Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE FINAL PREP. RHETORICAL TERMINOLOGY I told you a million times to clean your room!"— Presentation transcript:
AP LANGUAGE FINAL PREP
I told you a million times to clean your room!
Hyperbole/Overstatement: A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; an extravagant statement.
My love is a red rose.
Metaphor: A figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.
What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us.
Epistrophe: The repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.
Romeo tells Mercutio he cant dance because he has a soul of lead.
Pun: A humorous play on words, using similar-sounding or identical words to suggest different meanings.
The wind stood up and gave a shout.
Anthropomorphism/ Personification: The attribution of human characteristics or behavior to a god, animal, or object.
Francines love of sweets was her Achilles heel.
Allusion: A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event that can be real or fictional.
Her hair glistened in the rain like a nose hair after a sneeze.
Simile: A figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by "like" or "as."
Chicken for dinner? Dinner will be ruined!
Anadiplosis: the repetition of the final words of a sentence or line at the beginning of the next.
Instead of saying that you feel sad, you say I feel blue.
Idiom: An expression that, while an odd or incorrect use of the language, has a meaning that is understood even though it is not clearly derived from the words that form it.
Appointing a Wall Street insider to direct the Securities and Exchange commission is like telling Rush Limbaugh to make sure no one eats all the Halloween candy.
Analogy: A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.
Hello darkness, my old friend. I've come to talk with you again.
Apostrophe: The direct address of an absent or imaginary person or of a personified abstraction, especially as a digression in the course of a speech or composition.
The doctor turned to the nurse and said Get me his vitals, STAT!
Jargon: The specialized language of a professional, occupational, or other group, often meaningless to outsiders.
Hope is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul, And sings the tune--without the words, And never stops at all
Extended Metaphor: A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem.
The green light at the end of Daisys dock in The Great Gatsby.
Symbol: A person, place, action, or thing that (by association, resemblance, or convention) represents something other than itself.
She was upstairs, and her children downstairs.
Zeugma (zoog-mah): The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words although its use may be grammatically or logically correct with only one.
If he cuts off your leg, it might hurt a little.
Understatement: A figure of speech in which a writer deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is.
In Shakespeares Julius Caesar, characters refer to clocks, which did not exist in ancient Rome.
Anachronism: A person, scene, event, or other element in a work of literature that fails to correspond with the time or era in which the work is set.
Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns driven time and again off course, once he had plundered the hallowed heights of Troy. Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds, many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea, fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home.
Invocation: A prayer or statement that calls for help from a god or goddess.
One thousand sails pursued Paris as he fled Troy with Helen by his side.
Synecdoche: A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole or the whole for a part.
Hes not unfriendly.
Litotes (lie-toe-tez): A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
A knave, a rascal, an eater of broken meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy worsted- stocking knave; a lily-livered, action-taking, whoreson, glass- gazing, super-serviceable, finical rogue; one-trunk-inheriting slave!
Invective: Denunciatory or abusive language; discourse that casts blame on somebody or something.
The only thing I know is that I know nothing.
Paradox: A statement that appears to contradict itself.
We saw her duck.
Ambiguity: Multiple meanings, intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage.
If I said you had a beautiful body, would you hold it against me?
Double Entendre: A corruption of a French phrase meaning "double meaning, the term is used to indicate a word or phrase that is deliberately ambiguous, especially when one of the meanings is risqué or improper.
Oh, you are a real genius, thats what you are!
Melodramatic Redundancy: An unnecessary repetition that is exaggerated, sensational and overly dramatic.
I am not young enough to know everything.
Epigram: A concise, witty, and thoughtful statement meant to both amuse and provoke further thought.
The good guys wear white hats, the bad guys wear black hats.
Archetype: A theme, motif, symbol, or stock character that holds a familiar place in a cultures consciousness.
The critics had a tremendous thirst to view his latest paintings.
Synesthesia: A psychological process whereby one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another.
Pleasure's a sin, and sometimes sin's a pleasure.
Chiasmus: A figure of speech in which the order of the terms in the first of two parallel clauses is reversed in the second
I knew enough to realize that the alligators were in the swamp and that it was time to circle the wagons.
Mixed Metaphor: A figure of speech combining inconsistent or incongruous metaphors.
We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills.
Anaphora: The repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.
Saying big boned instead of fat
Euphemism: The substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.
Save me a sniff of that sweet scented stuff.
Alliteration: The repetition of an initial consonant sound.
The crown carries many responsibilities.
Metonymy: A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated.
Oxymoron: A figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side.
Next time, there wont be a next time.
Epanalepsis: The repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause; it tends to make the sentence or clause in which it occurs stand apart from its surroundings.
In The Scarlet Letter, characters, objects and events often serve as references to the conflict between the world of man and the world of God.
Allegory: Extending a metaphor so that objects, persons, and actions in a text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.
A cruel wind blew through the town.
Pathetic Fallacy: Ascribes human feelings to nature or nonhuman objects.
Live and learn.
Cliché: A phrase, idea, or image that has been used so much that it has lost much of its original meaning, impact, and freshness.
Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
Aphorism: A terse statement which expresses a general truth or moral principle.
TYPES OF SENTENCES/WRITING STYLES
Come up to my desk, please.
Imperative Sentence: A sentence that gives a command or makes a request. Usually ends with a period.
He pulled the plastic tarp off the chairs and folded it and carried it out to the garage and put it in his car.
