture is inspired by the skull of an elephant which Moore collected.Atom Piece, 1965Bronze, ? x ? x 122 cm highDidrichsen Art Museum, Helsinki, Finland
31 His Works @ the Countryside King and Queen,Bronze, 164 x 138 x 84.5 cmKeswick Estate, Glenkiln, Dumfresshire, Scotland
32 The Henry Moore Foundation His Massive MonumentsMoore chose the countryside as the location for his sculptures because he wanted to use the open sky as dramatic backgrounds.Sheep Piece,Bronze, 550 cm highThe Henry Moore Foundation
33 The Henry Moore Foundation, Perry Green Surrealistic HintTwo Seated Women, 1934Charcoal, watercolour, pen and ink, crayon on cream medium-weight wove paper, 37 x 55 cmThe Henry Moore Foundation, Perry Green
34 Portland stone, ? x 808 cm long Time-Life Screen,Portland stone, ? x 808 cm longPearl Assurance, Time-Life Building, London
35 War Related DrawingsThis drawing is a response to the news on the declaration ofWWII. Moore and his wife was on a swimming trip to Dover. It shows 8 women in the sea surrounded by Dover’s steep Shakespeare cliff. It points to the beginning of a conflict and a fear of a repeat of the European bloodbath.September 3rd, 1939Pencil, wax crayon, coloured crayons and Indian ink, 30.6 x 39.8 cmThe Henry Moore Foundation
36 War Related Drawings Tube Shelter Perspective, 1941 Pencil, ink, wax andwatercolour, on paper, 75 x 69.5 cmTate Gallery, UK
37 Pink and Green Sleepers, 1941 War Related DrawingsPink and Green Sleepers, 1941Oil on canvas, 198 x cmMoore encountered men, women and children using the platforms of the Underground stations as makeshift shelters from the bombing. The result-these images known as the shelter drawings
38 Shelter Scene: Bunks and Sleepers, 1941 War Related DrawingsShelter Scene: Bunks and Sleepers, 1941Watercolour, gouacheon paper, 75 x 69 cmTate Gallery, UK
39 Pencil, pen and ink, watercolour and crayon on paper, 65 x 81.7 cm War Related DrawingsShelterers in the Tube, 1941Pencil, pen and ink, watercolour and crayon on paper, 65 x 81.7 cmTate Gallery, UK
40 Fun Fact!Moore revisited the London Underground as an actor in a documentary entitled Out of Chaos on war artists.
41 His After Study after Cézanne’s Bathers, 1980 Carbon line, wax crayon, watercolour, chalk, chinagraph on heavyweight woven paper, 25 x 13.7 cmThe Henry Moore Foundation
42 Seated Nude with Mirror, 1924 His NudesSeated Nude with Mirror, 1924Pencil, charcoal, watercolour wash, pen, brush and ink on paper, 63 x 48cmTate Gallery, UK
43 WhyHis BackgroundMoore’s mother suffered from rheumatism and would ask Moore to massage her back. This allows him (as he said) to become more sensitive to the curves of the back.He also enjoyed miles and miles of countryside at Castleford when he was young, exploring the woodland and playing by the canal.His interest in sculpture was ignited in Sunday school when he first chanced upon the works of Michelangelo. He was carving from bits of wood and stone.Moore had a natural talent for art since young. He won a scholarship to secondary school.He was conscripted to the army at 19. In his letters to his teacher Alice Gostick, he wrote of the dreadful condition- the noise, insufficient sleep. This was when he made drawings of “people picking lice from their clothes” (O’Reilly, 2003).Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
44 WhyHis BackgroundMoore’s art teacher Alice Gostick was a source of inspiration to him after the war, who encouraged him to pursue art as a career.He admitted to Leeds School of Art with a grant scouted by her. It was at Leeds when he decided to be a sculptor.The school set up a sculpture department which was previously unavailable and Babara Hepworth (another famous sculptor) joined Moore in this department.He won a scolarship to Royal College of Art in 1921, where he rebelled against the academy. The training in RCA was based on classical and Renaissance art whereby sculptors used pointing machine (a measuring tool to copy plaster, clay or wax sculpture models into wood or stone) to copy classical sculpture.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
45 WhyHis BackgroundThe emergence of the Surrealists had influenced Moore in some minute ways.For example, he agreed with their imagination and inventiveness but never allowing the subconscious to take over control in the creation.He exhibited his abstract reclining figures with the Surrealists in the Surrealist Exhibition at the new Burlington Galleries in Despite their common ideas, Moore can never be identified as a Surrealist.Another of his work that reminds one of Surrealistic tendencies is the drawing of Two Seated Women, 1934.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
