32 Zeugma (zoog-mah): The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words although its use may be grammatically or logically correct with only one.
33 If he cuts off your leg, it might hurt a little.
34 Understatement: A figure of speech in which a writer deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is.
35 In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, characters refer to clocks, which did not exist in ancient Rome.
36 Anachronism: A person, scene, event, or other element in a work of literature that fails to correspond with the time or era in which the work is set.
37 Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns driven time and again off course, once he had plundered the hallowed heights of Troy. Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds, many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea, fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home.
38 Invocation: A prayer or statement that calls for help from a god or goddess.
39 One thousand sails pursued Paris as he fled Troy with Helen by his side.
40 Synecdoche: A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole or the whole for a part.
42 Litotes (lie-toe-tez): A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
43 A knave, a rascal, an eater of broken meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy worsted-stocking knave; a lily-livered, action-taking, whoreson, glass-gazing, super-serviceable, finical rogue; one-trunk-inheriting slave!
44 Invective: Denunciatory or abusive language; discourse that casts blame on somebody or something.
48 Ambiguity: Multiple meanings, intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage.
49 If I said you had a beautiful body, would you hold it against me?
50 Double Entendre: A corruption of a French phrase meaning "double meaning,” the term is used to indicate a word or phrase that is deliberately ambiguous, especially when one of the meanings is risqué or improper.
51 Oh, you are a real genius, that’s what you are!
52 Melodramatic Redundancy: An unnecessary repetition that is exaggerated, sensational and overly dramatic.
74 Epanalepsis: The repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause; it tends to make the sentence or clause in which it occurs stand apart from its surroundings.
75 In The Scarlet Letter, characters, objects and events often serve as references to the conflict between the world of man and the world of God.
76 Allegory: Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.
85 Imperative Sentence: A sentence that gives a command or makes a request. Usually ends with a period.
86 He pulled the plastic tarp off the chairs and folded it and carried it out to the garage and put it in his car.
87 Polysyndeton: The repetition of conjunctions in close succession for rhetorical effect.
88 It is not that today’s artists cannot paint, it is that today’s critics cannot see..
89 Balanced Sentence: Characterized by parallel structure, two or more parts of the sentence have the same form, emphasizing similarities or differences.
90 It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.
91 Antithesis: The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.
92 It was about eleven o'clock in the morning, mid October, with the sun not shining and a look of hard wet rain in the clearness of the foothills. I was wearing my powder-blue suit, with dark blue shirt, tie and display handkerchief, black brogues, black wool socks with dark blue clocks on them. I was neat, clean, shaved and sober, and I didn't care who knew it.
93 Running Style: A type of sentence that appears to follow the inner working of the mind by mimicking the rambling, associative syntax of thought.
97 Elliptical Construction: A sentence containing a deliberate omission of words.
98 At the risk of being redundant and repetitive and redundant, let me say that hearing the same thing over and over and over again is the last thing children need from their parents.
99 Tautology: The repetition, within the immediate context, of the same word or phrase or the same meaning in different words; usually as a fault of style.
100 Another possible adjustment relates to the age at which Social Security and Medicare benefits will be provided. Under current law, and even with the so-called normal retirement age for Social Security slated to move up to 67 over the next two decades, the ratio of the number of years that the typical worker will spend in retirement to the number of years he or she works will rise in the long term.
101 Circumlocution: To write evasively; to discuss a topic without saying anything concrete about it.
128 You're a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong.
129 ad hominem: Latin for "against the man ad hominem: Latin for "against the man.” Attacking the person instead of the argument proposed by that individual. An argument directed to the personality, prejudices, previous words and actions of an opponent rather than an appeal to pure reason.
130 We have to stop the tuition increase We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!
131 Slippery Slope: A claim that a small concession is total surrender.
132 There has to be life on other planets because as of today no one has been able to conclusively prove that there is no life.
133 Appeal to Ignorance: When one is persuaded to agree to another’s opinion because he/she can't prove the contrary.
135 Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning: A logical fallacy that assumes as true the very thing that one is trying to prove
136 A historian, wishing to understand the origins and development of California’s Latino community, bases his research largely on interviews conducted with local Latino residents.
137 Anecdotal Evidence: Based on casual observations or indications rather than rigorous or scientific analysis
138 All citizens must obey the law. Mike is a citizen All citizens must obey the law. Mike is a citizen. Mike must obey the law.
139 Syllogism/Deductive Reasoning: A form of argument or reasoning, consisting of two premises and a conclusion.
140 Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend. Two days later she comes down with a fever. Joan concludes that the cat's scratch must be the cause of her illness.
141 post hoc, ergo propter hoc: Latin for "after this, therefore because of this.” When a writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
142 Jim: “I see that John’s cancer is in remission Jim: “I see that John’s cancer is in remission.” Bill: “Yes, our prayers have been answered!” Jim: “But didn’t you pray for Susan, too, and look what happened to her.” Bill: “I’m sure God had a special reason for taking her.”
143 ad hoc argument: An argument where after-the-fact explanations are given for conclusions, rather than presenting premises and inferences that lead to those conclusions.
144 Many extremists follow Islam Many extremists follow Islam. Therefore, Islam is a religion that propagates extremism.
145 False Analogy: The two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar.
146 You must believe that God exists You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors of hell.
147 Appeal to Fear: A logical fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for his or her idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a competitor.
148 The question of funding Medicare comes down to this: do we want our grandparents to die?
149 Oversimplification: When a writer obscures or denies the complexity of issues in an argument.
150 Either we eat the food in this house or we starve to death.
151 either-or reasoning / also referred to as Reductio ad Absurdum (Latin for “to reduce to the absurd”): Reducing an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignoring any alternatives.
152 I took a course with this professor last year and it was good I took a course with this professor last year and it was good. You should take his course this year because it will be good again.
153 Inductive Reasoning: A conclusion reached by deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.
154 We should continue observing Columbus Day because there are plenty of people in this country who have ancestors that did not torture Native Americans.
155 Straw Man: Argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak. Diverts attention away from the real issues.
156 While censorship is dangerous to a free society, some of the concerned citizens who are in favor of censorship may have valid points when they object that children should not be exposed to television violence.
157 Concession: An argumentative strategy by which a speaker or writer acknowledges the validity of an opponent's point.