Polysyndeton: The repetition of conjunctions in close succession for rhetorical effect.
It is not that todays artists cannot paint, it is that todays critics cannot see..
Balanced Sentence: Characterized by parallel structure, two or more parts of the sentence have the same form, emphasizing similarities or differences.
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.
Antithesis: The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.
It was about eleven o'clock in the morning, mid October, with the sun not shining and a look of hard wet rain in the clearness of the foothills. I was wearing my powder-blue suit, with dark blue shirt, tie and display handkerchief, black brogues, black wool socks with dark blue clocks on them. I was neat, clean, shaved and sober, and I didn't care who knew it.
Running Style: A type of sentence that appears to follow the inner working of the mind by mimicking the rambling, associative syntax of thought.
I came, I saw, I conquered.
Asyndeton: The omission of conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses.
Romeo loves Juliet and Juliet, Romeo.
Elliptical Construction: A sentence containing a deliberate omission of words.
At the risk of being redundant and repetitive and redundant, let me say that hearing the same thing over and over and over again is the last thing children need from their parents.
Tautology: The repetition, within the immediate context, of the same word or phrase or the same meaning in different words; usually as a fault of style.
Another possible adjustment relates to the age at which Social Security and Medicare benefits will be provided. Under current law, and even with the so- called normal retirement age for Social Security slated to move up to 67 over the next two decades, the ratio of the number of years that the typical worker will spend in retirement to the number of years he or she works will rise in the long term.
Circumlocution: To write evasively; to discuss a topic without saying anything concrete about it.
Do you want me to hit you?
Rhetorical Question: A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected.
I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.
Isocolon/Parallel Structure: A succession of phrases of approximately equal length and corresponding structure.
Ready are you? What know you of ready? For eight hundred years have I trained Jedi.
Anastrophe: Inversion of the normal syntactical structure of a sentence.
Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.
Periodic Sentence: A type of sentence in which the main idea is expressed at the end.
The cat sat on the mat, purring softly and licking his paws.
Loose Sentence: The most common sentence in modern usage, begins with the main point (an independent clause), followed by one or more subordinate clauses.
Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though.
End Rhyme: Rhyme of the terminal syllables of lines of poetry.
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness
Euphony: A pleasing arrangement of sounds.
Bam! Boom! Crash!
Onomatopoeia: The formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions to which they refer.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
Internal Rhyme: Rhyme that occurs within a line of verse
I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless.
Assonance: Repetition of vowels without repetition of consonants used as an alternative to rhyme in verse.
First and last, odds and ends, short and sweet
Consonance: Recurrence or repetition of consonants especially at the end of stressed syllables without the similar correspondence of vowels
The claws that catch and kick and crash against the crammed cabin.
Cacophony: Harsh or discordant sounds within a literary work.
TYPES OF LOGIC/ARGUMENT
You're a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong.
ad hominem: Latin for "against the man. Attacking the person instead of the argument proposed by that individual. An argument directed to the personality, prejudices, previous words and actions of an opponent rather than an appeal to pure reason.
We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!
Slippery Slope: A claim that a small concession is total surrender.
There has to be life on other planets because as of today no one has been able to conclusively prove that there is no life.
Appeal to Ignorance: When one is persuaded to agree to anothers opinion because he/she can't prove the contrary.
God exists because I know he exists.
Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning: A logical fallacy that assumes as true the very thing that one is trying to prove
A historian, wishing to understand the origins and development of Californias Latino community, bases his research largely on interviews conducted with local Latino residents.
Anecdotal Evidence: Based on casual observations or indications rather than rigorous or scientific analysis
All citizens must obey the law. Mike is a citizen. Mike must obey the law.
Syllogism/Deductive Reasoning: A form of argument or reasoning, consisting of two premises and a conclusion.
Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend. Two days later she comes down with a fever. Joan concludes that the cat's scratch must be the cause of her illness.
post hoc, ergo propter hoc: Latin for "after this, therefore because of this. When a writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
Jim: I see that Johns cancer is in remission. Bill: Yes, our prayers have been answered! Jim: But didnt you pray for Susan, too, and look what happened to her. Bill: Im sure God had a special reason for taking her.
ad hoc argument: An argument where after-the-fact explanations are given for conclusions, rather than presenting premises and inferences that lead to those conclusions.
Many extremists follow Islam. Therefore, Islam is a religion that propagates extremism.
False Analogy: The two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar.
You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors of hell.
Appeal to Fear: A logical fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for his or her idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a competitor.
The question of funding Medicare comes down to this: do we want our grandparents to die?
Oversimplification: When a writer obscures or denies the complexity of issues in an argument.
Either we eat the food in this house or we starve to death.
either-or reasoning / also referred to as Reductio ad Absurdum (Latin for to reduce to the absurd): Reducing an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignoring any alternatives.
I took a course with this professor last year and it was good. You should take his course this year because it will be good again.
Inductive Reasoning: A conclusion reached by deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.
We should continue observing Columbus Day because there are plenty of people in this country who have ancestors that did not torture Native Americans.
Straw Man: Argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak. Diverts attention away from the real issues.
While censorship is dangerous to a free society, some of the concerned citizens who are in favor of censorship may have valid points when they object that children should not be exposed to television violence.
Concession: An argumentative strategy by which a speaker or writer acknowledges the validity of an opponent's point.