46 WhyHis BackgroundAt the same time, he was experimenting with abstraction.His work became “increasingly simplified and removed from reality” (O’Reilly, 2003). He claimed that it was more true to nature.Moore was directly affected by the Blitz. His home was bombed and he and his wife were thus forced out of London and into the open countryside.This move was his first experience with the countryside and became a turning point for Moore.The birth of his daughter has inspired many family groups sculptures.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
47 Why His Influence- Landscape He was inspired by the landscape in Yorkshire.He was exploring the countryside of Castleford as a child and acknowledged that as essential to artistic development- helping him to understand nature and nurturing his imagination.It is a land of great contrast- the countryside versus the local mining area.The countryside yields undulating hills and large open skies while ugly slag (stony material compose of waste matter and dross) heaps mar the landscape.Moore would always tap on the rocky crags and mountains of coal and smooth pebbles of Castleford streets for his sculptures.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
48 Why His Influence- Primitive Art Primitive art describes art from various different cultures outside European and Oriental art.They often look abstract, for example, dots and slits for eyes with “chunky tubular limbs” (O’Reilly, 2003).Moore discovered the book Vision and Design by Roger Fry.Fry’s essays on ancient art struck a chord in Moore. He became fascinated with primitive art and was particularly drawn to Latin American sculptures.When he was attending RCA, he spent most of his free time gallivanting the London museums with their treasures of primitive sculptures. From Egypt, Pacific Islands, Africa and Mexico.
49 Brown Horton stone, 85 cm long WhyHis Influence- Primitive ArtChacmool is a Mexican rain spiritReclining Figure, 1929Brown Horton stone, 85 cm longChacmool, 12th Cby MexicoLimestone, 45.7 x 95 x 12.1cm
50 Why His Influence- Jacob Epstein (1880-1959) He was an American-born sculptor who worked in UK.He pioneered the modern sculpture.He often produced controversial works that challenged the taboos concerning what public artworks should depict.His technique- direct carving.He was also a painter.
51 Torso, in Metal form “The Rock Drill, 1913-14 Why- His InfluenceNight, 1928=29by Jacob EpsteinLondon Transport HQTorso, in Metal form “The Rock Drill,by Jacob EpsteinBronze, 70.5 x 58.4 x 44.5cmTate Gallery, UK
53 HowHe transforms the way people see art by creating huge sculptures and placing them in the open- egs: parks, squares and important buildings. (Traditionally, public sculptures are statues of generals or works of commemoration).He carved directly into stone or wood with hammer and chisel.Direct carving (20th C term) corresponds with the statement of that time “truth to material” because it is risky as one slip of the chisel is a grave irreversible mistake. The process is thought of as “working with nature” and thus being true to the material.
54 “I liked the fact that you begin with the block HowSculptors like Moore believed that the sculpture is already in the stone and waiting to be uncovered by the artist’s hands.“I liked the fact that you begin with the blockand have to find the sculpture inside. You have to overcome the resistance of the material by sheer determination and hard work.”- Henry Moore -He believes the material should dominate for example the quality of wood allows the sculpture to be as thin as a tree, which a stone can’t perform.
55 HowMoore’s stone figures are usually reclining. For sculptors working with stone, it is a practical decision on their part to recline their figures because a stone standing sculpture can snap at its ankles or neck.He reduces his objects to the simplest forms or build them from basic shapes.He also excavates holes from his sculptures.- something unusual at that point of time.Moore was beginning to explore the material bronze after the war. The reason is that bronze is more malleable than stone and allows him to cast upright figures without the sculptures splitting into two.
56 HowHe used lost-wax casting (refer to video in MI Link). He reverted back to the traditional method of creating maquettesHe did the casting himself with his two asistants.Then, he cast them in professional foundries.Next, he became interested in marble.As he got older, his works got larger and larger. They became massive monuments cast in bronze.Size matters for Moore, especially his outdoor works. He wants his sculptures to complement nature and not become overwhelmed by it.
57 Where is the Henry Moore sculpture in Singapore? What is it called? Fun QuizWhere is the Henry Moore sculpture in Singapore?What is it called?And how does it look like?
58 ReferenceO’Reilly, S (2003). Artists in Their World: Henry Moore. Franklin Watts: Australia.Wallis, J. (2002) Creative Lives: Henry Moore. Harcourt Education: UK.
59 Warning!Lecture slides are used forinternal learning purposes. Nocontent nor image is allowedto be re-produced andcirculated outside school.